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Topic: Cognitive dissonance

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  Truth Maintenance with Cognitive Dissonance by Peter Schwartz
According to Festinger [3], cognitive dissonance is the noxious mental state that results from beliefs being in conflict with each other.
The strength of cognitive dissonance is a direct function of two factors: the number of beliefs in conflict and the importance of those beliefs.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory explains these results in terms of "insufficient justification." It is assumed that subjects come into the experiment with the belief "I do not lie without a good reason." The subjects in the experiment groups then go on to tell a lie.
www.cs.umd.edu /Honors/reports/Schwartz/cogdis.html   (886 words)

  Cognitive dissonance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cognitive dissonance is the perception of incompatibility between two cognitions, which can be defined as any element of knowledge, including attitude, emotion, belief, or behavior.
The theory of cognitive dissonance was first proposed by the psychologist Leon Festinger in 1956 after observing the counterintuitive belief persistence of members of a UFO doomsday cult and their increased proselytization after the leader's prophecy failed.
The introduction of new cognition that is dissonant with a currently held cognition creates a state of "dissonance," the magnitude of which relates to the relative importance of the involved cognitions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cognitive_dissonance   (1778 words)

 Cognitive dissonance - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cognitive dissonance is a state that an individual reaches once he has an imbalance between cognitions.
Once two cognitions are held and there is a conflict of interests between them, the individual falls into a state of cognitive dissonance.
Post-decisional dissonance may be increased by the importantance of the issue, the length of time the subject takes to make or avoid the decision, and the extent to which the decision could be reversed.
encyclopedia.learnthis.info /c/co/cognitive_dissonance.html   (1204 words)

 Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Dissonance Theory declares that dissonance is an unpleasant motivating state (a feeling) that encourages attitude change to achieve or restore consonance.
Specifically, Dissonance Theory predicts that the amount of dissonance is influenced by two factors: (1) the proportion of dissonant and consonant cognitions and (2) the importance of the cognitions.
Thus, dissonance theory considers all of the relevant thoughts at once, considering both the proportion of consistent (consonant) and inconsistent (dissonant) thoughts and the importance of those thoughts.
www.cios.org /encyclopedia/persuasion/Dcognitive_dissonance_1theory.htm   (673 words)

 Cognitive Dissonance   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cognitive dissonance theory was based on abstract/internal/mental concepts, which were, of course, anathema to the behaviorists.
Cognitive dissonance theory, on the other hand, would predict that those who were paid $1 would feel the most dissonance since they had to carry out a boring task and lie to an experimenter, all for only 1$.
This would create dissonance between the belief that they were not stupid or evil, and the action which is that they carried out a boring task and lied for only a dollar (see Figure 2).
web.umr.edu /~psyworld/cognitive_dissonance.htm   (1071 words)

 Aaron Louie - Cognitive Dissonance in Decision Making
The role of cognitive dissonance is clearly at work in memory and hindsight biases: Assume once again that most humans are at the center of their own universes.
They experience dissonance when their omniscient view of the world is disrupted, and they realize that they cannot remember everything and cannot change past events, past behaviors, or past thoughts.
Research in dissonance theory may someday lend credence to the philosophical idea that errors in human thinking are all a result of cognitive dissonance.
www.yetiarts.com /aaron/science/cogdiss.shtml   (2925 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cognitive dissonance is a state that an individual reaches once they have an imbalance between cognitions.
Festinger proposed that cognitive dissonance is a similar psychological tension to hunger and thirst and that people will seek to resolve this tension.
Reduction of cognitive dissonance is good because one feels better, and because one can come closer to the truth by eliminating contradictions.
www.wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/c/co/cognitive_dissonance.html   (520 words)

 War, Death, and Cognitive Dissonance: A Case Study for Social Psychology - Case Study Collection - National Center for ...
Leon Festinger (1957) proposed cognitive dissonance theory as a way to explain the tension that exists when people’s attitudes are incongruent with their behaviors.
Dissonance is an aversive state of tension that people are motivated to reduce or eliminate (Festinger 1957).
Dissonance is particularly strong when attitudes/behaviors that are important to the self are involved (Aronson, 1968).
www.sciencecases.org /cognitive_dissonance/cognitive_dissonance_notes.asp   (1327 words)

