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Topic: Classification Schemes of Spoken Chinese

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In the News (Mon 20 Nov 17)

 Chinese character
The more common types Chinese characters, on the other hand, are 'radical-radical' compounds, in which each element (radical) of the character hints at the meaning, and radical-phonetic' compounds, in which one component (the radical) indicates the kind of concept the character describes, and the other hints at the pronunciation.
The earliest Chinese characters are the so called "Oracle Script" or (甲骨文) jia3gu3wen2 during the Shang Dynasty, followed by the Bronzeware Script or (金文) jin1wen2 during the Zhou Dynasty.
Dozens of indexing schemes, for example, have been created for the Chinese characters, (hanzi or kanji) that are used to write Chinese and Japanese.
www.fastload.org /ch/Chinese_character.html   (1018 words)

 Chinese character - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The number of Chinese characters contained in the Kangxi dictionary is approximately 47,035, although a large number of these are rarely-used variants accumulated throughout history.
It is possible that these inscriptions are ancestral to the later Oracle bone script of the Shang Dynasty and therefore the modern Chinese script, since late Neolithic culture found in Longshan is widely accepted by historians and archaeologists to be ancestral to the bronze age Erlitou culture and the later Shang and Zhou Dynasties.
The large number of Chinese characters is due to their logographic nature — for every morpheme a glyph is required, and variant characters have at times developed for the same morpheme.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_character   (5440 words)

 Chinese written language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This complexity is compounded by the fact that the numerous variations of spoken Chinese have gone through centuries of evolution since at least the late Hàn Dynasty.
In the field of software and communications internationalization, CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, and the rarer CJKV for the same plus Vietnamese, all of which are double-byte languages, as they have more than 256 characters in their "alphabet".
Due to their unique block, square nature and the morphologically inactive nature of the language, Chinese characters are generally written without spaces at word boundaries, and can be written either horizontally or vertically and from right to left or left to right, or from top to bottom or bottom to top.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Written_Chinese   (1978 words)

 Chinese language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Although most Chinese view the many of spoken Chinese as a single language the variations in spoken language are to those of Romance languages ; the written language has also changed time though far more slowly than the language and hence has been able to much of the variation in spoken language.
Spoken Chinese is a tonal language related to Tibetan and Burmese but genetically unrelated to other neighbouring languages such as Korean Vietnamese Thai and Japanese.
Old Chinese sometimes known as 'Archaic Chinese' was language common during the early and middle Zhou Dynasty (11th to 7th centuries B.C.) texts which include inscriptions on bronze artifacts the of the Shijing the history of the Shujing and portions of the Yijing (I Ching).
www.freeglossary.com /Chinese_language   (3493 words)

 Standard Mandarin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vernacular Chinese, the standard written form of modern Chinese, is in turn based loosely upon a mixture of northern (predominant), southern, and classical grammar and usage.
In addition, since standard Mandarin is spoken as a second language across most of China, it is also very common for two people who both believe themselves to be speaking Chinese to require a translator.
Although they were the minority, because the mainland Chinese people were the only type of people in the early Republic of China government, they were able to setup laws and regulations to curb the speaking of Taiwanese.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Standard_Mandarin   (8277 words)

 Chinese character - Chinese Character - Chinese
Chinese characters or Han characters (汉字/漢字) are used in the written forms of the Chinese language, and to varying degrees in the Japanese languageJapanese and Korean languageKorean languages (though the latter only in South Korea).
Most Chinese characters, however, are radical-radical compounds, in which each element (radical) of the character hints at the meaning, and radical-phonetic compounds, in which one component (the radical) indicates the kind of concept the character describes, and the other hints at the pronunciation.
This is possible because the phonetic system of Chinese allows for many words to have the same pronunciation (homonymy), and because the consideration of phonetic similarity used in a character generally ignores its Tonal languagetone and the manner of articulation of its initial consonant (but not the place of articulation).
www.famouschinese.com /virtual/Chinese_Character   (3193 words)

 The role of classification schemes in Internet resource description and discovery - Introduction
The first practical universal classification schemes were developed in the late-nineteenth-century as a response to the problem of organising libraries in the context of rapidly growing knowledge and an increase in the numbers of printed books.
Examples of the alternative 'faceted' or 'analytico-synthetic' classification schemes are Ranganathan's Colon classification (Ranganathan 1965) and Bliss's Bibliographic classification (although both are hardly ever used), although later editions of DDC and UDC are faceted to a limited extent.
Bad at assimilating new areas of interest: universal classification schemes often have a special difficulty in reacting quickly to new areas of study because they are updated with the time consuming participation of broad international multidisciplinary bodies.
www.ukoln.ac.uk /metadata/desire/classification/class_1.htm   (2752 words)

