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Topic: Cognitive ontology


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In the News (Wed 27 Aug 14)

  
  Ontology and Knowledge: Meta-ontological Perspective
The old "pandemic" conflict in philosophy between ontology and epistemology is now an acute disease in computer science, artificial intelligence and emerging computational philosophy.
The product of such a study, called an ontology, is a catalog of the types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest D from the perspective of a person who uses a language L for the purpose of talking about D.
Most cognitive scientists maintain that what enables mental functioning is knowledge, and thus a major aspect of cognitive research concerns the psychological structures and processes that presumably are constitutive of our knowledge of the world.
erg4146.casaccia.enea.it /Ont-know.htm   (2090 words)

  
  cognitive - Information from Reference.com
Cognition or cognitive processes can be natural and artificial, conscious and not conscious; therefore, they are analyzed from different perspectives and in different contexts, in anesthesia, neurology, psychology, philosophy, systemics and computer science.
Cognition is an abstract property of advanced living organisms; therefore, it is studied as a direct property of a brain or of an abstract mind on subsymbolic and symbolic levels.
The term "cognition" is also used in a wider sense to mean the act of knowing or knowledge, and may be interpreted in a social or cultural sense to describe the emergent development of knowledge and concepts within a group that culminate in both thought and action.
www.reference.com /browse/cognitive   (1784 words)

  
  Cognition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is also used in a wider sense to mean the act of knowing or knowledge, and may be interpreted in a social or cultural sense to describe the emergent development of knowledge and concepts within a group that culminate in both thought and action.
Such cognitive specialization can be observed in particular in language, with adults markedly less able to hear or say distinctions made in languages to which they were not exposed in youth.
By the 1980s, researchers in the Engineering departments of the University of Leeds, UK hypothesized that 'Cognition is a form of compression', i.e., cognition was an economic, not just a philosophical or a psychological process; in other words, skill in the process of cognition confers a competitive advantage.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cognitive   (1343 words)

  
 Learn more about Cognitive bias in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Cognitive bias is any of a wide range of observer effects identified in cognitive science, including very basic statistical and memory errors that are common to all human beings (first identified by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman) and drastically skew the reliability of anecdotal and legal evidence.
For example, a quite different ontology problem identified by anti-reductionist physics is that there is just as much legitimacy describing the bonds or collections between particles as the first-class objects, as there is in the particle physics model composed of particles.
The most all-encompassing example of cognitive bias may be the anthropic principle: in its "weak" form, this states that we humans cannot observe any of the possible universes in which humans cannot exist, and therefore all human observations of the universe are constrained by the many fundamental constants that gave rise to human cognition itself!
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /c/co/cognitive_bias.html   (663 words)

  
 Cognition - Medical Encyclopedia
Cognition is also an international journal publishing theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind.
The sort of mental processes described as cognitive or cognitive processes are largely influenced by research which has successfully used this paradigm in the past.
Such cognitive specialization can be observed in particular in language, with adults markedly less able to hear or say distinctions made in languages to which they were not exposed in youth.
www.nursingstudy.com /encyclopedia/Cognition.html   (1087 words)

  
 Cognition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
It is also used in a wider sense to mean the act of knowing or knowledge, and may be interpreted in a social or cultural sense to describe the emergent development of knowledge and concepts within a group.
Empirical research into cognition is usually scientific and quantitative, or involves creating models to describe or explain certain behaviours.
Whilst few people would deny that cognitive processes are the responsibility of the brain, a cognitive theory will not necessarily make any reference to the brain or any other biological process (compare neurocognitive).
www.1-free-software.com /en/wikipedia/c/co/cognition.html   (1076 words)

  
 JITE Volume 37, Number 4 - Andrew E. Schultz
Cognitive structure cannot be defined by the static, one dimensional model that cognitive psychology is attempting to identify.
Cognitive psychologists tend not to study the variety of processes of memory that preliterate peoples exhibited or that exist in the human population now.
It is no surprise that Herschbach (1998) stated that "cognitive psychology is the psychology of the computer age," for not only is the technology of our times clearly a mirror of the way we think, but the way we think is also clearly mirrored in our technology.
scholar.lib.vt.edu /ejournals/JITE/v37n4/schultz.html   (3796 words)

