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Topic: Claude Shannon

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In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

  claude shannon - computer science theory
A Midwesterner, Claude Shannon was born in Gaylord, Michigan in 1916.
Shannon graduated from MIT in 1940 with both a master’s degree and doctorate in mathematics.
Shannon’s information theories eventually saw application in a number of disciplines in which language is a factor, including linguistics, phonetics, psychology and cryptography, which was an early love of Shannon’s.
www.thocp.net /biographies/shannon_claude.htm   (1372 words)

  Claude Elwood Shannon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shannon was born in Petoskey, Michigan and was a distant relative of Thomas Edison.
Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing what became known as the dominant form of "information theory." By introducing the concept of the thermodynamics of computation, Shannon became the first scientist to successfully address the conundrum of Maxwell's Demon.
Shannon gave a rough example of an evaluation function in which the value of the fl position was subtracted from that of the white position.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Claude_E._Shannon   (1249 words)

 Times obituary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Shannon's rather offhand approach to problems was not always popular with his earnest colleagues, who felt he lacked the rigour of the true researcher.
Shannon was fascinated by artificial intelligence, and the electromechanical mouse turned out to be one of the earliest attempts to teach a machine to learn.
Shannon's colleagues knew that he worked alone, behind his closed door, but that if anyone had a problem he was always happy to break off his own work to offer advice.
www.aam314.vzz.net /Shannon.html   (1567 words)

Claude Elwood Shannon was born in Gaylord, Michigan, on April 30, 1916, to Claude Elwood and Mabel Wolf Shannon.
Shannon's grandfather was an inventor and a farmer.
Shannon is as the founding father of electronic communications age since he noticed and discovered the similarity between Boolean algebra and the telephone switching circuits.
www.nyu.edu /pages/linguistics/courses/v610003/shan.html   (1917 words)

 Claude E. Shannon - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 - February 24, 2001) has been called "the father of information theory", and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory.
This concept, of utilizing the properties of electricity to do math, is the basic concept that underlies all modern electronic digital computers, and the thesis became the foundation of practical digital circuit design when it became widely known among the electrical engineering community during and after World War II.
Shannon then joined Bell Labs until he returned to MIT in the 1950s.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /claude_e._shannon.htm   (691 words)

 Claude Shannon Bios   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Shannon household was considered to have harbored a "fairly well-educated and intellectually stimulating environment" for young Shannon.
Shannon’s father was a judge in the tiny town of Gaylord, population of approximately 3,000, and was mathematically clever despite working in a non-mathematical field.
Claude Shannon was educated at Michigan University, where he earned his bachelor of science degree in 1936.
www.utexas.edu /coc/journalism/SOURCE/j363/shannon.html   (1471 words)

 Shannon Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Shannon information is the type of information developed by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver in the 1940s.
Shannon information is concerned with quantifying information (usually in terms of number of bits) to keep track of alphanumeric chcaracters as they are communicated sequentially from a source to a receiver.
Unlike specified complexity, Shannon information is solely concerned with the improbability or complexity of a string of characters rather than its patterning or significance.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Shannon_Information   (109 words)

 Shannon's Work
Claude Shannon's creation in the 1940's of the subject of information theory is arguably one of the great intellectual achievements of the twentieth century.
In the Shannon paradigm, information from a "source" (defined as a stochastic process) must be transmitted though a "channel" (defined by a transition probability law relating the channel output to the input).
Thus the revolutionary elements of Shannon's contribution were the invention of the source-encoder-channel-decoder-destination model, and the elegant and remarkably general solution of the fundamental problems which he was able to pose in terms of this model.
cm.bell-labs.com /cm/ms/what/shannonday/work.html   (841 words)

 IEEE History Center - Legacies: Claude E. Shannon
Shannon has greatly extended his theoretical work since the original publication in 1947-48, dealing with such topics as the theory of cryptographic secrecy systems, multi-terminal communications networks, communications systems involving feedback, and communication in the presence of Gaussian noise.
Shannon was born 30 April 1916, in Petoskey, Michigan, but grew up in Gaylord, Michigan, where he worked as a Western Union messenger boy while in high school, an educational step he took in three years.
Shannon is married and his family includes one teen age son and a younger son and daughter.
www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/legacies/shannon.html   (777 words)

