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Topic: Coercion

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In the News (Thu 18 Apr 19)

  Coercion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Kant's views on the necessity of coercion for the existence of right differ from those of Hobbes and Locke, but he is in general sympathetic to the idea that states require the ability to use coercion in defense of the equal freedom of their subjects.
Coercion has been thought to be inimical to at least some of these types of freedom, perhaps all, and also to have deleterious impacts on the special type we call autonomy.
“Coercion and Coercive Offers.” In Pennock and Chapman (1972).
plato.stanford.edu /entries/coercion   (17649 words)

  Coercion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm).
As opposition to coercion is central to the philosophy of libertarianism, libertarians present specific definitions of coercion.
Physical coercion is the most commonly considered form, where the content of the conditional threat is the use of force against the person, the dear ones or the property of the victim, An oft-used example is "putting a gun to someone's head" to compel action.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Coercion   (3927 words)

 Coercion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of force.
Coercion may be used as a legal or moral defence for acts committed under use or threat of force.
The state generally has a monopoly of the legal use of force; coercion by others is generally illegal (excepting mild forms which may be subject to a de minimis exemption), and the subject of much of criminal law.
www.americancanyon.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Coercion   (818 words)

 coercion on Encyclopedia.com
In the law of contracts, the use of unfair persuasion to procure an agreement is known as duress ; such a contract is void unless later ratified.
However, coercion is not a defense for the murder or attempted murder of an innocent third party.
Sexual coercion among university students: a comparison of the United States and Sweden.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/c1/coercion.asp   (415 words)

 Coercion   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Coercion is the use of violence or other kinds or force, or the threat of such force, to dictate the actions of others.
Coercion is often used to political ends, both by states and by other entities.
Coercion (primarily in the specialized sense) is opposed by anarchistss, libertarianss and pacifistss.
www.theezine.net /c/coercion.html   (164 words)

 Coercion   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Coercion is the use of force or the threat of force, including violence, to dictate the actions of others.
Coercion is often used to political ends, both by states and by other entities, such as established religion or cults.
Coercion (primarily in the specialized sense) is opposed by many liberal thinkers, in addition to the anarchists, libertarians and pacifists who are associated with protests against corecive activities.
www.yotor.com /wiki/en/co/Coercion.htm   (277 words)

 Encyclopedia: Coercion
Rational choice theory is a way of looking at deliberations between a number of potential courses of action, in which rationality of one form or another is used either to decide which course of action would be the best to take, or to predict which course of action actually will...
Indeed, the maximum degree of market power – and hence potential economic coercion - is attained in those centrally planned economies where the supply of all or most means of production is tightly controlled by some very small group This page deals with mathematical distributions.
The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Coercion   (6213 words)

 The MacArthur Coercion Study
Since 2001, research on coercion supported by the MacArthur Foundation has shifted from coercion in the context of inpatient treatment to coercion in the context of treatment in the community.
o The amount of coercion a patient experiences in being admitted to a mental hospital is not related to his or her demographic characteristics.
Rather, the amount of coercion experienced is strongly related to a patient's belief about the justice of the process by which he or she was admitted.
www.macarthur.virginia.edu /coercion.html   (1340 words)

 Cato Unbound » Blog Archive » Coercion as a Political Concept
The notion of coercion, or free exchange, is at the foundation of the instrumentalist case for free markets because the claim that exchange of property is mutually beneficial and thus increases the size of the welfare pie is plausible only if it is limited to cases of uncoerced exchange.
If I understand him correctly, he holds that coercion is interference with liberty or a proposal to do this, where liberty is in turn understood in the specific way necessary for the slogan that free markets maximize liberty.
Klein tells us what coercion is, but he does not attempt to explain away the fact that many people have a very different view about the correct application of the concept.
www.cato-unbound.org /2007/05/08/liam-murphy/coercion-as-a-political-concept   (1871 words)

