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Topic: Clyde Cowan

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In the News (Tue 19 Mar 19)

  duncan - dun06.htm
William Samuel Cowan (Dorcus Drucilla Duncan, A C David, Nathaniel) was born 28 Jul 1884.
Clyde Louis Cowan Sr died 27 Aug 1988 in Easley, Pickens Co., SC and was buried in Greenlawn Memorial Park.
William Kirksey Cowan was born 12 Sep 1915 and died 2 Dec 1967.
www.homestead.com /oldpend2/files/duncan/dung06.htm   (1177 words)

 Press Release: The 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics
Frederick Reines' and Clyde L. Cowan's first observation of neutrinos was a pioneering contribution that opened the doors to the region of "impossible" neutrinoexperiments.
Reines and Cowan realised the importance of detecting both the neutron and the positron to reduce the risk of erroneous interpretation.
Nevertheless Reines and Cowan succeeded in a feat considered to border on the impossible: They had raised the neutrino from its status as a figure of the imagination to an existence as a free particle.
nobelprize.org /physics/laureates/1995/press.html   (2081 words)

It was not until 1933 that Pauli admitted the possibility of a zero mass neutrino (the discovery of the neutron in 1932 by James Chadwick forced him to change the hypothesized particle's name to neutrino).
Cowan and Reines employed a 400-L tank of cadmium chloride as their target.
The neutron was absorbed by a cadmium chloride atom, producing a photon at a 15-microsecond delay from the emission from the positron.
www-donut.fnal.gov /web_pages/neutrinospg/Neutrinos.html   (1031 words)

 Courier Electronic Edition: Obits for 121701
Cowan had taught at Riverdale Schools, and at schools in New Mexico, Michigan and New York.
Cowan was a former Boy Scout leader and taught canoeing and boat safety at Camp Berry.
She was preceded in death by a son, Clyde W.; and two brothers, Gaylen and Ottis Struble.
www.thecourier.com /issues/2001/Dec/obits121701.htm   (2065 words)

 [No title]
Fred, Clyde and their team built the sophisticated "Herr Auge" detector (on display in the main lobby of the Administration Building), which was 300 liters of liquid scintillator with 92 photomultiplier tubes surrounded by hundreds of tons of lead shielding.
The Cowan, Reines, Harrison, Kruse and McGuire paper "Detection of the Free Neutrino: a Confirmation" in the July 1956 issue of Science proved to be the seminal paper that opened up a new field of research.
Betty Cowan Reed, widow of Clyde Cowan, was here with three of her children and many of her extended family members.
www.lanl.gov /orgs/pa/Director/083096.html   (1164 words)

 1953 in science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 1951 and 1952 physicists such as Frederick Reines, Enrico Fermi and Clyde Cowan discussed plans for detecting neutrinos.
They built the first neutrino detector (cadmium-water target) and used the nuclear facility of Hanford, Washington as the neutrino source.
The first neutrino detection experiments were performed in the Spring of 1953 and preliminary results were published that Summer (F. Reines and C. Cowan, "Detection of the Free Neutrino", Phys.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/1953_in_science   (614 words)

 Additional background material on the Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
Reines and Cowan performed their experiment with about half a cubic meter of fluid (mainly water with some suitable impurity) in their detector, which was considered to be a very big one at that time.
Reines and Cowan realized that it is essential to detect both the positron and the properly time-delayed neutron in order to reduce the background.
Nevertheless Reines and Cowan succeeded in their attempt to prove the existence of the neutrino as a free particle.
nobelprize.org /physics/laureates/1995/add-back.html   (2348 words)

 Frederick Reines and the Neutrino
Starting with the discovery of the neutrino, with his colleague Clyde Cowan in the mid-1950's, Reines has devoted the major part of his outstandingly productive career to the understanding of the neutrino's properties and interactions.
There the matter stood until Reines and Cowan, starting at a reactor in Hanford, Washington and later moving to the new Savannah River Plant reactor in South Carolina, performed their definitive and ground-breaking experimental detection.
Indeed, several years after the completion of the seminal work of Reines and Cowan, neutrinos were beginning to be used regularly to investigate the weak interactions, the structure of protons and neutrons and the properties of their constituent quarks.
www.ps.uci.edu /physics/reinestrib.html   (657 words)

 Clyde Lorrain Cowan, Jr., Captain, United States Army Air Forces
I am Lieutenant Commander George L. Cowan, United States Navy, currently stationed in Jacksonville, Florida.
However, I would like to make the authorities at Arlington aware that he is better known as Dr. Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., PhD., the co-discoverer of the neutrino sub-atomic particle in 1956.
I believe that this may provide some small token of honor that my family and associates that knew Dr. Cowan would appreciate from the fine services you and your staff at Arlington National Cemetery provide on a daily basis.
www.arlingtoncemetery.net /clcowan.htm   (241 words)

