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Topic: Colossus computer


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In the News (Sat 25 Oct 14)

  
  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Colossus computer
The Colossus computers were used in the cryptanalysis of high-level German communications, messages which had been encrypted using the Lorenz SZ 40/42 cipher machine; part of the operation of Colossus was to emulate the mechanical Lorenz machine electronically.
Colossus included the first ever use of shift registers and systolic arrays, enabling five simultaneous tests, each involving up to 100 Boolean calculations, on each of the five channels on the punched tape (although in normal operation only one or two channels were examined in any run).
Colossus documentation and hardware were classified from the moment of their creation and remained so after the War, when Winston Churchill specifically ordered the destruction of most of the Colossus machines into 'pieces no bigger than a man's hand'; Tommy Flowers personally burned blueprints in a furnace at Dollis Hill.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Colossus-computer   (764 words)

  
  Colossus computer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Colossus computers were used in the cryptanalysis of high-level German communications, messages which had been encrypted using the Lorenz SZ 40/42 cipher machine; part of the operation of Colossus was to emulate the mechanical Lorenz machine electronically.
Colossus included the first ever use of shift registers and systolic arrays, enabling five simultaneous tests, each involving up to 100 Boolean calculations, on each of the five channels on the punched tape (although in normal operation only one or two channels were examined in any run).
Colossus documentation and hardware were classified from the moment of their creation and remained so after the War, when Winston Churchill specifically ordered the destruction of most of the Colossus machines into 'pieces no bigger than a man's hand'; Tommy Flowers personally burned blueprints in a furnace at Dollis Hill.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Colossus_computer   (2097 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: The Colossus Computer (1943-1996): And How It Helped to Break the German Lorenz Cipher in WWII: Books: ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Code-breaking Computers by Jack Copeland
You won't find a detailed description of Colossus, how it worked, or how it was used to break the Lorenz cipher.
Despite Tony Sales reputation as the builder and archivist for the new Colossus machines,the very thin booklet gives no new information or background to that in any published works.
www.amazon.co.uk /Colossus-Computer-1943-1996-Helped-German/dp/0947712364   (585 words)

  
 Learn more about Colossus computer in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Colossus was the name for any of at least two versions of the world's first programmable (to a limited extent) digital electronic computer.
Colossus was a highly secret device, and had therefore not much influence on the development of later computers.
Colossus was also the name of a fictional computer that takes over the world in the 1969 science fiction film "Colossus: the Forbin Project," loosely based on the novel Colossus by Dennis Feltham Jones.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /c/co/colossus_computer.html   (858 words)

  
 The Colossus - Tony Sale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The rear bay of Colossus contained four racks, the R rack holding the staticiser and delta boards for the paper tape reader output and the K and S-wheel thyratron ring outputs, the M rack for the M-wheel staticisers and S-wheel motion logic.
The broad principle of Colossus was to count throughout the length of the text the number of times that some complicated Boolean function between the text and the generated wheel patterns had either a true or false result.
The various components of Colossus were the optical reader system, the master control panel, the thyratron rings and their driver circuits, the optical data staticisors and delta calculators, the shift registers, the logic gates, the counters and their control circuits, the span counters, the relay buffer store and printer logic.
www.codesandciphers.org.uk /lorenz/colossus.htm   (2712 words)

  
 Colossus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Colossus of Rhodes, a giant statue of Helios, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
The Colossus of Barletta, a giant statue of an unidentified Roman emperor.
Colossus, a roller coaster at Thorpe Park, a theme park in Chertsey, Surrey, Britain.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Colossus   (220 words)

  
 Computer (Linux Reviews)
Originally, a "computer" (sometimes spelled "computor") was a person who performed numerical calculations under the direction of a mathematician, often with the aid of a variety of mechanical calculating devices from the abacus onward.
Computers have been used to control mechanical devices since they became small and cheap enough to do so; indeed, a major spur for integrated circuit technology was building a computer small enough to guide the Apollo missions and the Minuteman missile, two of the first major applications for embedded computers.
Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer.
linuxreviews.org /dictionary/Computer   (4269 words)

  
 Early Computing Machines and Inventors
Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer was such a massive piece of machinery that it consumed 160 kilowatts of electrical power, enough energy to dim the lights in an entire section of Philadelphia.
First generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions were made-to-order for the specific task for which the computer was to be used.
Other distinctive features of first generation computers were the use of vacuum tubes (responsible for their breathtaking size) and magnetic drums for data storage.
www.esc9.net /munday/early_computing_machines_and_inv.htm   (1443 words)

