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Topic: Collective farming

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  Collective farming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farm's net output.
Soviet peasants in collective farms received a type of dividend after compulsory deliveries were made to the state.
Collective farming (of the completely voluntary kind) was also implemented in Kibbutzim as a unique combination of Zionism and socialism.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Collective_farming   (1128 words)

 Collective - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Collectives are also characterised by attempts to share and exercise political and social power and to make decisions on a consensus-driven and egalitarian basis.
Collectives differ from cooperatives in that they are not necessarily focused upon an economic benefit or saving (but can be that as well).
Collective consciousness is a term created by French social theorist Émile Durkheim that describes how an entire community comes together to share similar values.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Collective   (222 words)

 Collective farming: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture agriculture quick summary:
A kolkhoz (russian:) was a form of collective farming in the soviet union that existed along with state farms...
Organic farming is a way of farming that avoids the use of synthetic chemicals as well as genetically modified organisms (gmos), EHandler: no quick summary.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/co/collective_farming.htm   (1515 words)

 farming on Encyclopedia.com
FARMING [farming] in the history of taxation, collection of taxes through private contractors.
Although tax farming is no longer practiced, it was common in the cities of ancient Greece and in republican Rome, where the collection of direct taxes was farmed out to publicans; in the Roman Empire only indirect taxes were farmed.
The collection of certain indirect taxes was leased by the king to the company of farmers general, a chartered body of 40 financiers (at one time they numbered 60) that guaranteed a fixed sum of revenue in advance.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/f1/farming.asp   (532 words)

 The transformation of the agricultural enterprises has provided a significant change in the structure of the structure ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
It is necessary to mention that this trend does not depend on the farms structure, it occurs in the countries with both small-scale farms domination and the large-scale farms domination.
So, as a family farm collective enterprise exists in its two (sometimes three) states: as a firm hiring labor, and a collective of labor households living from their labor sales (can be also as a collective of consumers).
In many farms people are still relying on the so-called leasing contract and similar forms of inter-farm economic accountancy which were introduced at the end of the communism as a reform.
www.iet.ru /personal/agro/Sofia.htm   (4311 words)

 Collective farming at opensource encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
In many cases, the immediate effect of collectivization was to reduce grain output and almost halve livestock, thus producing major famines in 1932-33.
In North Korea in the late 1990s, the collective farming system collapsed under the strain of droughts.
Collective farming was also implemented in Kibbutzim as a unique combination of Zionism and socialism.
www.wiki.tatet.com /Collective_farming.html   (574 words)

 Collective farming   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Soviet peasants in collective farms received type of dividend after compulsory deliveries were to the state.
In the Soviet Union collectivization was introduced in the late 1920s as a scheme to boost agricultural through the organization of land and labor collectives called collective farms (kolkhozes) and state farms (sovkhozes).
In one extreme episode several million mainly in the Ukraine died in a famine during the drought of 1932 - 1933 after Stalin forced the peasants into the collectives famine is known in Ukraine as Holodomor).
www.freeglossary.com /Collective_farming   (775 words)

 Agribusiness in a Global Environment Lesson 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
These farms tend to be large, but very small farms (even less than one acre) also are classified as commercial farms.
This type of farming system includes tropical and sub-tropical plantations such as Third World banana and sugar cane growers, mid-latitude grain farming such as North American wheat farmers, vegetable and fruit cultivation, mixed crop and livestock farming, and livestock ranching.
Collective farming systems are usually located in countries with a centrally planned economy, such as mainland China, North Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba.
www.ais.msstate.edu /age/lesson2/farmsys.html   (327 words)

 1993 Undergraduate Prize Winning Paper
Arguments Made Against Agricultural Collectives It is commonly argued in the West that collectives, as such, were responsible for the suppression of peasant livelihood and that the recent economic improvements are the direct consequences of their dismantling.
Since crop yields had advanced nationwide earlier under collective farming and declined in the advanced areas under household responsibility, the burden of proof, it seems to me, lies with those who insist that the new incentive structure contributed decisively to increased yields.
As was seen, the ability of collectives to develop, maintain, and utilize a large-scale water-control infrastructure and the conviction among the peasantry that grain production under the collective is, for this reason, more efficient than that under the household, together shed doubt upon claims that scale is of no benefit in agriculture.
nautarch.tamu.edu /anth/sea/papers/1993ugpaper.htm   (7325 words)

