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Topic: Cognitive bias


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In the News (Sat 23 Mar 19)

  
 Cognitive science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e.g.
Cognitive science is usually seen as compatible with and interdependent with the physical sciences, and makes frequent use of the scientific method, as well as simulation or modeling, often comparing the output of models with aspects of human behavior.
A cognitive scientist is likely to assert that what he says about reasoning is true at the symbolic level of abstraction, while what the neuroscientist says is true at the physical level implementing the symbolic level (much as your computer as a physical object implements a virtual machine on which your word-processor runs).
www.1-free-software.com /en/wikipedia/c/co/cognitive_science.html   (1057 words)

  
 Bambooweb: Bias
A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a predilection to one particular view or ideology.
For example, a bias voltage is applied to a transistor in an electronic amplifier to allow the transistor to operate in a particular region of its transconductance curve.
Bias is used in direct broadcast satellites such as DirecTV and Dish Network, the IRD box actually powers the feedhorn or LNB receiver mounted on the dish arm.
www.bambooweb.com /articles/b/i/Bias.html   (730 words)

  
 Learn more about Cognitive science in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind (e.g.
Cognitive science is usually seen as compatible with and interdependent with the physical sciences, and makes frequent use of the scientific method, as well as simulation/modelling, often comparing the output of models with aspects of human behavior.
One of the most universally affirmed ideas of cognitive science is the importance of the unconscious mind; many, if not most, important mental processes are considered to be inaccessible to the conscious, introspecting observer.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /c/co/cognitive_science.html   (1144 words)

  
 Confirmation bias - Wikip├ędia
In statistical inference, confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias towards confirmation of the hypothesis under study.
In psychology, confirmation bias is a phenomenon whereby, in a variety of settings, decision makers have been shown to notice more, assign more weight to, and actively seek out evidence that confirms their claims, and tend to ignore and not seek out evidence which might discount their claims.
Some have argued that confirmation bias may be the cause of self-perpetuating and self-fulfilling social beliefs.
su.wikipedia.org /wiki/Confirmation_bias   (536 words)

  
 Learn more about Cognitive bias in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cognitive bias is any of a wide range of observer effects identified in cognitive science, including very basic statistical and memory errors that are common to all human beings (first identified by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman) and drastically skew the reliability of anecdotal and legal evidence.
For example, a quite different ontology problem identified by anti-reductionist physics is that there is just as much legitimacy describing the bonds or collections between particles as the first-class objects, as there is in the particle physics model composed of particles.
The most all-encompassing example of cognitive bias may be the anthropic principle: in its "weak" form, this states that we humans cannot observe any of the possible universes in which humans cannot exist, and therefore all human observations of the universe are constrained by the many fundamental constants that gave rise to human cognition itself!
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /c/co/cognitive_bias.html   (663 words)

  
 Psychology of Intelligence Analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It is important to distinguish cognitive biases from other forms of bias, such as cultural bias, organizational bias, or bias that results from one's own self-interest.
A cognitive bias is a mental error that is consistent and predictable.
Cognitive biases are similar to optical illusions in that the error remains compelling even when one is fully aware of its nature.
www.cia.gov /csi/books/19104/art12.html   (814 words)

  
 Cultural bias - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cultural bias is interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to one's own culture.
Cultural bias occurs when people of a culture make assumptions about conventions, including conventions of language, notation, proof and evidence.
Numerous such biases are believed to exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos.
www.lexington-fayette.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Cultural_bias   (658 words)

  
 Cognitive science - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A cognitive scientist is likely to assert that what he says about reasoning is true at the symbolic level of abstraction, while what the neuroscientist says is true at the physical level implementing the symbolic level (much like a computer as a physical object implements a virtual machine on which a word-processor runs).
An exploration of this is found in the Chinese Room argument, which proposes a gedanken experiment to elucidate potential loci for "cognition".
For example, if in a search task the reaction times vary proportionally with the number of elements, then it is evident that this cognitive process of searching involves serial and not parallel processing.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /cognitive_science.htm   (1433 words)

  
 Bias in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results
In a second logic, bias or error is established directly by measuring the discrepancy between the judgment and the true state being judged.
In the third logic, a bias is established by showing that a judge is "using a bad cue"-i.e., overutilizing a cue relative to normative standards (e.g., legal rules of evidence, a rational choice model, or the cue's objective predictive validity).
Note however, that this form of bias is limited to qualitative, categorical decisions ("it's true"; "he's wrong"); it cannot justify discrepancies across judges (or across experimental manipulations of normatively irrelevant factors) in their quantitative interpretations of the diagnosticity of evidence.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~maccoun/ar_bias.html   (9976 words)