 Office of Science - Feature Articles - Neutrino Research by the DOE Office of Science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan at the Control Center of the Hanford Experiment (1953), one of the neutrino experiments leading to their 1956 discovery at the Savannah River nuclear reactor.
In 1956, Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan found a way to detect antineutrinos coming from a nuclear reactor, using a mixture of water and cadmium chloride.
The antineutrino interacted with a proton to produce a positron and a neutron; both were observed and the neutron was always detected 15 microseconds after the positron, giving an unmistakable signature.
www.er.doe.gov /scweb/Science_News/feature_articles_2002/December/Neutrino/PF-Neutrinos-Office-of-Science.htm   (1610 words)

 Cowan and Reines Neutrino Experiment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
But since that particle, named the neutrino, had no charge and almost no mass, it was difficult to detect.
But Reines and Cowan realized that the coincident detection of the pair annihilation gammas was not quite proof of neutrino detection by this reaction.
After a preliminary experiment at Hanford, Reines and Cowan moved the experiment to the Savannah River Plant near Augusta, Georgia where they had better shielding against cosmic rays.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/cowan.html   (501 words)

 ScienceWeek   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
(Clyde Cowan was not eligible for the Nobel Prize at the time it was awarded to Reines, since the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously.) In general, beta-decay is a type of interaction in which an unstable atomic nucleus changes into a nucleus of the same mass number but different proton number.
But in a series of experiments from 1953 to 1959, Reines and Cowan (2) were able to prove convincingly that electron antineutrinos are emitted by nuclear reactors and hence that they are real particles.
Neutrinos are "leptons", which are a group of point-like particles with *spin of 1/2 that are not affected by so-called "*strong interactions" and that are not constructed of *quarks.
scienceweek.com /2002/sw020823.htm   (10788 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
He interested a friend, Clyde Cowan, in his problem and together they realised that if their detectors were sensitive enough, they could do the experiment in the much less hazardous environment of a nuclear reactor.
In 1956, after three years of back-breaking toil (their assemblage weighed 10 tons even before it was surrounded by lead plates), Reines and Cowan found the signals that allowed them to wire Pauli that his 25-year old hypothesis had borne fruit.
Later it became apparent that Reines and Cowan had discovered the "electron-flavoured" neutrino, a cousin of the "muon-flavoured" neutrino that was discovered in 1961.
www.phy.uct.ac.za /~elliott/neutrinos.html   (1556 words)

 Articles - Neutrino   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
In 1956 Clyde Cowan, Frederick Reines, F. Harrison, H. Kruse, and A. McGuire published the article "Detection of the Free Neutrino: a Confirmation" in Science (see neutrino experiment), a result that was rewarded with the 1995 Nobel Prize.
Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan thought about trying to detect neutrinos from a bomb before they switched to looking for reactor neutrinos.
Reines and Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water.
www.worldhammock.com /articles/Neutrino   (2949 words)

 The Neutrino   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
The existence of the neutrino was postulated in the 1930's, but the particle was not discovered until 1957.
The 1995 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to Frederick Reines for his discovery, with the late Clyde Cowan, of the neutrino.
Neutrinos are produced in many nuclear reactions, including those that take place in the Sun and in supernovae.
astrosun.tn.cornell.edu /academics/courses/astro201/neutrino.htm   (249 words)

Reines, working with Clyde Cowan (who died in 1974) made the first experimental detection of a neutrino (to be exact, the electron antineutrino), another member of the lepton family.
The existence of neutrinos had been predicted in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli as a way of accounting for the energy that seemed to be missing from reactions in which neutrons decayed into protons.
In the early 1950s Reines and Cowan successfully sought evidence for the neutrino in an experiment, at a reactor at Savannah River, SC, in which a neutrino interacted with a proton to create a neutron plus a positron.
newton.ex.ac.uk /aip/glimpse.txt/physnews.244.1.html   (250 words)

 Ice Fishing for Neutrinos   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Their existence was postulated by Pauli as a book-keeping device to conserve energy and momentum in the radioactive decays of nuclei.
He liked to say: "I have done a terrible thing, I have postulated a particle that cannot be detected." Clyde Cowan and Fred Reines proved him wrong 23 years later.
Cowan and Reines contributed to its construction: the atom bomb!
amanda.berkeley.edu /www/ice-fishing.html   (3003 words)

 Fermilab Confirms the Tau Neutrino 08/00   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
The electron neutrino was discovered in 1956 by Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan of Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Hanford and Savannah River Reactors.
Reines and Cowan began their definitive and ground-breaking experimental detection at a reactor in Hanford, Washington, and later moved to the new Savannah River Plant reactor in South Carolina.
Cowan is far left and Reines is far right, shown with the Hanford team in 1953.
www.pnl.gov /energyscience/08-00/art1_new.htm   (997 words)

 [No title]
Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, set up equipment near a South Carolina nuclear reactor, hoping to catch the telltale signs left by a neutrino interaction.
To celebrate, Cowan and Reines handed out carefully wrapped empty boxes, each containing a card that read "This box is guaranteed to contain at least 100 neutrinos." Reines won the 1995 Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery.
Theorists believe that the sun should be spitting out trillions of neutrinos each second as it burns its nuclear fuel.
superk.physics.sunysb.edu /~alpinist/pub/Dallas_Morning_News_2000.txt   (2377 words)

