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Topic: Cluster of differentiation


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  Cluster of differentiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules are one kind of cell surface molecule.
These antibodies can be used to identify the cell type, stage of differentiation and activity of a cell.
The CD nomenclature was proposed and established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cluster_of_differentiation   (652 words)

  
 Fourth Article Spring '97 Newsletter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Cluster grouping is an administrative procedure in which identified gifted students at a grade level are assigned to one classroom with a teacher who has special training in how to teach gifted students.
Of the districts, 5% reported using cluster grouping in kindergarten and ninth grade, 32% reported the use of cluster grouping in the first, second, seventh, and eighth grades, and 12% indicated cluster grouping occurred in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades.
One respondent stated that parents of less able students in the cluster classroom had commented on the improved attitude of their children toward school, while another indicated that parents of non-identified students often requested their children be placed in a cluster classroom.
www.sp.uconn.edu /~nrcgt/news/winter97/wintr974.html   (2868 words)

  
 Cluster of differentiation: Encyclopedia topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Cluster of Differentiation (CD) molecules are markers on the cell surface, as recognized by specific sets of antibodies (antibodies: an antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign...
The CD nomenclature was proposed and established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris, France (Paris, France: paris is the capital city of france, as well as the capital of the île-de-france...
CD molecules are often referred to when sorting cells by flow cytometry (flow cytometry: flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /reference/cluster_of_differentiation   (645 words)

  
 Integrated Resource Management for Cluster-based Internet Services
At the cluster level, a fully decentralized request distribution architecture is employed to achieve high scalability and availability.
In addition, providing differentiated service qualities and resource allocation to multiple service classes can also be desirable at times, especially when the system is reaching its capacity limit and cannot provide interactive responses to all the requests.
Inside the cluster, the main search tasks are performed on a set of index servers and document servers, both partitioned and replicated.
www.cs.rochester.edu /~kshen/papers/osdi2002_html/osdi02.html   (7442 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Antigens in a given cluster are presumed to identify a single cell surface protein and are assigned a"cluster of differentiation"or"CD" designation.
Growth and differentiation factors play critical roles in neoplastic transformation of cells in vitro and in tumor progression in vivo.
"clusters of differentiation"based on common immunocytochemical localization patterns in various differentiated and undifferentiated leukocytic cell types.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=01/98353.011227&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (11995 words)

  
 clusters of differentiation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The designation CD stands for "cluster of differentiation", a historical term that was coined to define cell-surface molecules that are recognized by a given set of monoclonal antibodies.
This cluster of differentiation then received a number, for example CD1, CD2 etc., which stands only for the order of discovery.
In general, each CD is associated with one or more functions, which were discovered through the effects on cell or tissue function of the antibodies that define it.
www.jenner.ac.uk /Bioinformatics/ImPRINTS/clusters_of_differentiation.htm   (77 words)

  
 HON Allergy Glossary Clusters of Differentiation(CD)
Cluster of antigens, with which antibodies react, that characterize a cell surface marker.
Lymphocytes can be divided into subsets either by their functions or by surface markers.
The number of T4 cells in a blood sample is used to measure the health of the immune system in people with HIV.
www.hon.ch /Library/Theme/Allergy/Glossary/cd.html   (197 words)

  
 Malaria Vaccine Initiative : Glossary
The vaccine given as the booster dose may or may not be the same as the primary vaccine.
CD: Abbreviation for "cluster of differentiation," referring to cell surface molecules that are used to identify stages of maturity of immune cells, for example, CD4+ T cells.
Merozoite: The form of the malaria parasite that invades human red blood cells; one of the organisms formed by multiple fission of a sporozoite within the body of the host during the asexual phase of reproduction of a malarial plasmodia and other sporozoa.
www.malariavaccines.org /mal-glossary.htm   (2964 words)

  
 [No title]
To assure that mAb were clustered appropriately, care was taken in the first round analyses to include a broad panel of lymphoid cells as well as specialized cell populations for the first round analyses.
However, clusters of mAb, or individual mAb, which were not identified as belonging clearly to a specific subset group were distributed for further analyses to as many as three different subgroups for the more specific, second round analyses.
These swine differentiation antigens appear not to have been detected on human leukocytes and could represent differentiation antigens expressed on cells underrepresented in the human immune system, e.g., subpopulations of gd-TcR+ T lymphocytes.
www.nadc.ars.usda.gov /virtconf/subpost/posters/G00004m.htm   (2699 words)

