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Topic: Coal gas

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In the News (Sat 20 Jul 19)

  Coal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by deep mining, coal mining (open-pit mining or strip mining).
Coal is thought ultimately to derive its name from the Old English col but this actually meant charcoal at the time; coal was not mined prior to the late Middle Ages; i.e.
Coal is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Coal   (2465 words)

 MSN Encarta - Coal
Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and oil shale are all known as fossil fuels because they come from the remains of ancient life buried deep in the crust.
Coal originally formed from ancient plants that died, decomposed, and were buried under layers of sediment during the Carboniferous Period, about 360 million to 290 million years ago.
In processing plants, the coal is heated in the presence of steam and oxygen to produce synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane used directly as fuel or refined into cleaner-burning gas.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761558734/Coal.html   (1184 words)

 EIA - Forecasts and Analysis of Energy Data
Coal is a heterogeneous source of energy, with quality (e.g., characteristics such as heat, sulfur, and ash content) varying significantly from one region to the next and even within an individual coal seam.
Coal consumption in the transitional economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) is projected to rise over the forecast horizon from 771 million tons in 2002 to 850 million tons in 2015 and 874 million tons in 2025.
Coal imports to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, taken as a whole, are projected to increase from 237 million tons in 2003 to 239 million tons in 2010 and then decline to 221 million tons in 2025 (Figure 57 and Table 9).
www.eia.doe.gov /oiaf/ieo/coal.html   (6432 words)

 A Brief History of the Manufactured Gas Industry in the United States
Although coal gas was first produced and consumed in Great Britain in 1792, inventive minds and entrepreneurs in the United States were quick to see the potential value of this fuel source.
At first coal gas was seen as a novelty, or at most, a source of household illumination employed by the hobbyist who was amused by eccentric technologies.
Peale's use of gas lighting was so well received that on July 17, 1816, the City of Baltimore passed an ordinance permitting Peale and his associates to manufacture gas, to lay distribution pipes, and to supply the city with coal gas for street lights.
www.heritageresearch.com /manufactured_gas_B.htm   (1083 words)

 Town gas -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Prior to the development of natural gas during (The decade from 1940 to 1949) 1940s and (The decade from 1950 to 1959) 1950s, virtually all fuel and lighting gas was manufactured, and the sideproduct coal tars were an important chemical feedstock for the chemical industries.
Manufactured gas is made by two processes: (The destructive distillation of coal (as in coke ovens)) carbonization or (The process of changing into gas) gasification.
Coal or Coke oven gas typically had a caloric value (CV) between 250–550 (A unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at one atmosphere pressure; equivalent to 251.997 calories) Btu per standard cubic foot (scf), with values around 550btu/scf being typical.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/t/to/town_gas.htm   (1642 words)

 coal gas --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The gas is nearly always methane (CH4) and is highly inflammable and explosive when present in the air in a proportion of 5 to 14 percent.
Much coal tar is produced by the steel industry as it produces millions of tons of coke each year to fuel the furnaces used in separating iron from its ores.
Natural gas is a mixture of flammable gases, mainly the hydrocarbons methane and ethane, that occurs beneath the surface of the Earth.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9024503?tocId=9024503   (880 words)

 Petroleum and Coal
Coal is unique as a source of energy in the United States, however, because none of the 2118 billion pounds used in 1990 was imported.
Coal gas is rich in CH and gives off up to 20.5 kJ per liter of gas burned.
Water gas formed by the reaction of coal with oxygen and steam is a mixture of CO, CO and H
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/1organic/coal.html   (2130 words)

 TIB: Potential for Natural Gas and Coal Dust Explosions in Electrical Power Generating Facilities
The primary explosion resulted from an unintentional natural gas buildup in the furnace of an idle power boiler and was followed by a secondary explosion of disturbed coal dust.
As a result, natural gas was trapped between shutoff valves and burner control valves, and the burner control valve subsequently was reopened to vent the trapped gas into the furnace box.
Coal dust accumulations must be recognized as a serious hazard and housekeeping must be performed with diligence to control and/or limit coal dust accumulations.
www.osha.gov /dts/tib/tib_data/tib20001106a.html   (1323 words)

 The Environmental Literacy Council - Coal
Coal cinders in Roman ruins in Britain indicate that coal was used during the period of Roman occupation, from approximately 50 to 450 A.D. Despite this early use of coal, there was little incentive to use coal while wood was plentiful.
Coal is the most abundant and the least expensive of the fossil fuels.
Coal beds or streams are generally located under a layer of rock in fairly close proximity to the Earth’s surface.
www.enviroliteracy.org /article.php/18.html   (1421 words)