  
 Systemic bias - SourceWatch
However, all human beings share a cognitive bias simply from the fact of being human, and such fields as physics, economics and ecology must deal directly with this as a bias.
The cognitive science of mathematics and some efforts in "biology of cosmology" attempt to define or limit this human systemic bias, e.g.
Ignoring systemic bias and claiming objectivity is itself one of many well-known propaganda techniques roughly described as ignoring the implicature, by cognitive linguistics.
www.sourcewatch.org /wiki.phtml?title=Systemic_bias   (422 words)

  
 Orgonon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
cognitive psychology, although the popularity of this paradigm does not exclude others, which are often applied as necessary.
Cognitive psychology is a framework in which to understand the mind more than a subject area, although it has traditionally focused on certain aspects of psychology.
Social cognition is a common approach and involves a mostly cognitive and scientific approach to understanding social behaviour.
dks.thing.net /Orgonon.html   (6952 words)

  
 CTR: Papers accepted for publication
There was evidence for interpretive cognitive bias for ambiguous interoceptive stimuli among the non-clinical panickers which did not differ from that of the people with panic disorder, but which differed from the non-panic controls.
Cognitions in obese binge eaters and obese non-binge eaters
The results of path analyses of cognitive variables were consistent with the cognitive model of panic with agoraphobia which is based on catastrophic beliefs and inconsistent with the guided mastery model which is based on self-efficacy.
www.sci.sdsu.edu /CAL/CTR/future.html   (16799 words)

  
 Chen_Abstract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In this pilot study, we lay the foundation for testing one potential psychological pathway, a cognitive bias toward interpreting ambiguous situations as threatening, and its relationship with cardiovascular reactivity, a risk factor for later cardiovascular disease.
This type of cognitive bias (interpreting ambiguous situations as threatening) may thus serve as a mediator explaining why lower SES children display heightened cardiovascular reactivity.
Ecologically valid measures of cognitive bias that are relevant to children of various SES backgrounds have not been developed, and thus the first goal of this study is to develop and test professionally produced videos of ambiguous and negative social situations.
www.wpic.pitt.edu /PMBC/Chen.htm   (357 words)

  
 Articles - Cognitive science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
One of the central principles in cognitive science is that (1) there are different levels of analysis (LOA) from which the brain and behavior can be studied, and (2) mental phenomena are best studied from multiple levels of analysis.
A cognitive scientist is likely to assert that what he says about reasoning is true at the functional level of abstraction, while what the neuroscientist says is true at the physical level implementing the functional level (much like a computer as a physical object implements a virtual machine on which programs run).
The field is usually seen as compatible with and interdependent with the physical sciences, and uses of the scientific method, as well as simulation or modeling, often comparing the output of models with aspects of human behavior.
www.gaple.com /articles/Cognitive_Science   (2159 words)

  
 HyperText Psychology - GROUPS/Attitude/prejudice
Cognitive causes of prejudice stem from the tendency for people to categorize others into groups; particularly groups of "us" and "them".
Outgroup Homogeneity Bias is the assumption that all members of the outgroup possess similar characteristics and are 6therefore "all alike".
Additionally, it is speculated that knowledge of the cognitive bias processes may assist in reducing prejudice.
sun.science.wayne.edu /~wpoff/cor/grp/prejudic.html   (673 words)

  
 Thinking Straight: Cognitive Bias in the US Debate about China   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In making my case, I will explain how cognitive bias fosters this misapplication, discuss the illusions of certainty—especially of predictability and influence—that this misapplication promotes, and examine the complementary non-linear perspectives that might correct the imbalance.
If one accepts that this ingrained (linear) cognitive bias leads to the projection of single-outcome trajectories in the first place—as the following examples will show—one also needs to recognize that it is the much more apparent non-cognitive biases—ideological, cultural, religious, organizational, self-interest, among others—that largely incline predictors to their predictions.
Moreover, the projected trajectory clearly is connected to the non-cognitive bias that anticipates a cause-and-effect between continued economic growth and world power and rivalry with the United States.
www.odci.gov /csi/studies/vol48no3/article03.html   (4573 words)

  
 Psycoloquy 9(75): Individual Differences in Cognitive Biases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In particular, we have examined whether individual differences in cognitive biases are intercorrelated and whether quantitative measures of these biases correlate with indirect indicators of computational capacity (i.e., measures of intelligence or cognitive ability).
Although the consensus effect has traditionally been interpreted as an egoistic bias that was unjustified from a normative point of view, there was little evidence for such an interpretation in the individual-differences analyses that we have conducted.
Measures of cognitive ability were positively correlated with gender projection in the ecological condition where prior knowledge accurately reflected an aspect of the perceptual environment.
www.cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk /cgi/psyc/newpsy?9.75   (1695 words)