  
 Structural Cognition - The Indurkhya Model
While the ontology of the sensorimotor data set is determined by the cognitive agent's perceptual and motor apparatus, its structure, as seen from this ontology, is external to the cognitive agent and is determined by reality.
It is a cognitive relation that makes a concept network meaningful and it is a cognitive relation that brings reality within the cognitive grasp of the cognitive agent in the form of an environment.
And since it is a cognitive relation that gives an experiential ontology to the environment, it follows that the ontology of the environment is determined by the cognitive agent.
www.arxia.com /florian/cog/03_03.htm   (691 words)

  
 Psycoloquy 13(007): Cognition, Epistemology, Ontology
Most cognitive scientists maintain that what enables mental functioning is knowledge, and thus a major aspect of cognitive research concerns the psychological structures and processes that presumably are constitutive of our knowledge of the world.
Cognitive scientists are concerned with the structures and processes of the minds of human being, not with anything outside.
The relevance of both epistemology and ontology crucially manifests itself with consciousness, a topic that until less than a decade ago cognitive scientists shied away from, considering it to be outside the realm of science proper.
www.cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk /cgi/psyc/newpsy?cognition-action.2   (2472 words)

  
 20th WCP: A Vindication of Ontology
The main task of ontology is to elaborate a conceptual framework that can deal with all domains of being (material and spiritual, real as well as ideal) and then solve problems appearing at the point of contact between different domains of being.
First, if ontology is to be a theory of reality, its basic categories should be of an explanatory, not of an purely descriptive kind, and therefore should be cast in terms of external relations rather than of inherent properties, for in reality all its constituent parts are in many ways interrelated.
Such a cognitive apprehension of the object of representation is the sole prerogative of beings of a spiritual nature.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Onto/OntoChmi.htm   (3417 words)

  
 Cognitive Evolution
The question of cognitive evolution is motivated by the observation that, of the many ways in which cultures differ from one another, complexity is one of the most obvious.
From ontology we move to abstraction, thought about matters which cannot be seen, touched, smelled, etc., and the manipulation of abstraction by metaphor and rationalization.
Each cognitive process is associated with a new conceptual mechanism, which makes the process possible, and a new conceptual medium which allows the mechanism and process to become routine in the culture.
asweknowit.ca /evcult/CogEvol.shtml   (11905 words)

  
 Why Cognitive Scientists Cannot Ignore Quantum Mechanics by Quentin Smith
Quantum cognitive science (insofar as it is presently developed) requires the rejection of both folk psychology and folk physics, but not in the name of eliminative materialism, reductive physicalism, or what the Churchlands call "neuroscience" or “neurophilosophy”.
Therefore, the argument goes, quantum mechanical cognitive science is a contradiction in terms, or a "domain fallacy" (to coin a phrase), or at least is empirically false since there is no macroscopic evidence e that the kinds of properties belonging to the autonomous domain of cognitive science are quantum mechanical in nature.
The consequence for cognitive science is that if talk about microscopic motions of particles, etc, is "meaningless", then we cannot assert meaningfully that (or make true assertions that) there exist electrons traveling on paths among potassium and sodium ions in nerve cells and similar ontological claims essential to virtually all cognitive sciences today.
www.qsmithwmu.com /why_cognitive_scientists_cannot_ignore_by_quentin_smith.htm   (13787 words)

  
 Dallas Willard  ARTICLES
Ontology has frequently been understood as the theory of the ultimate classes of existents or entities and of characteristics of and structures that belong to all entities merely as such.
All cognition is of course directed upon objects or states of affairs that exhibit an identity over against the many real or possible acts of thought (of one or of many persons) directed upon them.
The complexity of cognitive acts together with the essential relationship of (possible) fulfillment discovered by Husserl to hold between them and corresponding intuitions directed upon the same object are the principal elements in his solution to the problem of transcendence.
www.dwillard.org /articles/artview.asp?artID=99   (7777 words)