 Wikinfo | Chinese characters   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Chinese characters are employed to one degree or another in the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages.
In Chinese they are called Hanzi, in Japanese they are called Kanji, in Korean they are called Hanja (or Hanmun) and in Vietnamese there were two writing systems based on Chinese characters: chữ nôm and chữ nho.
The great majority of these schemes - beloved by their inventors but nobody else - have appeared in only a single dictionary; and only one such system has achieved truly widespread use.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Chinese_characters   (1094 words)

 Dewey Decimal Classification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a proprietary system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions, the most recent in 2004.
Except for general works and fiction, works are classified principally by subject, with extensions for subject relationships, place, time or type of material, producing classification numbers of not less than three digits but otherwise of indeterminate length with a decimal point before the fourth digit, where present (e.g.
Books are placed on the shelf in increasing numerical order; the whole number to the left of the decimal is in counting order, while the digits to the right of the decimal are compared one digit at a time, with a blank coming before zero.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Dewey_Decimal_System   (1429 words)

 Bibliographic Control of Chinese Material in the United Kingdom
In this instance, Chinese refers to the standard pronunciation of Mandarin or Putonghua, and the four tones of pronunciation of Chinese - high, high rising, falling and rising, falling - all of which are indicated with diacritical marks.
Pinyin is part of the teaching of the Chinese language world-wide, and as such has the added benefit that it is the scheme that the majority of library users, regardless of nationality, can recognise and identify in a library wherever in the world that library might be.
Automation for libraries with the Chinese collections is now at the stage of being able to input in the vernacular Chinese characters, and this extra facility has been the reason for a reconsideration of whether to use a romanisation scheme at all.
www.white-clouds.com /iclc/cliej/cl6gilkes.htm   (2354 words)

 Group Classification on National ID Cards - Jim Fussell - 15 Nov 2001
Group classification on ID cards or other official personal documents (passports, residence permits, etc.) force a person to be affiliated with a governmentally-defined group and expose persons to profiling and human rights abuses based upon their group identity.
What classification on national ID cards does is take group classification schemes one step further - from the classification of populations as a whole (in aggregate) - to the classification of individual persons by group.
Classifications on ID cards are instead a facilitating factor, making it more possible for governments, local authorities or non-state actors such as militias to more readily engage in violations based on ethnicity or religion.
www.preventgenocide.org /prevent/removing-facilitating-factors/IDcards   (5807 words)

 Chinese - Politics
However, since the learning of a difficult language such as Chinese from scratch is a particularly demanding undertaking, it has 60 credits allocated to it at Level 1.
The remaining 20 credits are taken as electives which may take the form either of further courses in one or both of the chosen main subjects or of one or more courses in another subject.
Final degree classification is based on the marks gained for the assessment of Level 2 and 3 modules.
www.leeds.ac.uk /programmes/200203/ug/chinese9.htm   (831 words)

 Language in India
The freely faceted or analytico synthetic classification system,namely the Colon Classification,the brain child of S R Ranganathan having the prevalent research on general theory of classification and the techniques from transformational grammar expounded by Noam Chomsky are used as the basis in designing the IL model in Kannada.
A classification scheme employs coded vocabulary in the form of its notation.Thus, for example in Colon Classification (CC) Schedule 'Indian History' is rendered as V.44.In Sear's List of Subject Headings which employs verbal vocabulary it is rendered as : India - History.
Since enumerative schemes do not have a clear facet structure in which the most important focus cannot be identified, Ranganathan, S R's Analytico synthetic or free faceted structure is adopted for the present study.
www.languageinindia.com /march2002/sharadachapter1.html   (16495 words)

 ACS: Subject Definitions - Language Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Language Spoken at Home--Data on language spoken at home were derived from the answers to questionnaire items 14a and 14b, which were asked of persons 5 years old and older.
If the person spoke more than one language other than English, the person was to report the language spoken most often or, if they cannot determine the one spoken most often, the language learned first.
Questions 14a and 14b referred to a language spoken at home in an effort to measure the current use of a language other than English.
www.census.gov /acs/www/UseData/Def/Language.htm   (1045 words)

 DESIRE deliverable D3.2.3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Classification schemes vary in scope and methodology, but can be divided into universal, national general, subject specific and home-grown schemes.
The classification is used to organise the browsing structure of the service in accordance with the classification scheme, which is done automatically.
The NLM Classification utilises schedules QS-QZ and W- WZ, permanently excluded from the LCC schedules and is intended to be used with the LCC schedules which supplement the NLM Classification for subjects bordering on medicine and for general reference materials.
www.lub.lu.se /desire/radar/reports/D3.2.3/class_v10.html   (18459 words)