 Kampala1 Netcom - Kampala, Uganda: Coercion in International Law   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The difficultylies in identifying what forms of economic measures amountto intervention.Can it be said that all economic (and political) measuresby one statethat influence the policies of another state constitute illegalintervention?Or is it the level of their effects that should be considered?As alreadyindicated, the use of economic and political pressure is an acceptedelementof state diplomacy.
There are two main views concerning this:economic and political coercion as a violation of the principle of non-intervention, and as violation of the principle of non-use of force as containedin Article 2 (4) of the UN Charter.
The element of coercion, which defines, and indeedforms the very essence of, prohibited intervention, is particularly obviousin the case of an intervention which uses force, either in the direct formof military action, or in the indirect form of supportfor subversive orterrorist armed activities within another state...
www.kampala1.com /law/coercion.html   (1572 words)

 BrothersJudd Blog: SIMPLE COERCION:
Rights against coercion were the sorts of rights that Englishmen had traditionally claimed, and the right to liberty of conscience derived from this tradition of negative liberty.
Negative liberty is concerned with the coercion of the individual to prevent him from accomplishing some action; it is not concerned with a person’s independent capacity to accomplish the action.
If one wanted to define coercion more broadly today than did the thinking of the eighteenth century, then it might be possible to argue that in some situations (schools, for example), peer pressure constitutes coercion.
www.brothersjudd.com /blog/archives/009058.html   (1702 words)

 Coercion—More Costly Than You Think
I argue that coercion, except in emergency situations, is a very poor way to resolve conflicts.
Coercion can be thought of in terms of exchange theory.
Coercion will only be effective if a number of conditions are met.
www.mediate.com /articles/noll11.cfm?nl=48   (717 words)

 Bratton   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Coercion needs to be placed within the larger field of foreign policies of the relevant actors in order to see how it meets the needs, concerns, and options of policy makers.
Coercion is the use of threats to influence the behavior of another (usually a target state but occasionally a nonstate actor) by making it choose to comply rather than directly forcing it to comply (i.e., by brute force).
Coercion is the use of force to get the target to comply with the demands of the coercer, but without completely destroying the military forces of, and occupying, the target state.
www.nwc.navy.mil /press/Review/2005/summer/art5-su05.htm   (9100 words)

 Persuasion and Coercion by Gene Callahan
To the extent that there are libertarians who believe that if we simply convince people that initiating coercion is wrong, then everyone will instantly line up behind their particular vision of the libertarian society, such critics have a point.
Instead, I merely wish to note that, even among people who reject coercion as a means of achieving their ends, there can be honest disputes over just what constitutes coercion.
Coercion regards the other as merely a means to my ends, much as I would regard a stream or a rock.
www.lewrockwell.com /callahan/callahan99.html   (1936 words)

 Mindjack Magazine: Coercion by Douglas Rushkoff
Coercion: Why We Listen to What "They" Say is copyright 1999 by Douglas Rushkoff, and published by Riverhead Books.
Perhaps the thousands of signatures on the document are an indication that I'm not alone in my disillusionment about how these technologies are being used, and how little control we seem to have over them.
And, of course, I never would have thought to write about the techniques of coercion in the first place had I not witnessed them being practiced by a machine.
www.mindjack.com /rushkoff/coercion.html   (5165 words)

 Will Wilkinson / The Fly Bottle: Coercion: WTF?
If, in order to get a huge increase in abilities and possibilities for my future, I had to accept some small amount of structural coercion that would block off a much smaller set of abilities and possibilities, then I'd be quite glad for the coercion.
In fact, the thing that seems wrong to me about coercion is just that it closes off a possible course of action that I should be free to choose.
Coercion, whatever it means, seems like just one way to prune that loveliest of abstract objects, the Tree of Future Timelines, and not obviously the most diagreeable way.
willwilkinson.net /flybottle/archives/2003/04/coercion_wtf.html   (654 words)

 Sullivan, Mechanism for Strategic Coercion (abstract)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Simply stated, strategic coercion is the act of inducing or compelling an adversary to do something to which he is averse.
Denial Theory proposes that the specific means for coercion is the opponent’s military vulnerability: defeating an opponent’s military strategy denies him the probability of achieving benefits and results in coercion.
Coercion probably requires the simultaneous imposition of both conditions: Denial of the target nation’s ability to achieve benefits and Second Order Change caused by the threat to higher order values (future costs).
www.au.af.mil /au/aul/aupress/SAAS_Theses/SAASS_Out/Sullivan/Sullivan_about_out.htm   (524 words)

