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Topic: Cloud formation

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In the News (Thu 21 Mar 19)

 Missing In Action: Oort Cloud Blown Away
The finding, by researchers at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), demonstrates that previous models of Oort Cloud formation may have significantly overestimated the mass of the Sun's Oort Cloud, the giant sphere far beyond the planets in which comets are thought to reside.
Many comets once thought to have been ejected into the Oort Cloud during the early formation of the solar system are now believed to have been pulverized in violent collisions among themselves.
Stern and Weissman's computer models show that most comets and smaller debris present between the outer planets during the so-called "clearing phase" of outer solar system formation were destroyed in mutual collisions before they could be ejected to the Oort Cloud by the strong gravity of the giant planets. /news/kuiper-01b.html   (477 words)

 Grand Unified Theory: Wave Theory and the Electron
The electron cloud comes in contact with the positron cloud in front of the magnetic swirl of a neighbouring atom, creating a large, high-energy positron-electron wave-like formation.
By adding more energy, the electron cloud can separate itself from its wave and become a high-energy independent magnetic loop (electron), flowing between atoms in the energetic path.
electron cloud appears to be more independent and jumps to a higher orbit. /book/electronP.htm   (477 words)

 Cloud Chamber of Carl Anderson (ca. 1935)
It was a fond recollection of the sunlight shining on tiny water droplets in the clouds swirling around the summit of Scotland’s Ben Nevis that spurred the attempts in 1895 of Charles Wilson, a young graduate student in J.J. Thompson’s Cambridge laboratory, to investigate cloud formation.
At the same time that Wilson was mimicking cloud formation, JJ Thompson was investigating the ionization of gases by Rontgen’s newly discovered x-rays.
While Wilson’s first “use” of the cloud chamber was to measure the charge of the ions that served as the condensation nuclei, its biggest impact would be that it permitted a visualization of the tracks of charged particles traveling through the gas. /ptp/collection/Miscellaneous/cloudchamber.htm   (709 words)

 Laboratory studies of cirrus cloud processes
It is apparent that these conditions for the formation of ice in continental cirrus clouds are not satisfied by assuming that cirrus haze particles are composed of sulfuric acid that freezes by homogeneous nucleation.
Figure 5.5b also indicates the conditions for ice formation in continental cirrus clouds, based on Heymsfield and Miloshevich (1995).
Where cirrus clouds have been present in the upper troposphere, aerosols are collected, modified by chemical reactions on ice crystals, and redistributed through sedimentation to lower levels. /~pdemott/cirrus/book.html   (7997 words)

 Near-infrared Survey of Molecular Cloud L1630
The goal of the survey is to search for evidence of star formation in the cloud peripheral areas, where the column density and visual extinction are modest (A_V \sim 4-8).
A near-infrared survey covering about 2000 square arcminutes of the molecular cloud L1630 has been conducted using the KPNO SQIID on the 50-inch telescope.
Combined with the information obtained from molecular tracers and tracers of photon-dominated regions, we hope to test the model of photoionization-regulated star formation proposed by McKee (1989). /publications/baas/v27n4/aas187/S020013.html   (130 words)

 Cloud Condensation Nuclei
Cloud formation and cloud properties affect global and regional climate, but despite its importance cloud formation and in particular the role of organic compounds in this process is one of the least understood aspects of atmospheric chemistry.
Aerosols control the formation of clouds in the atmosphere of our planet.
The ratio of CCN activated aerosols measured in the CCN chamber to the total number of aerosols (measured with the CPC) will be measured as a function of dry particle diameter for a given super saturation (or vice versa). /~mbilde/ccn.html   (370 words)

 Planet Formation
As the cloud spins and collapses inwards it flattens into a central mass and surrounding disk.
How does this process begin in an initially homogeneous cloud of dust and gas?
Five billion years ago a cloud of hot swirling dust and hydrogen gas gives birth to our Sun and planets. /Cyberia/Bima/PlanetForm.html   (370 words)