The Wason Curator has principal responsibility for selection of Chinese language materials in tandem with the Chinese Studies Bibliographer and supports the selection of Western, Japanese, and Korean language materials.
In addition to these specific responsibilities, the Curator will be expected to actively contribute to both the overall goals of the Cornell University Library and to the larger field of East Asia librarianship on the national and international level.
Fluency in both written and spoken Chinese, as well as excellent verbal and written communication skills in English.
wason.library.cornell.edu /CEAL/jobschinese.htm   (2870 words)

 Brandt.Kurowski.net - Weblog
The exercise itself isn’t exactly fascinating, but comparing the myriad classification schemes proposed by the members of your cohort can be enlightening.
An excellent example is the classification of things in the world that occurs in traditional Dyirbal, an aboriginal language of Australia.
The classification is built into the language, as is common in the world’s languages.
brandt.kurowski.net /blog/thoughts/wilkins.html   (1723 words)

 Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi): A Philosophical Analysis
His argument relies heavily on the core terms of Chinese philosophical analysis, shih (is this: right) and fei (not this: wrong).
Youth is the state of being comparatively open to almost any possibility and as we grow and gain knowledge, we close-off the possibilities in a rush toward old-age and death.
The more committed you get to a scheme, as we saw, the "older" you become intellectually until you are dead from the very act of learning.
www.hku.hk /philodep/ch/zhuang.htm   (6505 words)

 The Language Vorlin
This means that if you hear a sentence spoken rapidly without pauses between words, you can in most cases use the rules of Vorlin to determine where each morpheme begins and ends, and to reconstruct the locations of the word boundaries.
A quick look at English and Chinese, which have been producing fine literature with relatively fixed word order for several centuries, should be sufficient to dispel that misconception.
A vocative phrase gives the name or description of the person who is being spoken to, or attracts the attention of the person being spoken to.
www.rickharrison.com /language/vorlin1999.html   (8346 words)

 FISH ON LINE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
In the context of higher education, FishBase may also serve as background for Bachelor’s or Master’s theses wherein an area of ichthyology not presently or suitably covered by the tables in the latest version of FishBase would be ‘broken up’ into choice, numeric and text fields, entered and then analyzed on a comparative basis[4].
Thus, authors gradually began seeking for natural classifications, wherein organisms are ordered by affinities, these affinities being initially conceived as reflective of the general rules which god used when creating these organisms.
Shape and other morphological features are the key characteristics used to date for classifying fishes, and hence understanding their classification requires a basic overview of the basic shapes of fishes, as can be obtained from the outline drawings included, for each of the existing 500 fish families.
www.fishbase.org /Fish_On_Line.htm   (4986 words)

 Dan Jurafsky's Speech and Dialogue Research
Recent projects include the JHU Summer Workshop 2004 project on robust speech recognition of Mandarin Chinese spoken by speakers with southern (Shanghainese) accents.
Related to this project, Stanford linguistics student Rebecca Starr is working on sociolinguistic and phonological causes of variation in southern Mandarin.
Detection of Questions in Chinese Conversation To appear in Proceedings of IEEE ASRU 2005.
www.stanford.edu /~jurafsky/speech.html   (609 words)

 DEF CON 13 Speakers Page
The key to solving this dilemma is to use a scheme that is not consistent in its appearance and adapts itself to match its current surroundings.
By analyzing the conditions that exist on a network and then adapting the communication scheme to fit in with those conditions, a well camouflaged communication channel can be created.
You will leave understanding what these schemes look for to flag someone as needing more investigation to establish that they are who they say they are.
www.defcon.org /html/defcon-13/dc13-speakers.html   (13344 words)

 Dissident Voice: A Radical Newsletter In the Struggle For Peace and Social Justice
Increasingly affluent Chinese are subscribing to one of the goals of the American Dream -- a car in every garage -- with a frenzy.
This sounds like a small slice of the some 800 million cars throughout the world and does not include scooters and motorcycles, to which many Chinese who want something with more power than a bicycle, but cannot afford a car, have upgraded.
But the Chinese love affair with cars has only begun, and they have no shortage of domestic and foreign suitors.
www.dissidentvoice.org   (7302 words)

 Cover Pages: NewsML and IPTC
The Controlled Vocabulary group was set up in August 2003 and is "for people who wish to engage in discussions related to the use of Controlled Vocabularies, Hierarchies, Thesauri, and Classification schemes used in databases, with a specific interest in image databases."
The The Chinese NewsML Community "was set up by The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and funded by Innovation and Technology Commission, HKSAR.
Version 4 of the scheme in XML is available at www.nitf.org/SubjectView.zip (3) The IPTC agreed to pursue contacts with groups developing other media standards as it develops NewsML and maintains the NITF.
xml.coverpages.org /newsML.html   (10950 words)

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