  
 Expression Profiling of Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotential Human Embryonal Carcinoma Cells -- Houldsworth et al. ...
K-means clustering was performed on 953 transcripts where transcript vectors were normalized so that clustering was performed according to pattern rather than absolute level of expression.
Induction of terminal differentiation of NT2/D1 cells by RA is coupled with a loss of EC markers.
The expression patterns of transcripts associated with neural lineage differentiation and function are shown.
cgd.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/13/6/257   (4935 words)

  
 Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
We report maturation–dependent changes in transcription of clusters of differentiation, cytokines, cytokine receptors, chemokines, chemokine receptors, neuropeptides, adhesion molecules and other genes.
The power of microarray analysis has been demonstrated in studies of the effects of serum on transcription dynamics in serum-starved fibroblasts (17), in characterizing transcription patterns in human tumors (18, 19) and chronically inflamed tissues in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (20).
The transcript levels correlated well with the published data for expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins as well as with the reports for maturation stage-dependent transcription of chemokine receptors.
mayoresearch.mayo.edu /mayo/research/vuk_lab/maturation.cfm   (667 words)

  
 Chapter 2: Cells & Organs of the Immune System
In addition to being self-renewing, SCs undergo multi-lineage differentiation driven by stage-specific cytokine and cell-cell interactions (Figure 2-1).
In general, hematopoietic cells are highly mobile, moving with the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system or with the flow of lymph in the lymphatic system.
CD antigens are differentially expressed on leukocytes and distinct cell subpopulations can be identified and even isolated according to their patterns of CD antigen expression.
tutor.lscf.ucsb.edu /instdev/sears/immunology/chapter02/kuby02.htm   (349 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
B cell differentiation and selection takes place in the GC, where the B cell differentiation signals towards plasma cell and memory B cell are provided.
Thus it seems that dendritic cells differentiate from being an Langerhans cell in skin or epidermis, becoming blood dendritic cells with a final differentiation of IDC in the T-zone or perhaps migrating into primary follicles to become a germinal centre dendritic cell GCDC (Macatonia et al.
The present investigation The goals of this study were (i) to investigate the signals required for differentiation of naive B cells towards a germinal centre phenotype and for those cells to acquire the features of germinal centre centroblasts and (ii) to design an in vitro immunisation protocol resulting in production of antigen specific antibodies.
www.immun.lth.se /Theses/Diss_SI.doc   (10424 words)

  
 Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The goal of The Learning Base is to provide insights into the learning challenges that students face, in an effort to help parents, teachers, and clinicians pinpoint the sources of a student's difficulties and create a plan for strengthening skills and increasing success.
Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades by Carol A. Tomlinson
Tomlinson, Carol Ann, The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), 1998.
www.gp.k12.mi.us /ci/diff/resources.htm   (420 words)

  
 ASGSB 2003 Abstracts --      Microgravity affects CLUSTER FORMATION, differentiation, and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells, a continuous cell line that can undergo erythropoietin (Epo)- or chemical-induced differentiation similar to normal erythropoiesis, were cultured for 6 days either in microgravity or on earth and then for 3 days in the absence or presence of 50 U Epo/ml or 0.7% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).
Compared to ground-based controls, cells cultured in microgravity exhibited a significantly higher percentage of cluster formation (p<0.05) and a greater degree of differentiation (hemoglobinization) (p<0.01).
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that erythropoiesis is affected by gravitational forces at the cellular level.
baby.indstate.edu /asgsb/programs/2003/78.html   (265 words)

  
 Immunophenotyping of Leukemias Using a Cluster of Differentiation Antibody Microarray -- Belov et al. 61 (11): 4483 -- ...
Immunophenotyping of Leukemias Using a Cluster of Differentiation Antibody Microarray -- Belov et al.
Immunophenotyping of Leukemias Using a Cluster of Differentiation Antibody Microarray
of differentiation to mature myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes.
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/61/11/4483   (4455 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Tumor antigens are cell surface molecules that are differentially expressed in tumor cells relative to normal cells.
Antigens in a given cluster are presumed to identify a single cell surface protein and are assigned a"CD"or"cluster of differentiation" designation.
The growth and differentiation of eosinophils is markedly enhanced by IL 5.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=03/27228.030403&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (10542 words)

