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Topic: Cloud seeding

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  NCAR | RAL - Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project
This program involves cloud seeding operations, to be implemented by Weather Modification, Incorporated (WMI) based in Fargo, North Dakota, and scientific evaluations, performed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Research Applications Laboratory (RAL).
Cloud seeding technology will be used in the pilot program and evaluated as a long-term water management tool rather than as a tool to mitigate the effects of drought conditions.
Cloud seeding is most effective under normal or near-normal weather conditions.
www.rap.ucar.edu /projects/wyoming   (391 words)

  Cloud seeding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cloud seeding, also known as weather modification, is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls out of clouds, or their structure, by dispersing substances into the air which allow water droplets or ice crystals to form more easily.
The largest cloud seeding system in the world is that of the People's Republic of China, which believes that it increases the amount of rain over several increasingly arid regions, including its capital city, Beijing, by firing silver iodide rockets into the sky where rain is desired.
In the United States, cloud seeding is used to increase precipitation in areas experiencing drought, to reduce the size of hailstones that form in thunderstorms, and to reduce the amount of fog in and around airports.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cloud_seeding   (1032 words)

 Cloud Seeding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Cloud seeding, or weather modification, is the deliberate treatment of certain clouds or cloud systems with the intent of affecting the precipitation process within those clouds.
Cold cloud seeding is obtained by using a ground-based generator attached to a propane tank.
Cloud seeding of this type of cloud involves introduction of additional condensation, which can cause additional water droplets to condense within the cloud.
www.uwyo.edu /ces/Drought/Releases/CloudSeed.html   (695 words)

 Cloud Seeding
Compared to the non-seeded cells, the seeded clouds increased in height by 7%, rainfall coverage increased by 43%, duration of storms increased 36%, and volume of rain increased 130% (Rosenfeld and Woodley, 1993).
Cloud seeding got its start in 1946 when Dr. Vincent J. Schaefer, working at the General Electric Laboratory in New York, was involved with research to create artificial clouds in a chilled chamber.
Cloud seeding is thought to increase the number of these nuclei available to take greater advantage of the moisture in the cloud and form raindrops that otherwise would not have formed.
www.edwardsaquifer.net /cloudseeding.html   (1023 words)

 North American Weather Consultants - Cloud Seeding Frequently Asked Questions
Cloud seeding (also known as weather modification) is the deliberate treatment of certain clouds or cloud systems with the intent of affecting the precipitation process(es) within those clouds.
Seeding materials are applied in very small amounts relative to the size of the geographic areas being affected, so the concentrations of the seeding materials in rainwater or snow are very low.
The cost of cloud seeding varies greatly, depending on a large number of factors, such as which seeding methods and materials are appropriate to a specific application, the frequency of seedable conditions, the size of the intended area of effect and the duration of the project.
www.nawcinc.com /wmfaq.html   (2227 words)

 Cloud seeding: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Cloud seeding is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation Precipitation (meteorology) quick summary:
A cloud is a visible mass of condensed water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere above earths (or another planetary bodys) surface....
Cloud cover is the amount of the sky obscured by clouds when observed at a particular location....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/cl/cloud_seeding.htm   (1349 words)

 Cloud Seeding to Modify the Weather   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Cloud seeding is mainly used to increase precipitation which can help increase reservoir levels in times of drought.
Cloud seeding involves the introduction of additional nuclei (silver iodide or salt) which causes more water drops to condense within the cloud and then fall to earth.
Cloud seeding can be carried out by using generators on the ground which disperse the particles upward, or by dropping it out of planes, directly into the cloud system.
www.water.denver.co.gov /cloud_seeding.html   (1123 words)

 OKWMDP: Cloud Physics
Seeding for hail suppression is carried out by introducing too many ice crystals for the available water vapor: none of the ice crystals will be able to grow large enough to form large hail stones.
Cloud seeding is designed to take advantage of clouds which contain large amounts of supercooled water relative to the number of available ice particles/nuclei.
Seeding is an attempt to remedy this by the introduction of ice nuclei into the cloud.
www.evac.ou.edu /okwmdp/physics.html   (1273 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Used, along with salts, as a cloud seeding agent to expedite the condensation of water in clouds, producing precipitation.
Cloud seeding, also known as weather modification, has skeptics, and the project will be an effort to determine if it is feasible....
Russian and American scientists have in the past tried to control the weather, for example by seeding clouds with chemicals to try to produce rain when and where it is needed.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/c/cloud-seeding.htm   (695 words)

