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# Topic: Cofactor mathematics

###### In the News (Sun 26 May 13)

 cofactor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) In mathematics a cofactor is the minor of an element of a square matrix. Cofactors generally are either bound tightly to active sites, or may bind loosely with the substrate. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in certain forms. www.yourencyclopedia.net /Cofactor.html   (211 words)

 Scientists take 'snapshots' of enzyme action In the second stage (Figure 2), the cofactor NADPH (shown as a ball and stick model in cyan) approaches the enzyme and interacts with the coenzyme. First, the cofactor (known as NADPH) binds to a molecule known as FAD, which is a coenzyme attached to the FMO, and transfers a hydride ion to it. At this moment an oxygen atom from molecular oxygen is attached to the substrate, and the hydride ion obtained from the cofactor combines with the other oxygen atom to form a water molecule, which is released. www.physorg.com /news69420825.html   (784 words)

 Invertible matrix - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematics and especially linear algebra, an n-by-n (square) matrix A is called invertible, non-singular, or regular if there exists another n-by-n matrix B such that For other purposes, a variant of Newton's method may be convenient (particularly when dealing with families of related matrices, so inverses of earlier matrices can be used to seed generating inverses of later matrices). Writing another special matrix of cofactors, known as an adjugate matrix, can also be an efficient way to calculate the inverse of small matrices (since this method is essentially recursive, it becomes inefficient for large matrices). en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Matrix_inversion   (913 words)

 Freeware Home - Free Software Downloads: Education - Mathematics Numerical Mathematical Utilities offer powerful, specialized, mathematical capabilities, they are for immediate online use, and since they run within a web browser, they work on all the operating systems. MathCast is an equation editor, an application that allows you to input mathematical equations which can be used in written documents, webpages, and even databases. MathCast can be used freely by anyone: students can create equation sheets to help in their studies, educators can write handouts or study guides, webmasters can add mathematics to their website, and the list goes on and on. www.freewarehome.com /Education/Mathematics_t.html   (1566 words)

 Science Journal -- Summer 2000 -- New Faculty He was a visiting professor of mathematics at Cornell University from 1992 to 1994, was appointed associate professor of mathematics at the University of Miami in 1994, and became professor of mathematics at the University of Florida in 1995. He has taught mathematics at a number of universities in the United States and Europe, most recently as professor of mathematics at Rensselar Polytechnic Institute from 1993 to 1998, before joining the Penn State faculty as a professor of mathematics in the fall semester of 1998. Among his honors, he was awarded the Junior Berwick Prize by the London Mathematical Society in 1979, was elected a Fellow of the British Royal Society in 1990, received a doctoral degree at London University in 1990, and was an Engineering and Physical Sciences (EPSRC) Senior Fellow from 1991 to 1996. www.science.psu.edu /journal/Sum2000/NewFacSum2000.htm   (3028 words)

 Snippets of this and that: The number of elementary operations to calculate the determinant of a real, k-by-k matrix   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Where Cij is the cofactor of aij, and Mij is the minor of A formed by removing row i and column j. Each cofactor is the determinant of a (k-1) by (k-1) matrix. Note that the step (-1)^(i+j) in the cofactor has been neglected because it is a computationally simple operation of sign flipping. tanyeewei.blogspot.com /2005/10/number-of-elementary-operations-to.html   (641 words)

 ENGR 1405 Problem Set 4 Solutions Cofactor expansion along any row or column will involve the evaluation of four 3×3 determinants, each of which will require the evaluation of three 2×2 determinants. The presence of the zeroes in row 3 suggests a cofactor expansion. We could continue with the row reduction, but the cofactor expansion is now easier than it would have been earlier. www.engr.mun.ca /~ggeorge/1405/solution/s4f00.html   (1865 words)

 Calculating Inverse Matrices - GameDev.Net Discussion Forums And the cofactor of the element 3 is, you basically cross out the row and colomn that that element passes through, so your left with a 2x2, ie. cofactor 4 = -[2 7] [1 -2] ie. The transpose of the cofactors is known as the adjoint, or adj. www.gamedev.net /community/forums/topic.asp?topic_id=156923   (1413 words)

 Cofactor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cofactor (biochemistry) is a substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme for a certain reaction to take place. Shannon cofactor is a derived function of another function, a notion useful in computer science and mathematics. This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cofactor   (133 words)