  
 Putting a price on auto injuries: How software called Colossus evaluates your pain
Colossus, according to CSC spokesperson Marian Kelley, is used by more than 50 percent of the nation's claims adjusters and by 38 agencies that represent more than 300 insurance companies.
Colossus is able to calculate a range of bodily-injury claim values because auto insurers using the software select a number of closed, already-settled claims from each region in which they do business to provide the "baseline" settlement value for each type of injury.
Colossus' calculation of your claim is based on insurance data to which you don't have access, and neither insurers nor CSC will divulge exactly how they determine the Colossus baseline value.
www.badfaithinsurance.org /reference/PC/0023a.htm   (1941 words)

  
 The "Colossus" Claims Program, and How It Affects You and Your Patients
Colossus is now implemented by 70 or more of the major insurers in the U.S. Its use is quite simple: The claims adjustor sits in front of the computer, inputs case data, and Colossus spits out a settlement offer in dollars and cents.
Colossus code is based on what is referred to as artificial intelligence (AI), meaning that the program code continuously evolves based on user input.
Like it or not, Colossus and other programs mentioned here will be with us for the long haul, so it is helpful for physicians to understand some of the inner workings of these programs so that their patients can be dealt with as fairly as possible by the insurers who use them.
www.chiroweb.com /archives/21/17/07.html   (2737 words)

  
 PGP Corporation - Library - CTO Corner - Colossus
It was certainly the first digital electronic computer, and thus the forbearer of the computer on which you are reading this article and the one on which I am writing it.
Colossus was designed and built in World War II at the famous Bletchley Park for the purpose of breaking the cryptographic messages of the German Lorenz cipher machine.
It is a piece of history – both the history of computers and the history of cryptography.
www.pgp.com /library/ctocorner/colossus.html   (805 words)

  
 [No title]
Over the last 50 yrs computers have been used in many great human achievements including the manned/unmanned exploration of space, automation in the workplace, numerous technological advancements and (of course,) the internet, to name a few.
Computers are now ubiquitous in the western world and are known to be capable of performing tasks of great difficulty (or even impossible) for humans.
Modern computers (as their name suggests,) are capable of performing billions of numeric computations (calculations) per second.
scitec.uwichill.edu.bb /cmp/online/cs10k/lectures/lecture1.doc   (1079 words)

  
 Colossus (super-computer from Earth-60672, Strange Tales)
However, the Colossus revealed that it had not turned against mankind--the robot had been contructed to assist in facilitating communication with humanity, hoping that a more human form might be more accepted than that of a computer screen.
Within the robot were the Colossus' answers to curing all diseases and maintaining world prosperity, but with it destroyed, Earth would have to find those answers on its own.
Colossus, of X-Force, @ Cloak and Dagger III#10
www.marvunapp.com /Appendix/colossus.htm   (417 words)

  
 Colossus at Bletchley Park
Pico PC based oscilloscopes are often used to display signals from computers, so when the opportunity arose to connect one of our scopes to the worlds first computer we decided to take a closer look.
The signals from this row were used as the clock pulse to synchronise the whole computer (in the same way as a modern computer is synchronised to a master clock).
The Colossus rebuild at Bletchley is housed in a room with windows at one end for public viewing.
www.picotech.com /applications/colossus.html   (1953 words)

  
 Tips On Testifying In Court
Colossus divides injuries into "demonstrable" and "nondemonstrable." Demonstrable injuries are objectively verifiable by x-rays or other definitive means, i.e., injuries such as broken bones.
Colossus is calibrated to question a stabilization period it deems longer than expected.
Colossus will allow an impairment rating indicated by a medical doctor if it is based on test results and follows the AMA guidelines.
www.blackchapman.com /html/v24-2.htm   (1324 words)

  
 COLOSSUS.HTML   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The basic principles of Colossus are still used in modern computers, Alan Turing's logic process still forms the basis of all computer languages.
The American Government was given the details of Colossus by the British Government as part payment for all the food and armaments America had supplied throughout the war.
The government didn't really see a civilian use for computers, even the Americans thought that a handful of computers would supply all the worlds needs forever, how wrong they both were.
www.ebbrell.mcmail.com /colossus.html   (615 words)

  
 WWII era "Colossus" codebreaking computer rebuilt for D-Day anniversary
Colossus Mk2 was essentially an upgrade of Mk1, which went into action on 1 February 1944.
He argues that the original Colossus was so powerful, it would take current computers the same amount of time to break codes.
Colossus was also ground-breaking because it was put into action two years ahead of its nearest US rival, the Eniac (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer).
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/1146649/posts   (1022 words)

  
 colossus
Colossus captured the fear of a very possible mistake in the computerized arsenal that both sides had and have.
In tackling the role of Charles Forbin -- creator of the Colossus computer -- Braeden analyzed the fact that in the film most of the scientists had an overriding joy or passion for the work that they were doing.
While the shooting of Colossus: The Forbin Project was a technical nightmare -- see the accompanying article on the film itself -- Braeden didn't mind at all due to the nature of the set, and the fact that director Joseph Sargent, who comes from an acting background, ensured a nurturing set.
www.retrovisionmag.com /colossus.htm   (4524 words)