 Concerning Questions of Agrarian Policy
I am speaking not only of developed collective farms, which have machines and tractors at their disposal, but also of collective farms in their primary stage, which represent, as it were, the manufacture period of collective-farm development and are based on peasant farm implements.
I am referring to the collective farms in their primary stage which are now being formed in the areas of complete collectivization, and which are based upon the simple pooling of the peasants' implements of production.
The great importance of the collective farms lies precisely in that they represent the principal base for the employment of machinery and tractors in agriculture, that they constitute the principal base for remoulding the peasant, for changing his mentality in the spirit of socialism.
www.marx2mao.com /Stalin/QAP29.html   (8175 words)

 Adaptation Strategies of Agricultural Enterprises   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Primarily it is the right for members of former collective and state farms to choose that particular form of economic activity, which fits their interests, needs and opportunities supplemented with the right to leave the enterprise without a need to seek permission from the administration and remaining members.
The dynamics of the number of autonomous peasant farms show that at the beginning of transition the country did possess a social base for development of the private sector as one of sectors of agrarian economy.
What is needed is a reasonable combination of collective forms with private initiatives, orientation to balanced development of the three segments of the agrarian economy with appropriate consideration of the trends emerging in their development.
ieie.nsc.ru /~rokos/nesch/Italy.html   (4476 words)

 .::Agricultural Support Republican Center::.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Farms and collective farms were possessed of about 68 percent of the total number of livestock, 64 percent of tractors and 68 percent of machines.
Small sizes of farms, absence of alternative sources of income, limited domestic market, inactivity of rural infrastructures, low standarts of service resulted in the establishment of small, not commercial farms working in order to satisfy their internal needs only.
The farms providing 90 percent of the gross output of agricultural sector have small sizes (at the average each of the farms has 1.37 hectares of agricultural soils).
arm.agrowebcac.org /asrc/publications.php?id=0   (2247 words)

When farm managers were asked about this most sensitive topic, the harvest was divided into only two categories: the amount kept on the farm and allocated to households as a per capita ration, and the amount sold to the state.
Collective farms in North Korea continue to operate in a rigid command structure, both internally and externally.
Above the farm level, many local and national cadres responsible for the farm sector, while upholding official policy, give indications that they are ready for change, if only to relieve them of the unrelenting pressure to produce results in a broken system.
www.ies.wisc.edu /ltc/news81a1.html   (3795 words)

 The Agricultural Situation Of North Korea   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Farm mechanization was regarded as one of the most powerful ways of transforming traditional farming into a modern system.
The management of collective farms is in the hands of management committees made up of agricultural and technical experts.
Farm labor accounts for about 40% of the total labor force in North Korea, which is higher than the 11% in the South.
www.agnet.org /library/article/eb475.html   (4829 words)

 Speech to the First All-Russia Congress of Land Departments, Poor Peasants' Committees and Communes, December 11, 1918   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
It also stipulated, among other things, that farm property, draught animals and farm implements which passed into the possession of the nation and the working peasants should become public property and cease to be the private property of individual farms.
The importance of this type of farming is indicated in the law on the socialisation of the land.
We concluded and are concluding agreements of this kind because the transition to the collective form of land ownership, to collective farming, to state farms, to communes, cannot be effected at one stroke.
www.marxists.org /archive/lenin/works/1918/dec/11.htm   (2678 words)

 Alcoholism is a serious problem among workers on Russian farms, and many farms pay workers in coupons instead of cash ...
One farm with 600 cows had 105 workers, and their wages ranged from 780 rubles ($25) a month for tractor drivers to 600 rubles ($19) for milkers.Alcoholism is a serious problem among workers on Russian farms, and many farms pay workers in coupons instead of cash to work..
Instead, shareholders often lease their collective farm's land to private farming companies in exchange for annual rent, which usually is paid in grain or wheat.
In order to create a land market, collective farms would have to be: (1) sold as a unit, with the proceeds divided among shareholders, which could prompt a wave of rural-urban migration; or (2) divided up among shareholders, so that they could sell their land.
www.migrationint.com.au /ruralnews/guam/jul_2002-20rmn.asp   (738 words)

 The Road of the October Revolution
In 1929-30 the collective farms were granted seed loans and seed assistance to the amount of 10,000,000 centners of grain (61 million poods).
Actually, the state farms, with their modern machines, with the assistance they render the peasants in their vicinity, and the unprecedented scope of their farming, were the leading force that facilitated the turn of the peasant masses and brought them on to the path of collectivisation.
The Bukharinites represented the decay of kulak farming as a decay of agriculture in the USSR.
www.wpb.be /icm/97en/97en05.htm   (6606 words)

