Clipping (audio) - Factbites
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Topic: Clipping (audio)

    Note: these results are not from the primary (high quality) database.

 The Death of Dynamic Range
The station's audio processing does this by carefully compressing, limiting, and yes, even clipping the audio.
A perfectly flat line like this never occurs in audio recording unless the audio is purposely clipped.
But when you add many of these clipped samples in each second of the song, the effect becomes more and more noticeable as "clipping distortion"-- a harsh, crackly sound that is very unpleasant to the ear -- as we shall see below. /~mrichter/dynamics/dynamics.htm   (2139 words)

 Feedback and fidelity part 2
The optimum output impedance and feedback level depends on a number of factors that ultimately reduce to a tradeoff between mushy bass at one extreme (no feedback) and harsh clipping at the other (too much feedback).
The difference between figures 7 and 8 is modest because only 15.4 dB of feedback has been employed: Had more been applied to emphasize the effects of clipping, the sound quality would have suffered, and the Local Hero would not have been such a good example of proper use of feedback.
Designing vacuum tube audio amplifiers was his passion between about 1990 to 1998. /Audio/FeedbackFidelity2.html   (4245 words)

 Rock and Digital Audio
With digital audio, clipping is defined as N consecutive samples at maximum level (0dB).
Digital audio is not 'on' and 'off' and there is no reason that all digital audio is inherently clipped.
Digital audio simply samples the analog waveform thousands of times per second and represents the amplitude of the signal at each point in time with a number. /forums/showthread.php?t=7792   (1383 words)

 Clipping of CDs and lossy coded audio
In the past the reason for limiting and clipping was to reduce the background noise of magnetic tapes and vinyl disks.
In the same region the number of falsified samples of the soft clipped songs is. 20 clippings is really terrible.
The intersections are -3.8 and 3.6, this gives 20 clippings per second. /~pfk/mpp/clipping.html   (1027 words)

 Encyclopedia of Afrofuturism
Just like the cameras installed in New York's subway stations had their surveillance eyes spraypainted shut by graf kids, audio anarchists will build small noise generators and place them near the decibel sensors, overloading the computers with a barrage of high levels, drawing attention away from the necessary sounds of life and insurrection.
Back at police HQ: digital clipping and constant peaks, a landscape of maxed-out zones with no clue where to deploy the arms of power." [Jace Clayton (aka Jimmy Rupture)] /text/archive/encyc.html   (4274 words)

 Power Record - Scheduled and instant audio recording from any audio source
Power Record will playback your recordings and convert them to MP3 with either Fraunhofer or Lame encoders (not included, the Lame encoder is available for free download- see for details).
Get flawless sound and eliminate clipping with Automatic Gain Control
Power Record is also ideal for instant recording, always available at the click of a mouse button to record whatever you want to record. /products/powerrecord.html   (435 words)

Use Normalization to achieve the greatest amount of amplification that will not result in clipping (when set to 0dB or 100%)." In other words, an audiofile which is 100% normalized is as loud as it can be before (part of) it reaches digital distortion.
The good thing is that normalization is simple to apply and is built into many audio recording/editing tools, but amazingly enough, not all of them.
At 100% normalization, the result of the low-level file above is a robust file below which is easier to see to edit, but more importantly will require little or no fader adjustment at the radio station. /radio/ACE-EM-SIG/QuickTipsArchives/nasium.htm   (435 words)

 Audio Music Mastering Guide
Audio mastering is one of the essential arts you need to learn to make your tracks sound good on CD, vinyl or even as MP3.
Basically this is the process of reducing the resolution of audio by aliasing the waveform - it's rather similar to when you shrink a photograph in Photoshop and you use bi-cubic resampling to remove the jaggy edges you'd otherwise get.
Ideally you will also have some high quality plugins for your audio editor for mastering with (as the ones that come with audio editors are sometimes lacking) - the best ones I know of are made by Waves (their Native Gold Bundle has everything you need). /music/mastering.php   (1561 words)

 Television Production: Digital Audio for TV and Radio
Unlike analog audio, where exceeding the maximum level will result in signal distortion, in digital audio you might not notice mild clipping (the elimination of occasional audio peaks).
People working with digital audio should at least be aware of the potential problem, and before a video project is started, consult an engineer about the possible problems that could arise in the conversion process.
Actually, an occasional full-scale digital sample (to the top of the red range above) is considered inevitable; but, a regular string of "top of the scale" occurrences means that the digital audio levels are too high, and you are losing audio information. /tvp042b.htm   (1347 words)

 "Hot" Audio CDs
A "hot" audio CD is one with its peak levels close to 0dBFS (i.e.
It's pretty funny to see someone look at the meters on a DAT machine and scratch their head because all the segments are lit up occasionally but there's no distortion or clipping!
A lot of CDs mastered in a workstation have only.1 or.2dB of headroom with a high average level as well and a mortal without a digital limiter is unable to get the same result without generating 'overs' (i.e. /CDIC/Applications/Techniques/Audio/HotAudio.html   (237 words)

