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Topic: Clitic


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In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

  
  Clitic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In linguistics, a clitic is a word that syntactically functions as a free morpheme, but phonetically appears as a bound morpheme, as it is always pronounced with the preceding or following word.
A clitic and the word to which it attaches (called the 'clitic host') are pronounced as a single unit, and this unit adheres to the grammatical rules of the language in which it is found.
It is important to note that a clitic is not an affix.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Clitic   (711 words)

  
 BOUND CLITIC OBJECTS of INDEPENDENT ADPOSITIONS in SULEIMANYE KURDISH
For example, the clitic may not be bound to the verb either before or after the verb stem, as shown in the ungrammatical examples 8 through 11; nor can the cli tic attach to some other constituent, as shown in the ungrammatical examples 12 through 14.
This attachment of the Set II clitic is similar to the clitic movement patterns of the past transitive construction, except that in this case the fronting of the Set II clitic happens in the present tense as well as in the past tense.
However, in the present tense the Set II clitic switches from being the agent clitic (as it is in the past tense) to being the object of the adposition, and the Set I clitic switches from being the object of the adposition (as it is in the past tense) to being the agent clitic.
www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk /~siamakr/Kurdish/Papers/friend88.html   (1652 words)

  
 Clitic
In grammar, a clitic is a word which is always attached to a following or preceding word in writing or speech.
Strictly, a clitic is either an enclitic, where the clitic is with the preceding word,, or a proclitic, which is with the following word.
Although clitics are usually defined in terms of pronunciation, they are often reflected in writing as well, with the two words being written together without space in between.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/en/Enclitic.html   (164 words)

  
 Journal of Slavic Linguistics 12.1
A unified analysis of “clitic climbing” from subordinate clauses in Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian and from DP in Czech is presented.
Such clitic placement is demonstrated to co-occur with a semi-lexical head, and several apparently lexical Czech nouns are shown to have semi-lexical status.
Finally, the empirical details of clitic climbing in Czech are discussed, showing that it cannot be reduced to movement for case checking or to the phenomenon of restructuring known from Romance languages.
slavica.com /jsl/jsl_12_1.html   (451 words)

  
 Udi Clitic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Clitics may be positioned between the morphemes of complex verbstems and immediately before the final segments of monomorphemic verbstems.
On the basis of criteria developed by Zwicky and Pullum (1983), it is argued that the clitics of Udi are true clitics.
It is concluded that clitics in Udi are a counterexample to the Lexical Integrity Hypothesis.
www.vanderbilt.edu /AnS/Germanic-Slavic/german/Harris/udi.htm   (186 words)

  
 THE ACQUISITION OF CLITIC DOUBLING AND LEFT DISLOCATION IN SPANISH1
Fox, Grodzinsky and Crain propose that passives in English and clitic doubling in Spanish are the same construction; these authors suggest that the delay on the acquisition of passives is based on the lack of clitic doubling; therefore, they predict the delay of this clitic doubling in the early ages.
The base generation hypothesis (Rivas, 1977; Jaeggli, 1982, 1986; Borer, 1984) proposes that the clitic is base generated to the left of the verb, and the movement hypothesis (Kayne, 1975, 1991) proposes that clitics are base generated in the canonical object position and move to the position of the verb by incorporation.
We can conclude that data on the acquisition of clitic constructions, clitic-left dislocation, dative experiencers and floating quantifiers support the hypothesis that these constructions have the same underlying structure, and that the delay on the acquisition of passives is not due to the lack of the construction of clitic doubling.
fccl.ksu.ru /papers/gp006.htm   (4483 words)