 Claude E. Shannon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In his 1937 MIT master's thesis,, Shannon proved that Boolean algebra and binary arithmetic could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays then used in telephone routing switches, then turned the concept upside down and also proved that it should be possible to use arrangements of relays to solve Boolean algebra problems.
Flush with this success, Vannevar Bush suggested that Shannon work on his dissertation at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, funded by the Carnegie Institution headed by Bush, to develop similar mathematical relationships for Mendelian genetics, which resulted in Shannon's 1940 PhD thesis at MIT,.
Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing what became known as the dominant form of "information theory." The book co-authored with Warren Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, reprints Shannon's 1948 article and Weaver's popularization of it, which is accessible to the non-specialist.
www.northmiami.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Claude_Shannon   (818 words)

 AllRefer.com - Claude Shannon (Mathematics, Biography) - Encyclopedia
A student of Vannevar Bush at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he was the first to propose the application of symbolic logic to the design of relay circuitry with his paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" (1938).
Shannon worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1941–72 and initiated the field of information theory with his 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication," which was retitled The Mathematical Theory of Communication when published in 1949 with a preface by Warren Weaver.
Shannon returned to MIT in 1958, although he remained a consultant with Bell Telephone.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/S/Shannon.html   (279 words)

 I, Cringely . March 1, 2001 - Claude Who? | PBS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
For those who don't know about Shannon, he was the father of information theory, which in its simplest form means he made possible the leap from telephones and telegraphs to computers.
Shannon was a juggler, a puzzle solver, a cryptographer of epic skill.
Each year, as a Shannon or a Licklider fades from view, we lose a little more of the sense of curiosity and whimsy that got us where we are today.
www.pbs.org /cringely/pulpit/pulpit20010301.html   (914 words)

 Scientific American: Claude E. Shannon: Founder of Information Theory
Shannon was born in 1916 in Petoskey, Michigan, the son of a judge and a teacher.
Shannon demonstrated mathematically that even in a noisy channel with a low bandwidth, essentially perfect, error-free communication could be achieved by keeping the transmission rate within the channel's bandwidth and by using error-correcting schemes: the transmission of additional bits that would enable the data to be extracted from the noise-ridden signal.
Shannon fit the stereotype of the eccentric genius to a T. At Bell Labs (and later M.I.T., where he returned in 1958 until his retirement in 1978) he was known for riding in the halls on a unicycle, sometimes juggling as well [see "Profile: Claude E. Shannon," by John Horgan; Scientific American, January 1990].
www.sciam.com /print_version.cfm?articleID=000745C4-9E66-1DA5-815A809EC5880000   (1062 words)

 Claude Shannon, Mathematician, Dies at 84   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Claude Elwood Shannon, the American mathematician and computer scientist whose theories laid the groundwork for the electronic communications networks that now lace the earth, died on Saturday in Medford, Mass., after a long fight with Alzheimer's disease.
"Shannon was the person who saw that the binary digit was the fundamental element in all of communication," said Dr. Robert G.
Shannon also showed that if enough extra bits were added to a message, to help correct for errors, it could tunnel through the noisiest channel, arriving unscathed at the end.
courses.dce.harvard.edu /~cscie160/27SHAN.html   (1069 words)

 howard rheingold's | tools for thought
In 1956, at the age of forty, Shannon was one of the organizers of the conference at Dartmouth that gave birth to the field of artificial intelligence.
Shannon's 1948 publication ("A Mathematical Theory of Information") presented a set of theorems that were directly related to the economical and efficient transmission of messages on noisy media, and indirectly but still fundamentally related to the connection between energy and information.
Turing and Shannon were altogether serious in their interest in chess, because of the complexity of the game in relation to the simplicity of its rules, and because they suspected that the shortcut needed to perform this kind of time-consuming search-procedure would also be a clue to the way brains solved all sorts of problems.
www.rheingold.com /texts/tft/6.html   (6296 words)

 Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The theorem was first formulated by Harry Nyquist in 1928 ("Certain topics in telegraph transmission theory"), but was only formally proven by Claude E. Shannon in 1949 ("Communication in the presence of noise").
Kotelnikov, "On the carrying capacity of the ether and wire in telecommunications," Material for the First All-Union Conference on Questions of Communication, Izd.
Shannon, "Communication in the presence of noise," Proc.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nyquist-Shannon_sampling_theorem   (1538 words)