 Scanner Recorder Home Page
Since the recorder starts and stops based on what it hears, Scanner Recorder incorporates an anti-clipping feature that keeps the very beginning of the audio that breaks the squelch threshold from being clipped off.
Scanner Recorder (Scanrec) is a free audio recorder that is primarily designed to record speech.
Scanner Recorder provides a switched recorder that listens to the sound coming into the audio card and if the sound is above the minimum threshold, the recorder operates. /scanrec   (898 words)

 The educational encyclopedia, audio
Audio power amplifier fundamentals distortion, maximum power transfer theory and efficiency, bridging, damping factor, clipping, noise, power ratings
Audio articles Rane comprehensive information on everything from 'how loud is it?' to solving grounding problems, Rane professional audio reference comprehensive reference on all things about audio,
Audio FAQ analog tape recording, digital recording and interconnection, digital editing and mastering, sound reinforcement, sound restoration, recording technique, speakers, acoustics, sound /educypedia/electronics/audio.htm   (548 words)

 PLA Forums: Hacking, Phreaking, Prank Calls or less!
I know about clipping, but even when normalized to 200and I never encounter it, its just something weird with the audio, anyways, it could be that, then all you have to do is go to and download a normalize program.
Because a lot of times they forget to normalize the audio correctly, whenever I self-rip dvds I have to force normalization to 200% because for some reason normalizing dvd audio never normalizes it to the peaks you'd see when listening to music.
If this is the case, you can't just increase the sound on the software side, since its a limit on your computer output, you'd have to get a (hopefully) cheap amp to put between your computer and tv. /forum/dsoftware-5144.htm   (548 words)

 Audio Mixing Console - Part 1
This is not suitable in my opinion, because audio signals can be extremely asymmetrical, so one side can be clipping and you would not know it without listening carefully.
Rather, it is a gathering of ideas with a common theme, and circuits for audio mixing consoles are few and far between on the web from what I have seen.
There are (allegedly) better opamps, but they may not easy to get or may be inappropriate for high quality audio, and will be more expensive as well. /project30a.htm   (3873 words)

 Handango Pocket PC Software - Handheld Audio Spectrum Analyzer (HASA)
HASA is a handheld audio frequency spectrum analyzer for the Pocket PC 2003 and 2002 devices.
Clipping at the microphone is indicated on the HASA display, as are the real-time measured samples and their frequency spectrum.
Frequency components of sounds picked up by the built-in microphone are shown and analyzed in real-time. /PlatformProductDetail.jsp?productType=2&optionId=1_2_2&jid=D821BB82C12FX452111352C2285BX13E&platformId=2&siteId=1&productId=26550§ionId=0&catalog=30&txtSearch=hasa   (789 words)

 The educational encyclopedia, audio
Audio power amplifier fundamentals distortion, maximum power transfer theory and efficiency, bridging, damping factor, clipping, noise, power ratings
Avoiding noise: balancing, grounding and shielding noise can basically be defined as anything in the audio that we don't want, internal and external sources, common impedance coupling, electrical field coupling, magnetic field coupling, shielding, balanced transmission lines
Audio articles Rane comprehensive information on everything from 'how loud is it?' to solving grounding problems, Rane professional audio reference comprehensive reference on all things about audio, /educypedia/electronics/audio.htm   (548 words)

 Audio Recorders
Features of Ultra Recorder include: Digitizes live audio, tapes, phonographs, and other sources, Records CD-Quality audio into formats suitable for CD burning and MP3 compression, State of the art interface supports background recording directly to disk, Unlocks your sound device's full potential, Sound routines support disk based operation and are not limited to available memory.
The user is provided with a visual sound reference in the form of a moving visual audio tape display coupled with scrubbing and ballistic fast forward and rewind, precision multi-track editing of mono and stereo sound is both easy and fast.
It also has a built-in amplitude envelope editor, a customizable spectrogram mode and a frequency analysis window for audio analysis applications. /Pages/AudioRecorders.html   (1303 words)

 E.J Pratt Library - Online Databases & CD-ROMs at Victoria University Library
Provides access to: the complete works (Riverside Chaucer), with translations; critical commentaries; texts and images with audio clips in Middle English; Chaucer's life; tutorial on how to read a medieval manuscript; and a glossary of Middle English words.
The Web site includes background information, images, sound clips, and tools to allow comparison of the earlier versions of the plays with the more common later versions, to see how the text has changed.
Having the copies available online permits easy access to works that are believed to be closer to the original text of the plays. /guides/CDRom.htm   (1364 words)

 Jason Neal's DIY Audio and Electronics Page
This project is the result of a collaboration with Eric Wallin to provide a low-cost, high quality kit for do-it-yourself audio enthusiasts.
The preamplifier features 20dB of switchable gain and a clipping indicator, and microphones are available in calibrated and raw form. /~jmneal   (261 words)

 ELEC 484 - Digital Audio Signal Processing
There are 18 copies of this clipping, each pitched shifted to produce a sound similar to a guitar pluck.
This produces non-linearities in the output signal as one might expect at the top level of an inexpensive amplifier.
This is similar to sending an amplified signal into a stero, but keeping the stereo volume down. /~nej/assignment1.htm   (379 words)