 Business Software Review : Article 'Arithmetic'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) in common usage is a branch of (or the forerunner of) mathematics which records elementary properties of certain operations on numerals, though in usage by professional mathematicians, it often is treated as synonym for number theory. In mathematics, an arithmetic group (arithmetic subgroup) in a linear algebraic group G defined over a number field K is a subgroup Γ of G (K) that is commensurable with G (O), where O is the ring of integers of K. Here two subgroups A and B of a group are commensurable when their intersection has finite index in each of them. www.business-software-review.org /DisplayArticle34530.html   (1367 words)

 wikien.info: Main_Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) A cofactor is the following: In mathematics a cofactor is the minor of an element of a square matrix.In biochemistry, a cofactor is a substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme for a certain reaction to take place. In mathematics, especially in order theory, a subset B of a partially ordered set A is cofinal if for every a in A there is a b in B such that a ≤ b. In mathematics, a cofinite subset of a set X is a subset Y whose complement in X is a finite set. www.hostingciamca.com /browse.php?title=C/C/COF   (2025 words)

 CiteULike: gbart's cofactor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Recent papers added to gbart's library classified by the tag cofactor. Arginine 56 mutation in the beta subunit of nitrile hydratase: importance of hydrogen bonding to the non-heme iron center. posted to arg cofactor crystal_structure enzyme hydratase hydrogen_bonding mechanism mutation by gbart as www.citeulike.org /user/gbart/tag/cofactor   (68 words)

 Kirchhoff's theorem - Wikpedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) In the mathematical field of graph theory Kirchhoff's theorem or Kirchhoff's matrix tree theorem named after Gustav Kirchhoff is a theorem about the number of spanning trees in a graph. It is a generalization of Cayley's formula which provides the number of spanning trees in a complete graph. In other words the number of spanning trees is equal to any cofactor of the admittance matrix of G. www.bostoncoop.net /~tpryor/wiki/index.php?title=Kirchhoff's_theorem   (150 words)

 Business Software Review : Article 'Computational geometry'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Included here is much of the standard mathematical language, used in university-level courses and routinely in research papers. This is not, however, intended as a complete glossary of mathematical terms; just a selection of typical terms of art that may be encountered. Discrete geometry or combinatorial geometry may be loosely defined as study of geometrical objects and properties that are discrete or combinatorial, either by their nature or by their representation; the study that does not essentially rely on the notion of continuity. www.business-software-review.org /DisplayArticle173787.html   (469 words)

 Mersenne: All Cunningham Wanted Numbers Factored The largest number to ever appear, a 291-digit cofactor of F10 = 2^1024 + 1, was factored in October, 1995, when Richard Brent found a 40-digit factor by ECM. That number, a c168 cofactor of 3^382+, left a c127 when its 42-digit factor was found by ECM. The smallest composite cofactor in the 3rd edition is another c130, compared to c51 in the 1983 edition and c80 in the 1988 edition. www.mail-archive.com /mersenne@base.com/msg06332.html   (1252 words)

 Matrix Inverse History Summary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) After this continuation, the result is a matrix B that has the required form. It is easy to prove that for the matrix B, its determinant does not depend on the row or column chosen for cofactor expansion. By induction, therefore, it is true that the determinant of any matrix does not depend on the particular row or column chosen. www.bookrags.com /history/mathematics/matrix-inverse-wom   (553 words)

 mathstore | maths caa series: May 2004 Many questions are unsuitable for randomised multiple choice, as the form of the correct answer may be too obvious, the errors students make are due to careless arithmetic rather than typical misunderstandings, or it may be that a student who does not understand the material cannot make any progress on the question at all. Numeric answers for fill-in-the-answer style questions present few problems, but if the answer is a mathematical expression then the complexity of the syntax required to enter it should not place excessive demands on the student. Four questions have been designed, the first asks students to find the determinant of a 2x2 matrix, the second a 3x3 using cofactor expansion, the third is again a 3x3 matrix, but uses row and column operations, and the fourth does this for a 4x4 matrix. mathstore.ac.uk /articles/maths-caa-series/may2004   (2701 words)

 Matrix (JScience v2.0 API) This method uses the matrix LU decomposition to guarantee correct results even for non-commutative operables (the famous formula: a00·a11-a10·a01 for 2x2 matrices is incorrect when operables are non-commutative). It is the value obtained by evaluating the determinant formed by the elements not in that particular row or column. It is obtained by replacing each element in this matrix with its cofactor and applying a + or - sign according (-1)**(i+j), and then finding the transpose of the resulting matrix. jscience.org /api/org/jscience/mathematics/matrices/Matrix.html   (857 words)