 Boston.com / Business / Utilities look to coal as gas prices rise   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Coal, spurned for decades by power plant builders, is enjoying something of a renaissance as natural gas prices drive up the cost of generating electricity.
Utilities turned to natural gas for new power in the 1990s because the plants are cheaper to build and cleaner to operate than those run on coal.
Coal plants also emit sulfur dioxide, which creates acid rain; nitrogen oxide, which turns to ozone creating smog; and mercury, a neurotoxin especially dangerous to children.
www.boston.com /business/articles/2004/03/28/utilities_look_to_coal_as_gas_prices_rise?mode=PF   (845 words)

 Business - Putin Backs Coal Against Gas - The St. Petersburg Times. General news from St.Petersburg and Russia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Gas monopoly Gazprom sells its gas domestically for 20 percent of the price it offers in Europe.
The coal industry, once a pillar of the economy, deteriorated rapidly after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
In 1993 the government, with the help of the World Bank, began a massive restructuring program that resulted in the closure of scores of loss-making mines and the privatization of two-thirds of the those that were left.
archive.sptimes.ru /archive/times/799/news/b_7241.htm   (653 words)

 Energy Resources: Fossil fuels
Coal, Oil and Gas are called "fossil fuels" because they have been formed from the fossilised remains of prehistoric plants and animals.
Burning coal produces sulphur dioxide, an acidic gas that contributes to the formation of acid rain.
Natural gas provides around 20% of the world's consumption of energy, and as well as being burnt in power stations, is used by many people to heat their homes.
www.darvill.clara.net /altenerg/fossil.htm   (554 words)

 Coal Bed Methane Frequently Asked Questions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Often a coal seam is saturated with water, with methane is held in the coal by water pressure.
Coal bed methane exists only in areas where the dominant chemistry of the water in the coal seam is sodium bicarbonate and where the coal seam is buried deeply enough to maintain sufficient water pressure to hold the gas in place.
Coal seams are the most regionally continuous geologic unit in the Powder River Basin and have aquifer characteristics equal to or better than sandstones, so are frequently targeted for water-well completions.
waterquality.montana.edu /docs/methane/cbmfaq.shtml   (4188 words)

The rich literature of manufactured gas was established with the world looking to Britain and already the health sciences were reporting such connected diseases as scrotal cancer among British chimney sweeps, who had close body contact with coal tars in their work.
Discharge of gas house residuals, to the atmosphere, the ground and surface waters began to cause reports of death to aquatic life, contamination of drinking water, destruction of crops, and associated health problems.
Although it was possible to burn gas tars or to dehydrate such, many gas plant operators were dumping unsalable tar-water emulsions to the environment and the problem only worsened with new wartime coke shortages, during which time carburetted water gas plants continued the substitution of soft coals for coke, aggravating the tar-water emulsion problem.
www.hatheway.net /history.htm   (1746 words)

 Coal seam gas
Coal seam gas (CSG) is usually methane in composition and is typically attached to the coal along its natural fractures and cleats.
This gas is released when pressure on the coal seam is reduced, usually after water is removed from the seam.
Coal seam gas (also called coal bed methane) is an important energy resource in Queensland and production of this gas now makes up an increasing proportion of Queensland gas demand.
www.nrm.qld.gov.au /mines/petroleum_gas/csg/index.html   (249 words)

 AllRefer.com - coal gas (Organic Chemistry) - Encyclopedia
coal gas, gas obtained in the destructive distillation of soft coal, as a byproduct in the preparation of coke.
Its composition varies, but in general it is made up largely of hydrogen and methane with small amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (a poisonous gas), carbon dioxide, and nitrogen.
More articles from AllRefer Reference on coal gas
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/coalgas.html   (167 words)

 coal gas on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
gas obtained in the destructive distillation of soft coal, as a byproduct in the preparation of coke.
Corporate Raider Acquires 7.6 Percent of Radnor, Pa., Oil, Gas, Coal Firm.
CONSOL Energy Chief Operating Officer Speaks at Coal Forum.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/c1/coalgas.asp   (618 words)

 About N a t u r a l G a s
The gas is found entrapped in the earth's crust at varying depths beneath impervious strata, such as limestone, and may or may not be in association with oil.
The gas is drawn from wells, similar to oil wells, and is usually transported by pipelines, sometimes a thousand miles or more.
Gas has the great advantage of producing no smoke or ash on burning, although it is usually much more expensive than coal as a fuel.
www.bydesign.com /fossilfuels/links/html/natural_gas.html   (256 words)