  
 Hellblazer: Why Smart People Believe Weird Stupid Things
I'm still subject to the bias and it's a constant struggle to remain skeptical, questioning and open to new facts that contradict what I believe.
Lawyers deliberately employ a type of confirmation bias in the confrontational style of reasoning used in the courtroom by purposefully selecting evidence that best suits their client and ignoring contradictory evidence - the winning of the case trumps the truth or falsity of the claim.
The term "confirmation bias" seems to imply that people are at least fooling themselves into believing that they have an open mind.
www.hellblazer.com /archives/2004/06/why_smart_peopl.html   (1529 words)

  
 Cognitive bias Article, Cognitivebias Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cognitive bias is any of a wide range of observer effects identified in cognitive science, including very basic statistical and memory errors that are common to all human beings(first identified by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman) and drastically skew the reliability of anecdotal and legal evidence.
Tverskyand Kahneman claim that they are at least partially the result of problem-solving using heuristics, including the availabilityheuristic and the representativenessheuristic.
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www.anoca.org /including/identified/cognitive_bias.html   (214 words)

  
 Bias - SourceWatch
cognitive bias common to all human beings and built into our perception, memory, and instincts
cultural bias derived from our social surroundings, family and customs, well understood in pluralistic societies, e.g.
Media bias consists of all of these and more related to journalism practices accepted professionally in different countries or traditions, and pressures applied by advertiser, government, regulator, owner and reader/viewer, each of which perceives themselves as "unbiased" - laughably.
www.sourcewatch.org /index.php?title=Bias   (286 words)

  
 List of cognitive biases - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cognitive bias is distortion in the way we perceive reality (see also cognitive distortion).
Some of these have been verified empirically in the field of psychology, others are considered general categories of bias.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases   (127 words)

  
 Artificial Ingenuity - Research - Cognitive Model Bias And Behavioral Science
Most of the standard cognitive models are based upon introspection and subjective perception of the computational process of cognition.
This typically leads to the assumptive bias that intelligence is based upon a monolithic general processing control system.
Though this might be a logical assumption it is not necessarily remotely representative of the actual cognitive and neurological processes.
www.artificialingenuity.com /rp_cognitive.htm   (1316 words)

  
 CoGENT Study Description - Depression and Emotional Processing
The general aim of this project is to investigate the role of cognitive biases in the onset and course of major depression, including an examination, for the first time, of the neurobiological concomitants of these biases.
We have identified a "High-Cognitive-Bias" subtype of depressed patient, which is characterized by strong and consistent negative biases across a range of information-processing tasks and stimuli, as well as by an elevated vulnerability to experiencing both ready activation of these negative biases and increased depressive symptoms when exposed to a sad mood induction procedure.
We also now have promising data from a small number of participants suggesting that cognitive bias is related to treatment response.
cogent.stanford.edu /depression.asp   (321 words)

  
 American Pain Society Annual Meeting   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Aim of Investigation Pincus and Morley (2000) have recently proposed that depression in pain should be differentiated from affective distress and that the two states can be distinguished by patterns of cognitive bias.
Cognitive bias was assessed by a self-referential word endorsement and a surprise recall task: words were positive and negative (valency) exemplars of three content categories -- situational (frustrated), enduring (unlovable), bodily (aching).
Cognitive content was also assessed by the Sentence Completion for Depression (SCD) task.
www.ampainsoc.org /abstract/2000/data/73   (314 words)

  
 Stumbling and Mumbling: Cognitive biases everywhere
One possibility, I thought, is the representativeness heuristic, the process whereby we assume that effects must somehow look like their causes.
Could one cognitive bias arise from the belief that the most murderous cases of racism are mediated by large institutions: the Nazi State,the Church, the Ottoman Empire, whatever, and that therefore opposition should also be mediated by large institutions?
If so, it's a rum bias, because it overlooks the obvious rejoinder that the list of horrors proves the imprudence of trusting power to large institutions and the wisdom of dispersing power e.g.
stumblingandmumbling.typepad.com /stumbling_and_mumbling/2005/05/cognitive_biase.html   (859 words)

  
 The Effects of the Confirmation Bias on Users of a Decision Support System for a Lease or Buy Decision   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Decision makers subject to the confirmation bias are believed to develop initial beliefs as to the best choice and to allow these beliefs to influence the remainder of their decision-making processes and their final decisions.
The confirmation bias corresponds roughly to the biases discussed above that Sage terms "expectations" and Kydd and Aucoin-Drew term "selective perception." The DSS used in the experiment is a menu-driven Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet.
An attempt at ameliorating the effects of these cognitive biases on the subjects through a means external to the DSS (warning them of the possibility of cognitive biases) was not successful.
www.bsbpa.umkc.edu /classes/ward/workpap.htm   (7875 words)

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