 Molecular Clouds and Star Formation; Chi Yuan; Jun-Han You (Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); Hardback; World Retail Store - English Books
Molecular Clouds and Star Formation; Chi Yuan; Jun-Han You (Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); Hardback; World Retail Store - English Books
English Books > Mathematics And Science > Astronomy, Space & Time > Stars, Interstellar Matter > Molecular Clouds and Star Formation
It includes coverage of recent infrared and millimeter radio observations, as well as the gravitational collapse of dense cores in a giant molecular cloud to form sun /item/BE-9810223714.html   (370 words)

 Giant Molecular Clouds
The resulting catalogs will be of wide interest and of great use in determining the stellar initial mass function and addressing fundamental questions such as the variation of star formation efficiency and rate from cloud to cloud, the formation of clusters, and sequential star formation.
We propose to use the FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer and imager to obtain complete inventories of the star and planet forming activity in the most active, nearby Giant Molecular Clouds.
We will image all young stellar objects within these clouds down to the hydrogen burning limit and classify their types through their near-infrared spectra. /nsa/lada.html   (370 words)

 Star formation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Star formation is the process by which gas in molecular clouds change into the ball of plasma we call a star.
The radiation from the protostar and early star has to be observed in infrared astronomy wavelengths, the extinction caused by the rest of the cloud where it is being formed is usually too big to allow us to observe it in the visual part of the spectrum.
In high mass stars, the length of the star formation process is comparable to the other timescales of their evolution, much shorter, and the process is not so well defined. /wiki/Star_formation   (449 words)

 Lecture 17: Star Formation
Stars form in giant clouds of gas and dust called molecular clouds.
When a fragment of a molecular cloud reaches a critical mass, it collapses to form a star.
The term "molecular cloud" is used since molecules form there. /courses/astro101/lec17.htm   (374 words)

 Everything Star:Star
As learned by star formation astronomers, stars are born in molecular clouds, large regions of slightly higher density of matter (though still less dense than the inside of an earthly vacuum chamber), and form by gravitational instability inside those clouds triggered by shockwaves from supernovae.
1 Star formation and evolution 2 Star classification 3 Naming of stars 4 Nuclear fusion reaction pathways.
Star Wars chicks is currently undergoing a website transition, so please excuse the html dust and accept our apologies for any temporary website blackouts. /guide/Star.htm   (374 words)

 Cloud seeding
Cloud seeding is a profitable commercial operation in various places in the USA, mainly in the Sierra Nevada, the Colorado Rockies, and the Great Plains.
Studies in western Victoria (in southeast Australia) shows that seeding rarely is practicable with frontal clouds or when the winds are from the southwest, because the cloud water content is small and/or the cloud tops are too warm.
On the right, this cloud is invigorated into a cumulonimbus by the latent heat released as the boundary between liquid and frozen hydrometeors (blue horizontal line in the cloud on the left) moves down to the 0 /~geerts/cwx/notes/chap09/seeding.html   (874 words)

 Bible Believers Tabernacle :: Bible Believers of Orlando
The radiosonde run terminated at the 13-millibar level of atmospheric pressure (about 29 km), where the temperature was -46 degrees C. There was very little direction shear in the Winslow wind sounding, a condition known to favor formation of mountain waves and believed to be conducive to nacreous clouds, at least in Scandinavia (2).
It was at least 11 kilometers higher than the upper limit of possible jet contrail formation, and was at least 5 kilometers higher than previously reported nacreous clouds of the arctic type.
Tentatively, the cloud may be regarded as similar to a nacreous cloud; but its unusually great height and unusually low altitude, plus its remarkable shape, suggest that it was a cloud of previously unrecorded type. /themysterycloud.htm   (874 words)

 molecular cloud
Two distinct types, of molecular cloud are known, both associated with star formation: giant molecular clouds and dwarf molecular clouds.
It is widely believed that the relatively high density of dust particles in these clouds plays an important role in the formation and protection of the molecules.
The emission of molecular lines often shows several distinct intensity peaks, each representing individual clumps or clouds of gas and dust in a region that characteristically extends for 50 light-years and is often associated with T Tauri stars &; young, pre-main-sequence stars &; and also hot massive stars and the ionized gas around them. /encyclopedia/M/molcloud.html   (205 words)