  
 Bound Clitic Objects of Independent Adpositions in Suleimaniye Kurdish -- South Asian Language Association, 1988
As will be shown below, the clitic that is the object of the independent adposition could be bound to one of several constituents, and the adposition may appear in one of several positions, depending on the tense and transitivity of the verb, and the presence of other constituents in the sentence.
For example, the clitic may not be bound to the verb either before or after the verb stem, as shown in the ungrammatical examples 8 through 11; nor can the clitic attach to some other constituent, as shown in the ungrammatical examples 12 through 14.
In the present tense, these two grammatical roles switch position, while the actual clitic structure of Set I and Set II remains the same: the Set II clitic comes before the verb and is the indirect object of the adposition, while the Set I clitic comes after the verb and is the agent clitic.
home.earthlink.net /~rcfriend/mesa88.htm   (2665 words)

  
 Abstract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Onega byliny demonstrate yet another outstanding phenomenon with regards to the intensifying clitic -ka: although the imperative clitic is clearly -tko and, to a lesser extent, -ko, -ka is frequently encountered, though strictly as an intensifier of pronouns and adverbs.
This suggests that the softening clitic -tka of akanie dialects probably derives from -tko, only in akanie dialects the clitic came to be analyzed as having an underlying a.
Consequently, I conclude that the etymology of the softening clitic -ka is twofold--although it is possible that speakers innovated by extending the intensifying clitic -ka to imperatives, in some instances speakers use a clitic -ka which ultimately derives from -tko (-tko > -tka > -ka).
aatseel.org /program/aatseel/1999/abstract-37.html   (592 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Clitic Climbing is a well-known phenomenon present in Romance languages but also in Slavic.
In certain verbal environments, a pronominal clitic needn't be realised on a verb it is a semantic argument of but the clitic can `climb' to a governing verb: (1) Jan chcial go przestac zapraszac.
We represent clitics as NP-arguments of a verb, i.e., as elements of the valence COMPLEMENTS (COMPS) attribute.
venus.ci.uw.edu.pl /~glip/glip1/adam/kupsc.txt   (660 words)

  
 Jorge Hankamer WebFest
Chomsky further proposes that the relationship between the reflexive clitic and its subject antecedent is one of government (or Spec-head), as the clitic is assumed to move to Infl (as proposed independently for Romance clitics by Kayne 1989 and Rosen 1990, among others).
The lack of locality and c-command between the clitics in the wh-clause and their traces in the focus is restored through reconstruction.
In Spanish, however, the focus is a constituent under the assumption that the clitic attaches to Infl and the verb remains in the VP.
ling.ucsc.edu /Jorge/moore.html   (1822 words)

  
 Juana M. Liceras   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
To prevent the referential nature of clitics from being a primary cause of difficulty, we have addressed this issue in our experimental task.
Our results show that: (a) clitics are more problematic than determiners for all three levels, but particularly at the early stages; (b) clitics are more problematic regardless of the learners’ L1; (c) there are significant differences between position and omission only in the case of determiners.
Based on these results, we argue that it is not the computational characteristics of clitics per se that constitute a problem for L2 learners, but the fact that these learners adopt a ‘top-down strategy’ to approaching input data (Liceras, Díaz, Mongeon 2000).
www.uic.edu /depts/sfip/formmeaning/abstracts/liceras.html   (248 words)

  
 Language Log: Clitics on Broadway
Overall, this is what a linguist calls a clitic form of the pronoun.
Granted, there is a possibility that the clitic forms had not evolved yet 200 years ago.
But then even today, my main Saramaccan informant tends to make the same substitutions in his e-mails to me in Saramaccan, apparently out of a sense that the clitics are just "accidents," when in fact they are very precisely conditioned.
itre.cis.upenn.edu /~myl/languagelog/archives/000715.html   (589 words)

  
 The Syntax of Clitic Doubling in Modern Greek   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In this dissertation it is argued that Clitic Doubling involves a predication structure where a Clitic Left Dislocated (CLLDed) expression, which is a copy of the clitic doubled expression, is the subject of the predication and the clitic and doubled expression serve as the predicate variable (cf.
The difference between clitic doubling and CLLD is a matter of whether the topic or the doubled expression is phonetically (but not syntactically) deleted.
This proposal accounts for what kind of lexical projections allow clitic- doubling; the difference in behavior between accusative and oblique clitic doubled expressions; the impossibility of doubling QPs that contain expressions needing antecedents and other reconstruction effects; as well as the scope interpretation of doubled QPs.
www.usc.edu /dept/gsil/schneider.html   (160 words)