 Digital Audio Levels
The digital audio industry usually works in dBs, just like the analogue audio industry, but rather than using the reference of 0dBu (=0.775Vrms), they use the digital clipping level (aka Full Scale) as their reference.
Analogue audio is converted to digital audio by an "Analogue to Digital Converter" (ADC) which converts 0V to the number 0, a positive voltage to a positive number, and a negative voltage to a negative number.
This article explains the how audio levels are usually measured in the digital world, and how the analogue and digital worlds can be related. /woodgreen/tech_tips/techtip/art5.htm   (300 words)

 G3YXM Circuits page
This one updates an old principal I used years ago: a light bulb driven by audio illuminates an LDR in the feedback loop.
Do not attempt to operate the circuit below 12V as there won't be enough drive to the LED and clipping will result.
Starting with an audio compressor (well you've got to start somewhere! /circuits.htm   (1150 words)

 Sound Thinking - Pro Tools Plug-Ins - Maxim
In other words, it combines advanced peak limiting (without clipping!) and normalization in a single Plug-In, making it easier and more efficient than ever to achieve optimum audio levels.
In addition, Maxim automatically adjusts the overall gain of the audio to meet the ceiling as limiting is applied.
Its proprietary sound level maximizing technique distinguishes it from analog limiters and digital versions of them, which often add unwanted distortion or coloration to the audio. /plug-ins/maxim.htm   (1150 words)

 Modification of Micor Stations
Squelch gated audio can be can be had from either Pin 14 of the receiver interconnect board pins or some choose to use the "Micor Muteboard" for supplying a controller with squelch gated, PL filtered, deemphasized audio, and a quality positive logic COS source.
I feel the original squelch circuit in the receiver deck allows for smoother squelch control and the use of it will retain the famous dual hysteresis squelch function allowing mobiles to be in flutter without the squelch clipping them off.
The Station Audio and Squelch board was never intended to be used by itself in muting the audio to the local speaker, as many times a hiss is heard even when the station is squelched, so modification of the Station AandS board will allow more pleasant monitoring of the received signal. /rbtip/stationmod.html   (2665 words)

 Bandwidth Market, Ltd
The system using LEDs 56 and 74 for controlling the turning on and off of the switch transistors 58 and 76 has larger signal handling capability and precludes distortion from signal clipping due to leakage current in conventional diodes.
Another object of the invention is to provide an audio muting circuit that is capable of operation with TTL logic level signals.
Another switch transistor 76 has its emitter connected to ground, its base connected through a resistor 75 to the cathode of LED 56 (and LED 74) and its collector connected to lead 41 that is coupled to junction B on the other audio signal lead. /resources/patents/data19/5103315.html   (2665 words)

 Sony Media Software - Sound Forge 8
Sound Forge software is everything you need to analyze, record, and edit audio, produce music loops, digitize and clean-up old recordings, model acoustic environments, create streaming media, and master replication-ready CDs.
Sound Forge 8 software also supports DirectX and VST effects, including parameter automation to expand the number of effects you can apply to audio — increasing your mastering flexibility.
Sound Forge software automatically scans sections of your file and marks sample peaks that are clipping for easy fixing. /Products/ShowProduct.asp?PID=961   (706 words)

 Precision device for soft clipping AC and DC signals - Patent 4877981
A soft clipping circuit particularly suited for use with audio signals avoids the need to use non-linear diode characteristics to determine the amount of clipping that is provided.
Further features and advantages of the soft clipping approach for audio signals are discussed in the 1970 IEEE article "`Soft Limiting`in Audio Power Amplification" by Gerald E. Wentworth.
Soft clipping permits the linear amplification of an audio signal up to a particular amplitude. /4877981.html   (3199 words)

The digital clipping level (0 dBfs) corresponds to +3.87 dBu line output level, so any equipment set up for the standard +4 dBu "pro" level can handle the maximum audio output from the DVX100.
The topmost (larger) red VU mark is less than 1 dB away from 0 dBfs, the full-scale point beyond which you get severe digital clipping.
If you have the on-screen VU scale turned on, you'll see your current left and right audio levels on the screen. /dvx100/a-levels/audio-levels.html   (3199 words)

 Plug-ins - The Sonic Spot
Scrollworks Peak Slammer - DirectX plug-in that increases overall volume of digital audio without clipping and with a minimum of audio artifacts.
AnalogX DCOffset - DirectX real-time and non-real-time plug-in for removing the DC Offset from an audio signal.
BJ Wavechanger² - VST plug-in for the PC that exchanges audio input waves with simple waveforms to produce an "analogue" sound. /daplugins.html   (3199 words)

 Peak Slammer
Peak Slammer is a DirectX Audio Plug-in that lets you increase the overall volume of digitized audio without clipping and with a minimum of audio artifacts.
In use Peak Slammer, an audio editing program such as Sonic Foundry's Sound Forgeaudio plug-ins is also, that supports DirectX required.
It differs from standard compression in that instead of applying the scaling after a threshold is reached, any peak that exceeds the threshold is scaled down fro the previous zero-crossing to the next zero-crossing. /products/slammer   (231 words)

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