 About C o a l
Coal is a complex mixture of organic chemical substances containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in chemical combination, together with smaller amounts of nitrogen and sulfur.
Coalification is the name given to the development of the series of substances known as peat, lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, and anthracite.
Coals in the US range from lignite with approximate as-mined carbon content of 30%, volatile matter 27%, and heating value of 7,000 Btu per pound, to anthracite with an average of 85% carbon, 5% volatile matter, and heating value of 12,750 Btu per pound.
www.bydesign.com /fossilfuels/links/html/coal.html   (226 words)

 coal gas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
When the coal appears all burned, allow it to cool, and observe the test tube and the characteristics of the coal.
The emerging gas is known as coal gas.
The heating of coal in the absence of air produces coke (what remained in the horizontal tube), and coal tar (what remained in the upright tube), and ammonia.
www.coaleducation.org /lessons/twe/coalgas.htm   (212 words)

 Fossil fuels - Oil, Coal, Gas
Crude oil, natural gas and coal are fossil fuels.
Oil and natural gas are the products of the deep burial and decomposition of dead plants and animals.
Coal comes mainly from dead plants which have been buried and compacted beneath sediments.
www.moorlandschool.co.uk /earth/earthresources.htm   (300 words)

 Natural Gas and Coal. (from Energy) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Natural gas is often found dissolved in oil at the high pressures existing in a reservoir, and it also can be present as a gas cap above the oil.
LNG takes up about the space that natural gas does in its gaseous form, and it can be easily shipped overseas.
LNG is produced by cooling natural gas below its boiling point, -162° C (-259° F), and is stored in double-walled cryogenic containers at or slightly above atmospheric...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-91081?tocId=91081   (902 words)

 Vision Engineer - Power From Coal Gas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Coal gas can be easily and economically extracted from all grades of coal, including low grade shale.
Since there are no IC engine applications which could not be satisfied by coal gas or its components, the UK would never need another teaspoonful of gasoline for any of its engines.
By using coal gas, our air supply, even in highly populated areas such as London, would be the cleanest in the world!
www.visionengineer.com /mech/coal_gas.shtml   (318 words)

To investigate possible relationships between gas content and coal type, maceral modes and vitrinite reflectance were determined for 16 Wilcox Group coal samples cored from 4 coal zones [depths 401-482 m (1,317-1,581 ft); total coal thickness 3.9 m (12.8 ft)] in a coal bed methane test well in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana.
Inertinite and liptinite contents are greater in the upper portions of individual beds within each coal zone; mineral matter is greatest at the base of each bed.
However, a weak positive correlation is noted between the abundance of attrital huminite macerals and total gas content, whether all samples are considered isorank or on a zone-by-zone basis.
gsa.confex.com /gsa/2004AM/finalprogram/abstract_78954.htm   (479 words)

 The Energy Resources Program
Provide easily accessible geospatial information on the location, quantity, availability, recoverability, and economics of the highest quality American coal and assess coal beds and coal resources for specific uses, such as carbon sequestration, synfuels, coalbed methane, potential National Park or Monument designation, or BLM leasing.
Coal Topics, Databases, and related information including material on the National Coal Assessment and Coal on Federal Lands.
The American Coal Foundation (ACF) was created in 1981 as a 501(c)(3) organization to develop, produce, and disseminate coal-related educational materials and programs designed for teachers and students.
energy.usgs.gov /coal.html   (284 words)

Available data from conventional oil and gas wells in Louisiana indicate that upper, middle, and lower Wilcox Group coal zones may have potential for coalbed gas accumulations and similar data from Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama indicate that gas may be present in coal beds of the lower and middle sections of the Wilcox.
In addition, gas accumulations may occur in the coal beds of the upper part of the Midway Group in Mississippi and Alabama.
Although geochemical and petrographic data from Wilcox Group coals from across the region indicate that the coal beds are lignite in rank at depths less than 100 m, they reach a rank of subbituminous B, or greater, at depths of approximately 1,500 m.
gsa.confex.com /gsa/2004NE/finalprogram/abstract_70337.htm   (486 words)

 Troubled Times: Coal and Coal Gas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
There is a long tradition of using coal for heat and light in many places around the world.
It makes a lot of sense to use coal, plus there is a simple method to extract gas suitable for lighting from coal (and dry wood).
Coal Gasification, as described, is a simple enough method that something akin to petroleum can be achieved, as a Troubled Times member recalls this was called Producer Gas in Australia during WWII.
www.zetatalk.com /energy/tengy112.htm   (108 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Alaska's hypothetical coal resources exceed 5.5 trillion short tons and may contain up to 1,000 TCF (Trillion cubic feet) of gas.
The coal resource varies in rank from bituminous to lignite, and formed in extensive Cretaceous to Tertiary aged basins throughout the state.
Eighteen seams of high-volatile C bituminous coal were encountered, with the thickest being 6.5 feet (2 m) and a net coal thickness of 41 feet (12.5 m).
www.dog.dnr.state.ak.us /oil/programs/shallowgas/coalbed_methane.htm   (391 words)

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