  
 What is a clitic? (Grammar)
A clitic is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but shows evidence of being phonologically bound to another word.
Clitics that occur on the last element of a clause will always cliticize to the end of that element.
This page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library, Version 5.0 published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 2003.
www.sil.org /linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACliticGrammar.htm   (228 words)

  
 Neurolinguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A proclitic is a clitic that precedes the word to which it is phonologically joined.
phonetically a clitic only when used in its unstressed schwa-pronunciation form.
An enclitic is a clitic that is phonologically joined at the end of a preceding word to form a single unit.
muweb.millersville.edu /~bduncan/465/d-clitic.html   (168 words)

  
 Franks
I present evidence to show that the article must be a suffix on its host word, rather than a clitic, and consequently argue that all [+N] elements have forms inflected for specificity in their lexical entries.
The condition on merger of the clitic is therefore that it must merge with a [+spec] head, satisfying the above descriptive generalization.
Caink, A. (2000) “In Favour of a ‘Clitic Cluster’ in the Bulgarian and Macedonian DP.” In M.
aatseel.org /program/aatseel/2000/abstract-26.html   (663 words)

  
 Stress Effects   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
show the effects of stress (more precisely, of destressing) when clitics are excluded, while the lower charts show the effects of stress on vowels in when clitics are included.
In some other dialects, including or excluding the clitic words makes the pattern more clear, so both figures are presented.
Very little difference is observed between the upper and lower charts for either speaker.
www.tomveatch.com /Veatch1991/node74.html   (1502 words)

  
 Language Log: Does Hayden Christensen have a clitic problem?
John McWhorter's old post "Clitics on Broadway" was useful because it's clarified for me why Hayden Christensen's acting in the movies is SO ANNOYING: he has a clitic problem.
Except for Obi-Wan, the good guys in the Star Wars original trilogy all spoke colloquial American English, clitics and all.
So when the clitics go and we're back to full pronouns, you just tense up: Anakin is having another Moment and you feel it coming like a disturbance in the Force.
itre.cis.upenn.edu /~myl/languagelog/archives/002191.html   (277 words)

  
 Amazon.com: The Catalan Clitic System: A Diachronic Perspective on Its Syntax and Phonology (Interface Explorations, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Amazon.com: The Catalan Clitic System: A Diachronic Perspective on Its Syntax and Phonology (Interface Explorations, 5): Books: Susann Fischer
The book is a qualitative and quantitative investigation into the Catalan clitic system from Old to Modern Catalan.
Building on the Minimalist Program, the author shows that a number of facts about Old Romance clitic placement that previously have either not been accounted for or have received unsatisfactory treatment can be explained in a principled way once a strict division of labor between syntax and phonology is adopted.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/3110176130?v=glance   (420 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 5.1399: COBUILD, Noun Incorp., Ancient Chinese, Clitic doubling   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Date: Tue, 6 Dec 1994 12:24:54 -query about clitic doubling
Dear Netters, I am working in a paper on clitic doubling in Romance languages, especially in Spanish.
I am trying to analize if they are base-generated in the pre-verbal position or end up there via movement.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/5/5-1399.html   (406 words)

  
 Blackwell Online - The Catalan Clitic System
The Catalan clitic system: A diachronic perspective on its syntax and phonology is a qualitative and quantitative investigation into the Catalan clitic system from Old to Modern Catalan.
Building on the Minimalist Program, the author shows that a number of facts about Old Romance clitic placement that previously have either not been accounted for or have received unsatisfactory treatment can be explained in a principled way once a strict division of labour between syntax and phonology is adopted.
Clitic syntax from Odd Catalan to Modern Catalan
bookshop.blackwell.co.uk /bobuk/scripts/home.jsp?action=search&type=isbn&term=3110176130&source=3246541172   (269 words)

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