  
 CogSci at Buffalo
The Center for Cognitive Science is the representation on the University at Buffalo campus of an academic and private-sector movement, named "cognitive science", that has been expanding over the last two decades both in the U.S. and abroad.
In doing so, cognitive science has also been manifesting what has been a change in the direction of research in the social and behavioral sciences in this country: where previously the movement had been toward ever finer disciplinary distinctions, there is now the reverse dynamic toward an integration of the disciplines into a unified understanding.
Cognitive science in general and the Center for Cognitive Science here in particular have promoted the development of the cognitive portions of the different disciplines by bringing them together across traditional boundaries.
wings.buffalo.edu /cogsci   (830 words)

  
 The Unicist Research Institute
The development of the unicist ontology made the research of complexity possible by using unicist logic and logical inferences.
Ontology describes the nature of ideas, facts, individuals and things, regarded from their essential, causative or functional (operational) aspects.
The unicist ontology erases the existent barrier between the human arbitrary division of philosophy, science and action, by defining concepts that integrate them in a unified field.
www.unicist.org /sdp.shtml   (1514 words)

  
 Cognitive ontology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cognitive ontology is ontology (study of being) which begins from features of human cognition directly, as opposed to its collective summary which is reflected in language.
The more radical forms of it challenge also the central position of mathematics as "just another language" which biases human cognition.
Barry Smith is a notable figure in this field, and has also studied naïve physics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cognitive_ontology   (106 words)

  
 SWC Special Essays   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Scientific models are to be judged on the basis of creativity and logical consistency in the development of the appropriate ontology and epistemology, scope, usefulness, and experimental verification.
One cognitive science answer to this criticism is the philosophy of objectivism according to which the world itself is organized in the same way as the computer that we are, and hence the brain can make representations of external objects that have meaning for us.
Searle (1994) declares flatly that cognitive science is wrong and that we need to develop the science of the mind on the basis of a new philosophy in which the concept of material itself is modified to include subjectivity.
www.swcp.com /swc/Essays/dyer.html   (5694 words)

  
 That the Cognitive is Prior to the Material
I call this a cognitive ontology, a mental existence as it were, though never supposing this requires a mind or consciousness for it to be.
It is only slightly more difficult to suppose that the cognitive reality exists without any mind, than it is to suppose that the earth was covered in water at a given time, before there was life to perceive it with the empirical senses.
It is an ontology not of matter and atoms, but of conceptual possibility, that is necessarily possible but not necessarily actual - thus the cognitive is prior to and more fundamental than the material.
www.angelhaunt.net /ontologyetc/cognitive.htm   (1260 words)

  
 Organelle :: Cognitive Liberty Awards
I don't mean ignorance as in some lack of cognitive potential or skillfulness; but rather a kind of lazy inaction with the tools and modalities at hand.
His art is cognitive activism in action, and it’s a profound blessing to encounter, enjoy or actively explore it.
Cognitive experience is different at different speeds, and the place we can most easily notice the change is during crisis, or sudden shift.
www.organelle.org /organelle/oclawards.html   (4705 words)

  
 Adaptive Rooms, Virtual Collaboration, and Cognitive Workflow   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Cognitive workflow may be conceived of as the changing pattern of cognitive demands placed on an agent as it performs the various component activities of a task.
What makes identifying the cognitive workflow of an activity particularly difficult to anticipate, is that agents develop cognitive and interactive strategies that alter the cognitive landscape of a task.
It will have been stretched beyond recognition and the cognitive benefits to the user of knowing where he or she is spatially will be destroyed by the confusion that arises from cognitive disorientation.
icl-server.ucsd.edu /~kirsh/Articles/CoopBuildings/published-version.html   (6187 words)