 Cloud seeding
Seeding of tropical cumulus clouds, and indeed any clouds, requires that they contain supercooled water--that is, liquid water colder than zero Celsius.
Seeding of tropical cumuli sought to exploit the latent heat released by freezing as well.
The above sketch illustrates an aircraft dispensing pyrotechnics doped with silver iodide into a supercooled cloud that is invigorated by the latent heat released as the boundary between liquid and frozen hydrometeors (blue horizontal line in the cloud on the left) moves down to the zero Celsius isotherm (green horizontal line).
www.aoml.noaa.gov /hrd/hrd_sub/cseed.html   (239 words)

 cloud seeding?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The transformation of clouds into rainfall (or snowfall) is essentially one of creating as large as possible a difference in size between the largest and the smallest droplets in a cloud.
Cloud seeding advocates blaming bad weather on inadvertent weather modification rather than their seeding operation is only a smokescreen (pun intended) to divert attention from the issue of whether or not we want cloud seeding operations to continue.
These cloud seeding companies have everything to gain by maintaining the illusion that their operations produce results without any negative consequences, but would lose everything if the paying citizens lost confidence in their ability to make rain (or reduce hailfall), or if someone became concerned about possible negative consequences.
webserv.chatsystems.com /~doswell/wxmod/wxmod.html   (10731 words)

 CSIndy: Snow Job (February 16, 2006)
On days when the storm clouds are heavy and high, Vail Mountain ensures its runs stay stacked with deep snow by seeding the clouds with silver iodide to, supposedly, squeeze more water from the skies.
When a storm from clouds seeded during the experiments covered one-fourth of New Mexico, one GE scientist concluded that the odds were "millions to one" that nature, not man, was responsible.
Wyoming's potential to invest in cloud seeding is unique, because the state is rolling in oil and gas royalties and severance taxes from mineral extraction.
www.csindy.com /csindy/2006-02-16/cover.html   (2565 words)

 Chapter 6, Page 3 - Utah's Water Resources: Planning for the Future (Utah Division of Water Resources)
The first cloud seeding project in Utah ran from 1951 to 1955 in the central and southern portion of the state.
Cloud seeding began again in central and southern Utah in 1973 and has continued to the present.
Cloud seeding is most effective when it is continued over several years.
www.water.utah.gov /waterplan/uwrpff/Chp-06c.htm   (543 words)

 Weather Modification, Inc. (Cloud Seeding, atmospheric research, rain enhancement, cloud physics)» Services ...
WMI has either developed or completely re-designed a full suite of cloud seeding equipment for all your needs.
In applications characterized by extended periods of cloud weather, thermoelectric generators can be used in lieu of the solar panels.
The cloud seeding agents used by WMI are exclusively those manufactured by Ice Crystal Engineering, LLC, (ICE) of Davenport, North Dakota.
www.weathermod.com /seeding_equipment.php   (713 words)

 USATODAY.com - Scientific doubts don't stop ski areas from using cloud seeding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Cloud seeding, while an inexact science, might offer the two ski areas a far cheaper way to bring on the white stuff than the costly, water-guzzling practice of snow making.
Cloud seeding can be done with relatively simple devices — they resemble a propane tank topped with chutes that send silver iodide skyward.
His company, which does cloud seeding for Crested Butte, contracts with agencies, ski areas and other groups to seed clouds for snow, and also to increase summer rains, reduce hail and disperse fog.
www.usatoday.com /weather/resources/basics/2004-11-21-cloud-seeding_x.htm   (630 words)

 Man Versus Nature: Cloud seeding in China (angrychineseblogger.blog-city.com)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Cloud seeding works by introducing chemicals (Silver Iodine, Liquid Nitrogen, or Calcium Chloride) into cloud banks to encourage the formation of ice crystals which form the body a rain, hail, and snow.
Chinese authorities hope that by seeding clouds in areas with large reservoirs or areas that are suffering from prolonged drought they can reduce the country's continuing shortage of drinking and agricultural water supplies, and that they can begin to efficiently harvest moisture stored in the air.
Despite skepticism as to the effectiveness of cloud seeding technology many scientists still believe that the technology holds possibilities for the future, and despite a lack of conclusive scientific measurements on its use, scientists believe that seeding could hold the key to improving world food supplies and relieving drought.
angrychineseblogger.blog-city.com /read/665425.htm   (512 words)