 Minnesota Technolog
Reines' and Cowan's research began in 1951, and was initially titled Project Poltergeist, owing to the neutrino's elusive nature.
In 1956, with their research relocated near the Savannah River Nuclear Reactor, Reines and Cowan finally obtained conclusive evidence of neutrinos.
After Reines and Cowan's research, the scale of neutrino experiments grew with gigantic strides.
technolog.it.umn.edu /technolog/mayjun99/neutrino.html   (2270 words)

 timelinescience - 1951 to 1975
In America Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines detect neutrinos for the first time - they had been first predicted in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli as an explanation for the behaviour of nuclei undergoing beta decay.
Rather than believe for the last 45 years that the law of conservation of energy is not obeyed in this decay, physicists have chosen to believe in a theory that involves an unknown particle.
The work of Cowan and Reines justifies this faith.
www.timelinescience.org /years/1975.htm   (2017 words)

 physics central physics in action - neutrinos   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Pauli had replaced one dilemma with another, by explaining a paradoxical experiment result with a particle that could not be observed.
But advances in nuclear physics and the development of nuclear reactors made possible new experiments, and two physicists, Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan, set out to find neutrinos emitted by a reactor core.
They succeeded in 1956, by observing a nuclear reaction initiated by the absorption of a neutrino, essentially the reverse of beta-decay.
www.physicscentral.com /action/action-02-12.html   (386 words)

 A history of Paterson NJ
The neutrino was first postulated in the 1930s by Wolfgang Pauli and later named by Enrico Fermi, but because of its minuscule size, it eluded detection for many years.
In the early 1950s Reines and Cowan set out to detect the particle, first at the Hanford Engineer Works in Richland, Wash., and then at the Savannah River laboratories in South Carolina.
In their experiment a nuclear reactor emitted neutrinos into a 400-litre (105-gallon) preparation of water and cadmium chloride.
www.patersonhistory.com /people/RFrederick.html   (380 words)

 Reines, Frederick --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
American physicist who was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery 40 years earlier, together with his colleague Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the subatomic particle called the neutrino, a tiny lepton with little or no mass and a neutral charge.
The existence of these elusive subatomic particles, which have no electric charge and little, if any, mass, had been postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s but remained unproven until Reines...
Frederick Reines of the University of California, Irvine, and Martin L. Perl of Stanford University shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physics for their respective discoveries of the neutrino and the tau lepton, members of the family of fundamental subatomic particles that make up all matter in the universe.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9002489?tocId=9002489   (833 words)

 Hot Dark Matter
Pauli's assertion that the neutrino would be exceptionally elusive proved correct, as it would be another 25 years from the time of its prediction that two experimentalists would finally detect a neutrino.
Working with the Savannah River high-flux nuclear reactor in 1956, Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan first detected the signature of a neutrino interaction with matter.
Placing a ton-sized detector near the reactor, they were able to decipher the signal of a neutrino scattering off of a proton.
astron.berkeley.edu /~mwhite/darkmatter/hdm.html   (804 words)

 The First Detection of The Neutrino by Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan
In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli proposed a solution to the missing energy in nuclear beta decays, namely that it was carried by a neutral particle This was in a letter to the Tubingen congress.
In a conversation with Clyde Cowan they decided to work on detecting the neutrino.
This discovery was recognized by honoring Frederick Reines with the Nobel Prize in 1995.
www.ps.uci.edu /physics/news/nuexpt.html   (750 words)

The first experimental observation of the neutrino interacting with matter was made by Frederick Reines, Clyde Cowan, Jr, and collaborators in 1956 at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina.
Their neutrino source was a nuclear reactor (it actually produced antineutrinos from beta decay).
After being postulated by Fermi in 1930 to explain anomalies in beta decay, they were not actually detected until 1953 by Reines and Cowan.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/neutrino.html   (1421 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Strange Matters: Undiscovered Ideas at the Frontiers of Space and Time (2002)
After all, Bethe and Peierls had made their prediction long before such a prolific source of neutrinos was available.
Reines enlisted the help of Clyde Cowan, another physicist, and they began a collaboration to show that it was possible to do the impossible.
So Reines and Cowan altered their strategy, opting for reactors over bombs.
www.nap.edu /books/0309084075/html/93.html   (516 words)

 CERN Courier - Obituaries - IOP Publishing - article
Frederick Reines, who shared the Nobel Physics Prize in 1995 for his historic 1956 experiment with Clyde Cowan which discovered the neutrino, died in August.
After graduate studies at New York University, Reines was recruited into the wartime Theory Division at Los Alamos, eventually working at the laboratory for 15 years.
In 1951 he was side-tracked into an ambitious project, with Clyde Cowan, to search for Pauli's elusive neutrino, first at the Hanford nuclear reactor, then at the more powerful Savannah River facility.
www.cerncourier.com /main/article/38/8/21   (784 words)

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