 ID21 - communicating development research
Collective farming systems in most former communist countries were dismantled after the break up of the Soviet Union.
The break-up of collective farming is usually considered positive because it allows land and labour to be allocated more efficiently.
Although collective farms have been dismantled in the former communist countries, group farming can be supported on grounds of poverty alleviation and agricultural growth.
www.id21.org /society/s5crw1g1.html   (607 words)

 Reply to Collective-Farm Comrades
The collective farms which had sprung up so rapidly began to melt away just as rapidly, and a section of the peasantry, who only yesterday had had the greatest confidence in the collective farms, began to turn away from them.
The exodus of a section of the peasants signifies that of late a certain number of unsound collective farms were formed which are now being cleansed of their unstable elements.
In withdrawing from the collective farms they are going against their own interests, for only the collective farms offer the peasants a way out of poverty and ignorance.
www.marx2mao.com /Stalin/RCFC30.html   (6708 words)

While farmers are now better off than in the days of collective farming, many problems of rural poverty and a large gap between urban and rural incomes have persisted, and the issue of secure land tenure has remained central.
Much smaller collective units, based on the residential hamlet or “production team” were then introduced, and remained the norm until the late 1970s, with production stabilizing and then slowly increasing.
The survey results showed that, by mid-2001, 47% of farm households had received 30-year contacts, and 40% of farm households had high confidence that they would be on the same land for the full 30 years.
www.rdiland.org /OURWORK/OurWork_China.html   (1478 words)

 Collective farming   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
In an extreme episode, over seven million peasants, mainly in Ukraine, died of famine in 1932–1933 after Stalin forced the peasants into the collectives (this famine is known in Ukraine as Holodomor).
Official statements blamed a fictional drought rather than central control of the economy.
Collective farming has been implemented in nearly all socialist states, with varying degrees of success.
collective-farming.ask.dyndns.dk   (465 words)

 Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To satisfy the state's need for increased food supplies and finance industrialization, Stalin instituted a program of collectivization of agriculture as the state combined the peasants' lands and animals into collective farms and enforcing the policies by the regular troops and secret police.
As the members of the collective farms were not allowed to receive any grain until the unachievable quotas were met, the starvation became widespread.
Millions starved to death in a famine, known as the Holodomor (available data is insufficient for precise calculations and estimates vary).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ukraine   (4279 words)

 Collective farming - Gurupedia
wages, but rather receive a share of the farm's net output.
famine during the drought of 1932-1933 after Stalin forced the peasants into the collectives (this famine is known in Ukraine as Holodomor).
North Korea, Cuba and China, farmers were not permitted to grow their own food, but were forced to help cultivate government crops.
www.gurupedia.com /c/co/collective_farm.htm   (437 words)

 Working Paper No. 11
A discussion on the relationship between contract farming and bargaining structures is next, followed by an analysis of the relationship between bargaining structures in agricultural labor relations and collective bargaining outcomes.
Obreros Unidos' unionizing and collective bargaining activities took place in the context of contract farming, a farming arrangement that for several years has existed between Libby and various growers in Green Lake, Marquette, Portage and Waushara Counties.
Although understandable because growers and processors seldom define their legal relationship in farming contracts, it is surprising the commission completely disregarded this aspect of the relationship between the growers and the processor and/or between these parties and the field workers.
www.jsri.msu.edu /RandS/research/wps/wp11.html   (6047 words)

 CHINA: Growing grassroots initiatives to re-collectivise farming
Long plagued by poor farming output and resulting starvation, 18 families of Xiaogang Village — risking imprisonment and possibly their lives — made a secret pact in 1978 to shift to family-based cultivation and distribution.
Leaving no doubt that the delegation is seeking to steer Xiaogang back to collective farming, it wrote a message in the visitor’s book in Nanjie that it wants to learn the best way to strengthen the collective economy as a means to achieve “collective prosperity”.
On their own, these local initiatives in collective cultivation do not constitute a return to socialist production, because the broader centrally planned economic organisation under a working people’s government is no longer present.
www.greenleft.org.au /back/2006/653/653p24.htm   (721 words)

 Collective Farming In the California Delta by Sharon Votaw - Freedom 21 Santa Cruz
Collective Farming In the California Delta by Sharon Votaw
We cannot disturb the little ‘phibian with any farming practice and we have to leave him little ponds all over our property even if he is not present.
I believe this constitutes the definition of a collective farm as I learned it in school.
www.freedom21santacruz.net /site/article.php?sid=20   (1435 words)

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