 The Tartan Online : How Things Work: Cloud Seeding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Cloud seeding is often limited to puffy cumulus clouds or layered stratus clouds.
On top of this, very specific conditions must exist within these clouds for seeding to actually produce precipitation: Specific temperature, low wind speeds, tall enough clouds, and the presence of enough water vapor are all necessary for seeding to be successful.
But with further development of cloud seeding, we may one day be able to control rain for the benefit of people around the world.
www.thetartan.org /scitech/2005/04/25/htw   (725 words)

 Cloud seeding
Studies in western Victoria (in southeast Australia) shows that seeding rarely is practicable with frontal clouds or when the winds are from the southwest, because the cloud water content is small and/or the cloud tops are too warm.
Cloud seeding is a profitable commercial operation in various places in the USA, mainly in the Sierra Nevada, the Colorado Rockies, and the Great Plains.
On the right, this cloud is invigorated into a cumulonimbus by the latent heat released as the boundary between liquid and frozen hydrometeors (blue horizontal line in the cloud on the left) moves down to the 0
www-das.uwyo.edu /~geerts/cwx/notes/chap09/seeding.html   (874 words)

 Weather Modification Frequently Asked Questions
If cloud seeding is done in the midst of a bad drought and results are not satisfactory, the inclination after a few months is often to deduce that cloud seeding, because it does not appear to have delivered the desired results, should be discarded.
A statistical analysis of seeded clouds in Texas during 2005 (a total of 494) estimated that an additional 129,272 acre-feet of water was generated by the seeding of single-cell thunderstorms.
Comparing the seeded single-cell storms with neighborhood untreated clouds (designated as “control clouds” for the sake of analysis) revealed that seeded storms lived 57 percent longer, covered 29 percent more area, and yielded a “precipitation mass” that was 88 percent greater than for cloud towers left unseeded.
www.license.state.tx.us /weather/weatherfaq.htm   (3156 words)

 The Static Mode of Cloud Seeding
The main objective of the ``static mode'' of cloud seeding is to increase the efficiency of precipitation formation by introducing an ``optimum'' concentration of ice crystals in supercooled clouds by cloud seeding.
We argued that the success of a cloud seeding experiment or operation, therefore, requires a cloud forecast skill that is far greater than is currently in use.
They argue that for orographic stratiform clouds, there is strong statistical evidence that cloud seeding increased rainfall, perhaps by as much as 30% over Tasmania when cloud top temperatures are between -10 and -12 C in southwesterly airflow.
rams.atmos.colostate.edu /gkss_node2.html   (1679 words)

 CNN.com - Program might settle cloud seeding debate - Nov. 12, 2003
Storm clouds are seeded by sprinkling them with tiny crystals of silver iodide to promote moisture circulating in the tops of the clouds.
A Denver cloud seeding operation was credited last year with increasing the amount of snow in one county with four ski areas.
Langerud said cloud seeding often is not the answer to ending a drought because the clouds have to be there to seed.
www.cnn.com /2003/TECH/science/11/12/cloud.seeding.ap/index.html   (776 words)

The seeding is achieved by burning flares either mounted on the wings of single and twin-engine aircraft or held in racks, and dropped (ejected), from the underside of the aircraft fuselage.
Seeding by the District is designed to augment rainfall from thunderstorms roaming within the watersheds of two reservoirs on the upper Colorado River of Texas (J. Thomas and E. Spence).
Seeding activities for both areas of Texas and New Mexico are directed by a SOAR meteorologist based in Plains, where the aircraft are also headquartered.
www.license.state.tx.us /weather/summary.htm   (2113 words)

 Cloud Seeding
Texas groundwater districts are seeding clouds with the hope of increasing rain.
Recent meetings have shown that scientists who are not earning their living from cloud seeding question the data being presented by the Texas districts.
The fall of the science of weather modification by cloud seeding was almost certainly due, in part, to a loss of scientific credibility.
www.ranches.org /cloud_seeding.htm   (778 words)

 NCAR scientists make rain in Mexico
Producing more rain by seeding clouds may no longer be wishful thinking.
A recent three-year randomized experiment in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila showed that rainfall from seeded clouds lasted longer, the rainfall area was larger, and total precipitation was higher (sometimes even doubled) than output from similar nonseeded clouds.
The NCAR researchers flew into the Mexican rain clouds in a Piper Cheyenne twin-engine turboprop airplane, equipped with wing-mounted racks carrying 24 hygroscopic flares and an instrument package to measure basic cloud physics indicators.
www.ucar.edu /communications/quarterly/winter00/mexico.html   (464 words)

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