 SWAS Science - Primary Targets
In addition to being smaller, dark cloud cores do not form as many massive stars as giant cloud cores and therefore are thought to contain more pristine molecular material, material which has not been affected by the formation of stars.
Within these condensations radiation from the many sources in the galaxy is reduced to levels that allows the formation of a rich variety of molecular species, leading astronomers to label the dense regions of the ISM as molecular clouds.
The differences seen in the spatial distribution of molecular emission within the Orion cloud are quite striking, with the CH emission strongest near the center of the map at the position of an embedded cluster of young stars, while the N /swas/science3.html   (941 words)

 Beyond Our Galaxy
Astronomers are especially keen to study star formation in the Small Magellanic Cloud, because its chemical composition is different from that of the Milky Way.
The study of N81 thus provides an excellent template for studying the star formation that occurred long ago in very distant galaxies, before nuclear reactions inside stars had synthesized the elements heavier than helium.
The galaxy's nucleus is the bright object in the center of the image; the spoke-like structures are wisps of material connecting the nucleus to the outer ring of young stars. /imagegalleries/beyond.htm   (941 words)

 Star Formation
Of course, the estimated time for a gas cloud to contract to the protostar stage, between one million and ten million years, is too long for us to observe, putting star formation outside the scope of the scientific method.
Astronomers like Bok, Cameron and Spitzer recognize that stars are not going to form by simple gravitational contraction, but that they require some sort of outside influence, like shock waves from the explosion of a star, to push the cloud to greater density to satisfy the requirements described by Sir Jeans and others.
Although gravitational formation of stars is conceivable, it is not possible. /stars.html   (3103 words)

As scientists currently understand it, the process starts when a region of a rotating interstellar cloud consisting mostly of gas (a “molecular cloud”) begins collapsing in on itself.
The dust and gas may be accumulating into planets or may be left behind after the formation of unseen planets.
According to this hypothesis, the inner region and the planet lose angular momentum to the outer region, causing the planet to spiral inward. /~yulsman/Home6.html   (3103 words)

 Steven Chai, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute
He is also involved in research on a cloud dynamic model involving the convective turbules and has conducted investigations of the microphysics of clouds, the formation of droplets in clouds, and their evolution.
Dr. Chai's primary research interest is in the marine boundary layer which includes the dynamics and microphysics of the marine boundary-layer cloud systems, the formation and dissipation of marine fog, and the modeling of marine boundary-layer convection.
Cloud parameterizations, cloud physics, and their connections: An overview. /People/chai   (305 words)

 noctilucent cloud --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
Lesson plan encouraging students to demonstrate the principles involved in cloud formation.
Since early times people have observed the infinite shapes of the clouds in the sky and watched their ceaseless formation and disappearance.
During daylight and in summer, clouds keep temperatures from rising as high as they otherwise might by reducing the amount of heat received from the sun. /eb/article-9056022?tocId=9056022   (795 words)

 Touchdown August 2004 - Royal Australian Navy
Unwilling to lead the formation lower and/or attempt to turn the formation around over the undulating terrain in the area, Lead initiated the formation inadvertent entry into cloud break procedure before visual reference with the ground was completely lost.
The brief followed the normal format, with emphasis on the tactical formation, not less than 4 rotor diameters, the Navigation Route at 500 AGL and the weather.
In this case, as the formation approached Braidwood and discussed alternative plans, this point was probably the time that a divert to the coast should have been initiated. /publications/touchdown/html/august2004/formation.htm   (795 words) -- Unknown Force Triggers Star Formation
Some previously unrealized energetic process, likely related to magnetic fields, is superheating parts of the cloud, nudging it to become a star, scientists said.
Like a baby's first ultrasound, scientists peered into a stellar envelope to capture the earliest and most detailed view of a collapsing cloud of gas and dust, NASA announced Tuesday.
The best look ever inside a womb of star birth reveals a force at work astronomers were not aware of. /scienceastronomy/proto_stars_050301.html   (554 words)