 Claude E
From childhood on, Shannon was fascinated by both the particulars of hardware and the generalities of mathematics.
Shannon's initial goal was simple: to improve the transmission of information over a telegraph or telephone line affected by electrical interference, or noise.
Sidestepping questions about meaning, Shannon showed that it is a measurable commodity: the amount of information in a given message is a function of the probability that-out of all the messages that could be sent-it would be selected.
www.ecs.umass.edu /ece/hill/ece221.dir/shannon.html   (1446 words)

 CIRL - Pioneers in Electricity and Magnetism: Claude Shannon
Shannon conceived of a simpler way to evaluate two-value systems of switches and circuits, via the application of two-valued Boolean algebra (values normally given as 0 and 1, or as true and false).
Shannon’s fascination with games was also expressed by his publication of a landmark paper describing how a computer could be programmed to play chess.
Shannon was the recipient of numerous awards and honors, such as the National Medal of Science (1966), the IEEE Medal of Honor (1966), the Kyoto Prize for Basic Science (1985) and various honorary degrees.
www.magnet.fsu.edu /education/tutorials/pioneers/shannon.html   (798 words)

 Bell Labs: Claude Shannon, Father of Information Theory, Dies at 84   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Claude Shannon's clever electromechanical mouse, which he called Theseus, was one of the earliest attempts to "teach" a machine to "learn" and one of the first experiments in artificial intelligence.
Shannon's theory was an immediate success with communications engineers and stimulated the technology which led to today's Information Age.
Shannon was born in Petoskey, Michigan, on April 30, 1916.
www.bell-labs.com /news/2001/february/26/1.html   (468 words)

 As others see us
Bush's seemingly mundane motivation for having Shannon do the work was the telephone industry's need for a mathematical framework in which to describe the behavior of the increasingly complex automatic switching circuits that were starting to replace human telephone operators.
Shannon began by noting that, although the Analyzer computed in an analog fashion, its behavior at any time was governed by the positions of the relay switches, and they were always in one of just two states: open or closed (or on or off).
Prior to Shannon's work, mathematicians and engineers working on communications technology saw their job as finding ways to maintain the integrity of an analog signal traveling along a wire as a fluctuating electric current or through the air as a modulated radio wave.
www.maa.org /devlin/devlin_3_01.html   (1311 words)

Claude Elwood Shannon was born in Petoskey, Michigan, on Sunday, April 30, 1916.
He suggested to Shannon that algebra might be as useful in organizing genetic knowledge as it was in switching, and Shannon decided to look into this matter with a view toward using it for a doctoral thesis in mathematics.
In 1956 Dr. Shannon was invited to be a visiting professor at M.I.T. and, in 1957-58, a fellow at the Center for the Study of the Behavioral Sciences in Palo Alto, California.
www.research.att.com /~njas/doc/shannonbio.html   (3740 words)

 Claude Shannon (1916 - 2001)
Not long afterwards, it dawned on Shannon that the boolean algebra he'd learned as an undergraduate was in fact very similar to an electric circuit.
Later, Shannon's thesis came to be seen as a focal point in the development of modern computers.
Shannon retired at the age of 50, although he published papers sporadically over the next ten years.
www.kerryr.net /pioneers/shannon.htm   (533 words)

 Claude E. Shannon, 1916-2001
According to Dave Farber, Claude Shannon is dead.
Shannon was one of the greatest scientists of this century and was particularly responsible for our modern concepts of Boolean algebra for logic synthesis, bits, bandwidth, information, signal and noise, and error detection and correction (as well as important work in cryptography).
Some people also believe that Shannon's information theory has a very deep relevance to physics; a lot of current studies of thermodynamics focus on the relation between Shannon entropy and thermodynamic entropy.
www.advogato.org /article/251.html   (480 words)

 Shannon biography
Shannon was a graduate of the University of Michigan, being awarded a degree in mathematics and electrical engineering in 1936.
Shannon wrote a Master's thesis A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits on the use of Boole's algebra to analyse and optimise relay switching circuits.
Shannon was the person who saw that the binary digit was the fundamental element in all of communication.
www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk /history/Biographies/Shannon.html   (1273 words)

 Biographical Profile: Claude Shannon
US scientist Claude Elwood Shannon was author of The Mathematical Theory of Communication (PDF), a seminal work in information theory once described as "the magna carta of the information age".
Born in 1916, Shannon was a distant relation of Thomas Edison and shared that inventor's passion for tinkering but not, apparently, his mania for self-promotion.
Shannon graduated from the University of Michigan in 1936 with a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering and Bachelor of Science in Mathematics.
www.caslon.com.au /biographies/shannon.htm   (506 words)

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