 Record Number Field Sieve Factorizations This team also factored a 105-digit cofactor of 3^367 - 1 using the General Number Field Sieve (GNFS), These beat the prior records of 158 digits (SNFS) and 75 digits (GNFS). The sieving took four weeks during March-April, 1993, using 40 workstations in the Forest Science, Mathematics, and Statistics Departments at OSU. The Amsterdam work was partially funded by the Stieltjes Institute for Mathematics, Leiden. krum.rz.uni-mannheim.de /cabench/sieve-record.html   (626 words)

 List of mathematical topics (A-C)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Use of R as a toolbox for mathematical statistics exploration. MAGAZINES Technical Communication 11/1/2000 Simmons, Barbara A. dealing with mathematical material... Changing levels of numeracy and other core mathematical skills among psychology undergraduates between 1992 and 2002. hallencyclopedia.com /List_of_mathematical_topics_(A-C)   (178 words)

 Science Fresh : Article 'Eugenio Calabi'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) In 1964, Calabi joined the mathematics faculty at the University of Pennsylvania. Following the retirement of the great German-American mathematician, Hans Rademacher, from Penn, he was appointed to the Thomas A. Scott Chair of Mathematics at the University of Pennsylvania in 1967. He won the Steele Prize from the American Mathematical Society in 1991 for his work in differential geometry. www.sci-fresh.net /DisplayArticle519532.html   (495 words)

 Low frequency vibrational modes in proteins: Changes induced by point-mutations in the protein-cofactor matrix of ... cofactors but is thought to influence their electronic interaction. of modification of the bonding between cofactor and protein by to proposals that they are essentially cofactor modes (10, 11). www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/95/21/12306   (5118 words)

 Citations: American Mathematical Society - Brillhart, Lehmer, Selfridge, Tuckerman, Wagstaff, Factorizations, Sigma, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) In the meantime we continued with the project and obtained the factorisation of the 101 digit cofactor of 5 273 Gamma 1 (C101) namely 5 56028 11293 76381 05007 45276 70973 97005 19820 97448 09147 14501 62657 88991 51675 71596.... The number N is a remaining cofactor of 7 194 1 of the Cunningham project Then, for each n, we constructed the set of essential factors of R n by discarding the factors q = np 1 such that mp 1 is prime for some m n with 3.... citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/491789/0   (2075 words)

 cofactor - OneLook Dictionary Search Tip: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "cofactor" is defined. cofactor : The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language [home, info] Phrases that include cofactor: platelet cofactor i, platelet cofactor ii, cofactor expansion, molybdenum cofactor, membrane cofactor p, more... www.onelook.com /?w=cofactor   (201 words)

 The educational encyclopedia, mathematics, algebra, matrices and determinants   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The educational encyclopedia, mathematics, algebra, matrices and determinants Mathematics: Algebra, Arithmetics and number theory, Complex numbers, Formulas, Fractals, Fourier, General overview, Geometry, Integrals and differentials, Logarithms and exponentials, Matrices and determinants, Miscellaneous, Sequences and series, Statistics, Tables, Trigonometry Matrix inverse determinants, minor, cofactor, inverse matrix, Jacobian, users.telenet.be /educypedia/education/mathmatrices.htm   (262 words)

 Springer Online Reference Works » Encyclopaedia of Mathematics » C » Cofactor -th order corresponding to the fixed rows by their cofactor is equal to the value of this determinant. This Laplace theorem is often referred to as Laplace's development of a determinant. eom.springer.de /c/c022950.htm   (106 words)

 mkaz.com : Matrices - The Mathematics Behind Them   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Let A, B, and C represent n x n matrices. So instead of brute forcing the calculations, I first do some operations on the matrix, which converts it to a upper triangular matrix, and then calculate the determinant by multipling down the diagonal, since everything below is 0, this will give the determinant. The adjoint of A is the transpose of the matrix whose ith, and jth element is the cofactor A www.mkaz.com /math/math35.html   (412 words)

 S.O.S. Mathematics CyberBoard :: View topic - Cofactors in systems of eqations? Posted: Sun, 7 Sep 2003 14:02:49 GMT Post subject: Cofactors in systems of eqations? I seem to have a grasp on the determinates and just can't seem to figure out the cofactor mehtod. For example: find the cofactor for each element in the second row www.sosmath.com /CBB/viewtopic.php?p=7594   (223 words)

 Learn more about List of mathematical topics in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Learn more about List of mathematical topics in the online encyclopedia. Enter a phrase or search word in the box below. Hint: Play with putting spaces before and after your words to see the different results you get. www.onlineencyclopedia.org /l/li/list_of_mathematical_topics.html   (249 words)

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