 N11B Star Cloud
Massive stars, abrasive winds, mountains of dust, and energetic light sculpt one of the largest and most picturesque regions of star formation in the Local Group of Galaxies.
Studying the stars in N11B has shown that it actually houses three successive generations of star formation.
Known as N11, the region is visible on the upper right of many images of its home galaxy, the Milky Way neighbor known as the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC). /n11b-starcloud.html   (554 words)

 Hygroscopic Seeding and the CCN-Albedo Hypothesis
In other words the drizzle formation process is not solely regulated by the concentrations of CCN and cloud liquid water contents but possibly also by the details of the spectrum of the hygroscopic aerosol population.
Cotton and Pielke (1995) noted, however, the susceptability of the drizzle process in marine stratocumulus clouds to anthropogenic emissions of CCN may depend on the presence or absence of large and ultra-giant aerosol particles in the subcloud layer.
(1984) argued that enhanced cloud albedo has a magnitude comparable to that of greenhouse warming and acts to cool the atmosphere, in opposition to greenhouse warming. /gkss_node7.html   (315 words)

 Australian Antarctic Division - Beautiful, mysterious polar stratospheric clouds
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a central role in the formation of the ozone hole in the Antarctic and Arctic.
The clouds are classified into Types I and II according to their particle size and formation temperature.
During the PSC season at the ANARE continental stations, the sky is generally covered by a thin yellowish veil of Type I clouds. /?casid=11988   (781 words)

 Interesting Thing of the Day: Plate Clouds
Lenticularis is also the species of cloud known for “irisation,” an effect of iridescence at the sharp edges of the “plates.” I don’t recall having noticed this quality in the formation I saw.
It was colored as you’d expect a cloud formation to be, but had sharp, clean edges, and a precise layered structure.
What appears to be a stationary cloud is actually the condensation point of a constantly moving stream of air, and the layers within the apparent cloud represent “waves” within the stream. /index.alt?ArticleID=502   (895 words)

 Sloan Digital Sky Survey
The colors of the different parts of the galaxy show differences in star formation history: the reddish color of the central bulge indicates that it is older than the disk, while the blue spots in the disk, particularly in the arms, show where new star formation is taking place.
Because the stars in a globular cluster are formed at the same time, from the same cloud of gas, and are at the same distance, these differences are not due to age, initial composition, or distance, but mass.
The rotation of this cloud indicates the presence of a significant mass of dark matter (matter that we cannot currently detect directly) as well. /iotw/archive.html   (2313 words)

 Untitled Document
Banded Iron Formations cannot exist in the presence of a lot of oxygen, because iron is very readily oxidized by oxygen, this tells us there was not much free oxygen during the time of the BIFs.
BIFs are characterized by their alternation between Iron rich and Silica rich layers, most commonly in centimeter-scale bands and sub-millimeter-scale bands (Cloud, 1988; page 241).
Banded Iron Formations(BIFs) were formed when iron oxides, carbonates, silicates and sulphides settled to the sea floor (Hayes, 2002; page 127). /~k_tenney   (527 words)

 Chlorine Activation and Polar Stratospheric Clouds
Since extensive NAT clouds were not encountered by the ER-2 aircraft during AASE II, it is impossible to prove what aerosols were responsible for the observed activation.
Thus, PSC formation might exhibit a memory effect with later events occurring at higher temperatures, such that observations at different times might yield different results.
Therefore, the rapid chlorine activation observed in the stratosphere may not require the formation of ``pure'' NAT crystals. /revgeophys/toohey01/node4.html   (1023 words)

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