  
 The Ontology Alignment Source
Ontology alignment is the automated resolution of semantic correspondences between the representational elements of heterogenous sytems.
Ontology alignment (including ontology/schema matching/mapping) is a critical technical challenge for the dynamic semantic integration of information resources as well as for ontology-mediated cognitive agent learning.
We have also participated in the organization of EON, Evaluation of ONtology tools in November 2004, held as part of ISWC 2004 and the Integrating Ontologies Workshop in October 2005, held as part of the Knowledge Capture Conference.
www.atl.external.lmco.com /projects/ontology   (396 words)

  
 ncor
Ontology is both a branch of philosophy and a fast-growing component of computer science concerned with the development of formal representations of the entities and relations existing in a variety of application domains.
Ontology has been shown to have considerable potential on the level of both pure research and applications.
Both are committed to the central importance of principles-based ontology as a tool for the integration of data and information in scientific research and commercial applications.
ncor.buffalo.edu /about2.htm   (684 words)

  
 Adaptive Rooms, Virtual Collaboration, and Cognitive Workflow   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Cognitive workflow may be conceived of as the changing pattern of cognitive demands placed on an agent as it performs the various component activities of a task.
What makes identifying the cognitive workflow of an activity particularly difficult to anticipate, is that agents develop cognitive and interactive strategies that alter the cognitive landscape of a task.
It will have been stretched beyond recognition and the cognitive benefits to the user of knowing where he or she is spatially will be destroyed by the confusion that arises from cognitive disorientation.
interactivity.ucsd.edu /articles/CoopBuildings/published-version.html   (6187 words)

  
 Goswami
The question of downward causation: The material realist ontology assumes that all causation is upward; causal potency, in this view, ultimately rests with the reductive elementary particles of matter and their interactions.
But in material realist cognitive science, it is not easy to formulate a paradox-free distinction between the unconscious and conscious that also agrees with experimental data (McCarthy and Goswami, 1993).
What is quite reassuring is that these properties of consciousness --transcendence, unity, and self-reference, derived from the requirement that consciousness collapse the quantum wave function without raising any new paradox--are also the characteristics of consciousness that mystics from every age have declared based on their direct realization.
members.aol.com /NeoNoetics/GoswamiHardProblem.html   (7747 words)

  
 Ontologies
Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowledge, like medicine, tool manufacturing, real estate, automobile repair, financial management, etc.).
Ontologies include computer-usable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and the relationships among them (note that here and throughout this document, definition is not used in the technical sense understood by logicians).
SENSUS is a 90,000-node concept thesaurus (ontology) derived from WordNet (built at Princeton University in the mid-1990's by George Miller and colleagues), and rearranged and subordinated to the Penman Upper Model at ISI by Kevin Knight.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/html/ontol.html   (3896 words)

  
 A selection of papers on Ontology and the Theory of Objects
Leaving logical concepts and material ontology aside, the resulting 32 categories in 13 families range from the obvious (identity/difference, existence/nonexistence) through the fairly obvious (part/whole, one/many, sequential order) and the surprisingly familiar (illocutionary modes, mass/count, indexical/descriptive) to the controversial (moment/fundament, transparent/opaque) and the arcane (modes of class delimitation, taxonomic rank, aspects of designators).
As a result, realist views in ontology, epistemology, and semantics that were developed with natural scientific kinds in mind cannot fully apply to the kinds of the social and human sciences.
In this article, we shall describe the principles on which formal ontology is based, comparing its characteristics with those of legal domain and referring, as exemplification, to some models offered by legal theory which could lay the bases for a legal formal ontology.
www.formalontology.it /onto_papers.htm   (5293 words)

  
 rants :: hugo liu :: a new æsthetic
In The Cognitive Structure of Emotions, Ortony, Clore, and Collins (OCandC) give a particularly lucid discussion of the shortcomings and gaps exhibited in the prominent theories of emotions which have arisen in prior work, and then themselves propose quite an elegant and well-elaborated framework for emotions.
Their theory of emotions is that it arises out of the cognitive appraisal of an event, a causing agent (animates, or projections onto inanimates), and objects (inanimates, or depersonified animates), additionally remarking that appraisal typically happens in this left-to-right ordering.
Although not clearly articulated in the book, there is a temporal logic to this left-to-right evaluation insofar as events are the most immediate (reactive), finding the root cause takes some time (deliberative), and accreting what's felt about the agent onto attitudes about objects only happens after a longer time of reflexive conditioning (sub-liminal reflection).
web.media.mit.edu /~hugo/ideas/cognitivestructureocc.html   (1072 words)

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