 The Case Against Psychiatric Coercion
The paradigmatic exercise of psychiatric coercion is the imposition of an ostensibly diagnostic or therapeutic intervention on subjects against their will, legitimized by the state as protection of subjects from madness and protection of the public from the mad.
A crucial moment in the legitimation of modern psychiatric coercion occurred in central Europe during the early decades of this century.7 Although psychiatry and psychoanalysis arose as distinct and separate enterprises, they soon merged into a union that proved to be fateful for the future of the "mental health services" industry.
Politically, the essence of the psychoanalytic relationship was the absence of the coercions traditionally present in relations between psychiatrists and mental patients.
www.iatrogenic.org /library/case.html   (4499 words)

 HAVEWORLD: Coercion
The other day I was watching a documentary on MSNBC (or some similar channel) about animal (not humans) intelligence.
One biologist was boasting about how the dolphins were performing tricks without any coercion.
The only thing she was doing was feeding the dolphin (used as positive reinforcement) after performing new tricks.
haveworld.blogspot.com /2005/02/coercion_24.html   (130 words)

(Or "coercion") The abilty of some compilers to automatically insert type conversion functions where an expression of one type is used in a context where another type is expected.
A common example is coercion of integers to reals so that an expression like sin(1) is compiled as sin(integerToReal(1)) where sin is of type Real -> Real.
A coercion is usually performed automatically by the compiler whereas a cast is an explicit type conversion inserted by the programmer.
www.linuxguruz.com /foldoc/foldoc.php?coercion   (112 words)

 3.3.8 Coercion rules
As the language has evolved, the coercion rules have become hard to document precisely; documenting what one version of one particular implementation does is undesirable.
Otherwise, the left operand's __op__ method would always accept the right operand: when an instance of a given class is expected, an instance of a subclass of that class is always acceptable.
If the coercion returns an object of a different type for the operand whose coercion is invoked, part of the process is redone using the new object.
docs.python.org /ref/coercion-rules.html   (365 words)

 Legal Definition: Coercion
Positive or direct coercion takes place when a man is by physical force compelled to do an act contrary to his will; for example, when a man falls into the hands of the enemies of his country and they compel him, by a just fear of death, to fight against it.
It is presumed where a person is legally under subjection to another and is induced in consequence of such subjection to do an act contrary to his will.
A married woman, for example, is legally under the subjection of her husband, and if in his company she commit a crime or offence, (except the offence of keeping a bawdy-house, in which case she is considered by the law as a principal), she is presumed to act under this coercion.
www.lectlaw.com /def/c244.htm   (191 words)

 Taking Children Seriously: Coercion — the Meaning of the Word
For instance, when employees go on strike, they often describe themselves as having to resort to coercion because the employer wouldn't listen to reason, or they describe their employer as trying to coerce them by (lawfully) changing the terms and conditions of their employment or whatever.
And of course in education, many parents have renounced the use of violence or the threat of violence against their children, but most are appalled at the idea of renouncing coercion.
In matters of education it is pointless to distinguish between assaults on the mind that are mediated by legally-defined battery, and assaults on the mind that are mediated by any of the countless other means that adults have of making children suffer.
www.takingchildrenseriously.com /coercion_the_meaning_of_the_word   (1682 words)

 :: Douglas Rushkoff ::
Coercion spotlights the manipulative sides of commerce today, with a sobering look at its power in the Internet era.
With immense force and inimitable style, Douglas Rushkoff takes us on an engaging, frightening, and oddly exhilarating journey into the board rooms where compliance professionals hone their skills—as well as the shopping malls, sports arenas, TV commercials, and web sites in which they are implemented.
Coercion is destined to be remembered as a watershed event in the battle between the marketing industry and the public it means to manipulate.
www.rushkoff.com /coercion.html   (600 words)

 Coercion Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: )
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popularityguide.com /encyclopedia/Coercion   (4066 words)

 Coercion I
MHADs may also reduce patient perceptions of coercion by increasing their “voice” in the commitment decision and thereby affording them a greater sense that they have been accorded “procedural” justice.
The Admission Experience Survey: Short Form, an instrument used in The MacArthur Coercion Study, was given to all patients.
Use of force and coercion in delivering services to people with general learning disabilities, especially people with challenging behavior, is widespread.
www.ialmh.org /Montreal2001/Sessions/coercion.htm   (1384 words)

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