 TIP: Theories   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions).
Dissonance could be eliminated by deciding that it does not matter since the car is mainly used for short trips (reducing the importance of the dissonant belief) or focusing on the cars strengths such as safety, appearance, handling (thereby adding more consonant beliefs).
Dissonance can be eliminated by reducing the importance of the conflicting beliefs, acquiring new beliefs that change the balance, or removing the conflicting attitude or behavior.
tip.psychology.org /festinge.html   (377 words)

 Teaching Tip Sheet: Cognitive Dissonance
As originally formulated (Festinger, 1957), cognitive dissonance is induced when a person holds two contradictory beliefs, or when a belief is incongruent with an action that the person had chosen freely to perform.
Two types of studies have been conducted to test the hypothesis that this state of cognitive dissonance may lead to increased condom use or to altered perceptions of past behavior on the part of the educator in order to reduce the dissonance.
That efforts to reduce cognitive dissonance may affect the likelihood that an individual will engage in behaviors that put them at risk of contracting a life-threatening illness attests to the strength and importance of dissonance phenomena.
www.apa.org /pi/aids/tipcognitive.html   (803 words)

 UNIVERSITY OF THE PACIFIC: Effects of Temptation and Restraints on Attitude Change
Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension that occurs whenever an individual simultaneously holds two cognition's (ideas, attitudes, beliefs, opinions) that are psychologically inconsistent (Festinger, 1957).
Cognitive dissonance is a remarkable explanation to human behavior.
Cognitive dissonance is a fascinating theory that has been researched time after time.
www.orgsites.com /ca/baldwin   (2165 words)

Cognitive dissonance was discussed in Chapter 12 of The Dynamic Psychological Field; and regarding status, disequilibrium, and its effects in Chapter 18 of Vol.
Cognitive dissonance and the consequent balancing of perception is a special case of misperception, and it takes field processes into account.
Dissonance may create opposing interests and provoke their balancing, and it may be rectified by the process of overt conflict.
www.hawaii.edu /powerkills/CIP.CHAP4.HTM   (2014 words)

 [No title]
Cognitive dissonance is the state of confusion that occurs when facts become twisted into half-truths, colliding with common sense and suddenly you are convinced 2+2 = 5.
Cognitive dissonance is a state of conflict occurring when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information.
Because dissonance threatens the self-concept, it is logical to suggest that dissonant individuals would be likely to have alterations in interpersonal perception or assert themselves against another individual than would non-dissonant individuals.
lycos.cs.cmu.edu /info/cognitive-dissonance.html   (645 words)

 [No title]
Cognitive dissonance is so unpleasant that individuals would often rather be close-minded than be informed and deal with the repercussions of cognitive dissonance.
The author argues that "cognitive dissonance is related to conflict management because it is the results of the conflict that lead the persons involved to seek resolution.
Dissonance can be presented as intra-personal whereby it affects beliefs and values and this is borne out in behaviors resulting in interpersonal problems.
www.beyondintractability.org /m/cognitive_dissonance.jsp   (2157 words)

 cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance is a theory of human motivation that asserts that it is psychologically uncomfortable to hold contradictory cognitions.
Dissonance and consonance are relations among cognitions that is, among opinions, beliefs, knowledge of the environment, and knowledge of one's own actions and feelings.
Yet, a cursory examination of cognitive dissonance reveals that it is not the dissonance, but how people deal with it, that would be of interest to someone trying to control others when the evidence seems against them.
skepdic.com /cognitivedissonance.html   (1865 words)

 Cognitive Dissonance
The theory of cognitive dissonance holds that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs, so as to reduce the amount of dissonance (conflict) between cognitions.
Cognitive dissonance: progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology.
Cognitive dissonance and resistance to change: the influence of commitment confirmation and feedback ….
cognitive-dissonance.behaviouralfinance.net   (1677 words)

 SFB 504 glossary: Cognitive dissonance theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) is a general theoretical framework which explains how people change their opinions or hypotheses about themselves and their environment.
Dissonant cognitions produce an aversive state which the individual will try to reduce by changing one or both of the cognitions.
Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by adding new cognitions, if (a) the new cognitions add weight to one side and thus, decreases the proportion of cognitive elements that are dissonant or (b) the new cognitions change the importance of the cognitive elements that are in dissonant relation with one another.
www.sfb504.uni-mannheim.de /glossary/cogdis.htm   (285 words)