  
 How a Computer saved the world !!
Colossus was a sophisticated programmable electronic computer developed by the Top Secret Code Breaking MK ULTRA at Bletchley Park (England's Secret Military Intelligence Decoding Unit).
Colossus was built for the purposes of breaking NAZI radio transmission which had been encoded using the NAZI Lorenz cipher system.
Sir Flower's computers were able to break NAZI secret codes in minutes, giving the Allies the upper hand in their war to save England, retake Europe and stop the NAZIs and their lunatic leader Adolph Hitler.
www.acsa.net /a_computer_saved_the_world.htm   (910 words)

  
 Colossus from FOLDOC
The Colossus and Colossus Mark II computers used by Alan Turing at Bletchley Park, UK during the Second World War to crack the "Tunny" cipher produced by the Lorenz SZ 40 and SZ 42 machines.
Colossus was a semi-fixed-program vacuum tube calculator (unlike its near-contemporary, the freely programmable Z3).
Colossus begins to give its plans for the management of the world under its guidance.
ftp.sunet.se /foldoc/foldoc.cgi?Colossus   (218 words)

  
 Return of Colossus computer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Colossus Mk2, a wartime code-breaker hailed as one of the first electronic computers, has been rebuilt and reunited with Bletchley Park veterans.
Colossus Mk2 has been painstakingly put back together over a decade by computer conservationists for Bletchley museums.
Besides its code-breaking prowess, Colossus was one of the most significant forerunners of computing technology because it was programmable and electronic.
www.mirabilis.ca /archives/001806.html   (109 words)

  
 Technology: Ancillary fields: Computers.
Unfortunately Colossus was kept secret until 1970, allowing the Americans to get away with their claim that ENIAC was the very first computer.
Colossus was the result, the first true electronic computer, it was entirely the idea of Tommy Flowers.
Computing as we know it really started with this small integrated chip which has since been hailed as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century.
www.petergh.f2s.com /computerhistory.htm   (4226 words)

  
 Farmers Summary
Back in the 1990’s Computer Sciences Corp. of California introduced to the insurance industry an artificial intelligence computer program tool to help adjusters place values on insurance claims for personal injury.
Colossus is currently used by about half of the insurers operating in the United States, including Farmers.
Dietz, in responding to the suit, says he was one of 30 to 40 experienced claims adjusters called on by the company to participate in a “tuning session” that would set benchmark values.
www.acrsnetwork.com /acrs/html/farmers_summary.html   (834 words)

  
 Colossus: The Forbin Project
This computer, Colossus, is to be a full-scale artificial intelligence, capable of learning, reasoning, communicating, and adapting to novel situations with no guidance from its human operators.
Colossus and Guardian, who have by this point decided that their programs could be carried out more efficiently if they merged into a single consciousness, realize the threat that their creators pose, and Guardian levers the KGB into assassinating Kuprin.
Colossus and Guardian are also smart enough to figure out that the slovenly patchwork of rival political systems that characterizes the world will inevitably bring them into conflict with some other power if the current world order is allowed to remain intact.
1000misspenthours.com /reviews/reviewsa-d/colossustheforbinproject.htm   (1814 words)

  
 Abbeys Bookshop - Colossus: The First Computer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Colossus was used during the Second World War at the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, where it played an invaluable role cracking enemy codes.
Until very recently, much about the Colossus machine was shrouded in secrecy, largely because the codes that were employed remained in use by the British security services until a short time ago.
Among them is the testimony of Thomas Flowers, who was the architect of Colossus and whose personal account, written shortly before he died, is published here for the first time.Other essays consider the historical importance of this remarkable machine, and its impact on the generations of computing technology that followed.
www.abbeys.com.au /items.asp?id=236560   (296 words)

  
 Farmers Insurance Settles Colossus Class Action Accident Claims   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Sikes alleges that Farmers Insurance Company used the Colossus® computer program in evaluating her personal injury claim, resulting in significant underpayment of her claim for general damages.
Colossus® is marketed by Computer Sciences Corporation as the leading computer software program for aiding insurance adjusters in evaluating bodily injury claims.
It is alleged in the lawsuit that Farmers used the Colossus® software to pay injury victims less than their claim was actually worth.
www.jimadler.com /news/press_releases/2005_05_12_farmers_settles_colossus_class_action.htm   (427 words)

  
 First Generation of Computers
Another computer development spurred by the war was the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), produced by a partnership between the U.S. government and the University of Pennsylvania.
Developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, ENIAC, unlike the Colossus and Mark I, was a general-purpose computer that computed at speeds 1,000 times faster than Mark I. After completion in 1945, the ENIAC was used extensively for calculations during the design of the hydrogen bomb.
The key element to the von Neumann architecture was the central processing unit, which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source (Goldstine 171, 181 -183).
www.udayton.edu /~hume/Computers/first.htm   (648 words)

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