  
 Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 4 () Endocytosis and Adaptor Complex Binding Require Activation of the Endocytosis ...
Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 4 () Endocytosis and Adaptor Complex Binding Require Activation of the Endocytosis Signal by Serine Phosphorylation -- Pitcher et al.
Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4), the T lymphocyte antigen receptor component and human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor,
Kibbey, R.G., Rizo, J., Gierasch, L.M., and Anderson, R.G.W. The LDL receptor clustering motif interacts with the clathrin terminal domain in a reverse turn conformation.
www.molbiolcell.org /cgi/content/full/10/3/677   (7351 words)

  
 Mouse Cell Surface Antigens: Nomenclature and Immunophenotyping -- Lai et al. 160 (8): 3861 -- The Journal of Immunology
Cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a new mouse B lymphocyte differentiation antigen homologous to the human B1 (CD20) antigen, and localization of the gene to chromosome 19.
The differential expression of homing and adhesion molecules on virgin and memory T cells in the mouse.
Novel mouse endothelial cell surface marker is suppressed during differentiation of the blood brain barrier.
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/160/8/3861   (3587 words)

  
 Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) endocytosis and adaptor complex binding require activation of the CD4 ...
Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) endocytosis and adaptor complex binding require activation of the CD4 endocytosis signal by serine phosphorylation.
The state of the art may have changed since the publication date.
Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4), the T lymphocyte antigen receptor component and human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor, is down-modulated when cells are activated by antigen or phorbol esters.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1999/jun/A9960992.html   (487 words)

  
 Glossary Window
CD20: Cluster of differentiation (CD) marker protein present on cell surface.
CD34+: Cell expressing of Cluster of differentiation (CD) marker protein on their surface.
CD4: Cluster of differentiation (CD) marker protein expressed on cell surface.
www.cancerwatch.org /glossary/glossary_5.cfm   (907 words)

  
 Demand-driven Service Differentiation for Cluster-based Network Servers - Zhu, Tang, Yang (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
This paper studies how demand-driven service differentiation with admission control can be supported in cluster-based network services.
To achieve this objective, we propose a dynamic scheduling scheme that adapts to...
Modeling and Analysis of 2D Service Differentiation on..
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /375786.html   (532 words)

  
 Demand-driven Service Differentiation in Cluster-based Network Servers - Zhu, Tang, Yang (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Abstract: Service differentiation that provides prioritized service qualities to multiple classes of client requests can effectively utilize available server resources.
This paper studies how demand-driven service differentiation in terms of end-user performance can be supported in cluster-based network servers.
The graph only includes citing articles where the year of publication is known.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /450694.html   (230 words)

  
 Compact disc - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is the standard playback format for commercial audio recordings today.
A standard compact disc, often known as an "audio CD" to differentiate it from later variants, stores audio data in a format compliant with the red book standard.
An audio CD consists of several stereo tracks stored using 16-bit PCM coding at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/CD   (5778 words)

  
 Neutrophil Granulocyte-committed Cells Can Be Driven to Acquire Dendritic Cell Characteristics -- Oehler et al. 187 ...
The later stages of neutrophil differentiation (myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band cells, and end-stage PMNs) are characterized
Expression pattern of neo-expressed or downregulated differentiation molecules on freshly isolated or cultured PMNp.
The molecular control of cell division, differentiation commitment and maturation in hemopoietic cells.
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/187/7/1019   (5868 words)

  
 Treatment of enteritis in chronic granulomatous disease with granulocyte colony stimulating factor -- Myrup et al. 42 ...
cluster of differentiation 14, 11b and 16 antigens on granulocytes
Figure 2 Numbers of cluster of differentiation 14 antigens on neutrophils in patient 1 during treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (days 1-30).
only weakly express cluster of differentiation 14 antigens.
gut.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/42/1/127   (1551 words)

  
 Chapter 3: B. Cluster of Differentiation (CD) Antigens   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Chapter 3: B. Cluster of Differentiation (CD) Antigens
Leukocytes express distinct assortments of molecules on their cell surfaces, many of which reflect either different stages of their lineage-specific differentiation or different states of activation or inactivation.
Leukocyte cell surface molecules are routinely detected with anti-leukocyte
www.whfreeman.com /immunology/CH03/kuby03b.htm   (429 words)

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