 Cognitive Dissonance
Leon Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance theory suggests that humans are motivated by a desire to remain in a state of psychological balance (and as such, belongs to the family of theories called Balance Theory).
Cognitive dissonance is an unpleasant psychological state caused by an inconsistent relationship between beliefs and behaviors.
Dissonance may be reduced by changing an attitude or behavior or by finding a reason for the inconsistency.
www.colostate.edu /Depts/Speech/rccs/theory24z.htm   (554 words)

 Theory of cognitive dissonance - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Theory of cognitive dissonance
The dissonance is greater the closer the alternatives are in attractiveness or unpleasantness.
Dissonance usually remains after the decision has been made and this motivates efforts to achieve a state of equilibrium, or consonance.
This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Theory+of+cognitive+dissonance   (146 words)

 Perrspectives: Articles: Cognitive Dissonance, Terrorism and 9/11
Cognitive dissonance is no less a critical concept to the fields of foreign policy, national security and international relations than it is to psychology.
What psychologists call cognitive dissonance can for national decision makers disastrously result in “fundamental surprise”, with the sudden and dramatic recognition of the incompatibility between one's beliefs and reality.
The 1973 Yom Kippur War is perhaps the classic modern case of the calamitous impact of cognitive dissonance for a nation’s civilian and military leadership.
www.perrspectives.com /articles/art_cogdis01.htm   (883 words)

 The Tattered Coat » Cognitive Dissonance, the Bush Administration, Cindy Sheehan, and the War in Iraq
I’ve long thought that cognitive dissonance was a major reason why the American public was so slow to turn against the War in Iraq (and I’m using the past tense there, since an overwhelming majority of Americans have finally come to their senses).
Cognitive dissonance is a psychological phenomenon which refers to the discomfort felt at a discrepancy between what you already know or believe, and new information or interpretation.
Any glimpse of the plain truth staring them in the face would have led to cognitive dissonance, to the jarring recognition that not only were they lied to, but that they themselves bore responsibility for allowing themselves to be conned.
www.tatteredcoat.com /archives/2005/08/16/cognitive-dissonance-the-bush-administration-cindy-sheehan-and-the-war-in-iraq   (2431 words)

 Leon Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Dissonance is operationally defined as a discomfort or tension that an individual feels when holding two or more ideas that are inconsistent with each other.
Whenever there is dissonance, an individual tries to reduce the amount of tension or discomfort they feel by justifying their belief or changing their opinion.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory has been able to explain a number of social behaviors that cannot be explained by behaviorist theory.
www.geocities.com /tarob01/Festinger.html   (2716 words)

 Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance is a very powerful motivator which will often lead us to change one or other of the conflicting belief or action.
Cognitive dissonance appears in virtually all evaluations and decisions and is the central mechanism by which we experience new differences in the world.
Dissonance increases with the importance and impact of the decision, along with the difficulty of reversing it.
changingminds.org /explanations/theories/cognitive_dissonance.htm   (436 words)

 Communication Theory: A First Look
In extreme cases cognitive dissonance is like our cringing response to fingernails being scraped on a flboard—we’ll do anything to get away from the awful sound.
But before cognitive dissonance theory came along, it seemed natural to think of inner attitude and outward behavior as the beginning and end of a cause-and-effect sequence.
University of California social psychologist Elliot Aronson was attracted to cognitive dissonance theory because of Leon Festinger’s startling minimal justification prediction.
www.afirstlook.com /archive/cogdiss.cfm?source=archther   (3892 words)

 Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance is the unpleasant feeling that attends holding beliefs that are partially or wholly inconsistent.
For example, buyer's remorse is a kind of cognitive dissonance: "I made a good decision" is at least partly inconsistent with discovering that the other camcorder has batteries that last twice as long.
Leon Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance says that people try to reduce dissonance among their beliefs, by all sorts of means, some cognitive and some behavioral.
c2.com /cgi/wiki?CognitiveDissonance   (556 words)

 TruthMove - Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance relates to the concept of being exposed to information or having experiences that conflict with our existing base of “what we know.” The theory holds that our minds are not always flexible or rational when it comes to evaluating uncomfortable information or questioning our own beliefs.
In presenting new, contradictory (dissonant) evidence concerning 9/11, it is frustrating how many people immediately begin to bring up rationalizations and excuses in order to dismiss the significance of the information.
Cognitive dissonance is actually a necessary and natural mental function, but it is also a phenomenon that we should be aware of, in ourselves and others, as it is a process that does not always serve us well in the quest for objectivity and truth.
truthmove.org /content/cognitive-dissonance   (658 words)

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