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Topic: Combustion chamber

In the News (Fri 25 Apr 14)

  Internal-Combustion Engine - MSN Encarta
The combustion chamber consists of a cylinder, usually fixed, that is closed at one end and in which a close-fitting piston slides.
At the moment when the piston reaches the end of this stroke and the volume of the combustion chamber is at a minimum, the fuel mixture is ignited by the spark plug and burns, expanding and exerting a pressure on the piston, which is then driven away from the cylinder head in the third stroke.
At the end of the compression stroke, vaporized fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and burns instantly because of the high temperature of the air in the chamber.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553622/Internal-Combustion_Engine.html   (1508 words)

 Combustion chamber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Various shapes of combustion chamber have been used, such as L-head (or flathead) for side-valve engines, "bathtub","hemispherical" and "wedge" for overhead valve engines and "pent-roof" for engines having 3, 4 or 5 valves per cylinder.
The shape of the chamber has a marked effect on power output, efficiency and harmful emissions; the designer's objectives are to burn all of the mixture as completely as possible while avoiding excessive temperatures (which create NOx).
The term combustion chamber is also used to refer to an additional space between the firebox and boiler in a steam locomotive.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Combustion_chamber   (405 words)

 The Graben:. Combustion Chamber
The purpose of the chamber is to contain the high temperature and high pressure gas resulting from the solid fuel and oxidizer combusting and direct it through the convergent divergent nozzle (CDN).
The convergent divergent nozzle attached at the bottom of the chamber is used to convert the thermal energy in the chamber to kinetic energy, thus producing thrust.
For small combustion chambers, the contraction ratio of the chamber should be in the range from 3 to 5.
home.earthlink.net /~thegraben/combchamb.htm   (936 words)

 AE Comb Lab - Research Topics - Micro Combustion
Since the change in the number of moles during combustion is negligible for propane, the ideal gas law predicts that the time history of combustion chamber pressure is directly proportional to the bulk temperature time history, and hence, depends on this heat production/loss balance.
Combustion chambers of three different thicknesses were built in order to investigate the effect of changing the S-V ratio on the combustor pressure history.
However, because the pressure rise due to combustion in a volume confined by adiabatic walls is independent of the size of the volume, any change in combustor pressure rise due to variation in chamber thickness should be the result of variations in heat losses to the walls.
www.ae.gatech.edu /labs/comblab5/Minipiston/ConstVol.htm   (4895 words)

 Engine Combustion Chamber   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
In any internal combustion engine, fuel and oxygen are combined in a combustion process to produce the power to turn the crankshaft of the engine.
We have peeled open the side of the chamber and the intake manifold which sits on top of the chamber and we have color coded the parts for easy identification.
The switch is closed against the plug, and opens quickly to generate a spark to ignite the fuel/air mixture during the combustion process.
www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/comchamber.html   (503 words)

 NASA - SpaceResearch - Combustion Under Pressure - A New Understanding Revealed
But combustion chambers that allow the flame to be visually observable through special optical windows are vulnerable to the buildup of temperature and pressure inside the chamber.
At the end of combustion, the combustion products not only have a very high temperature, frequently in excess of 2,000 kelvin, but the chamber pressure is also several times that of the starting pressure, which is already quite high.
As the combustion chamber is released inside the drop tower and begins to fall, a spark plug inside the inner chamber is discharged, igniting the flame.
spaceresearch.nasa.gov /general_info/highpressurecomb_lite.html   (1816 words)

 Technology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The right combustion chamber A operates with the lower secondary expansion chamber B. Likewise, the left combustion chamber C operates with the upper secondary expansion chamber D. Since both pairs of chambers operate independent of each other, the engine is classified as a twin.
As chamber B reaches its maximum volume, as shown in Figure 2, it has pulled practically all of the exhaust products from chamber A into chamber B. At the same time, the exhaust gases in chamber A are replaced by a fresh new fuel air charge.
This begins the initial combustion and primary expansion in chamber A. At the same time, the exhaust gases in chamber B are pushed out of the engine through a port in the CCM and a port in the orbiting piston.
www.ericksonmotors.com /technolo.htm   (790 words)

 Internal-combustion engine - WOI Encyclopedia Italia
The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which combustion occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber.
Combustion of the fuel charge inside a chamber causes a rapid rise in temperature and pressure of the gases in the chamber, which are permitted to expand.
The only limitations are that the fuel must be easily transportable through the fuel system to the combustion chamber, and that the fuel release sufficient energy in the form of heat upon combustion to make use of the engine practical.
www.wheelsofitaly.com /wiki/index.php/Internal-combustion_engine   (2692 words)

 Combustion Chamber - High Performance Pontiac Magazine
Even the worst combustion chamber design can be improved upon by smoothing the walls and surface of the chamber to increase flame speeds, reducing the volume of the squish region with a zero deck or thinner head gasket, and indexing the spark plug.
The chamber is exclusive to the Ram Air V and closely resembles that of a Tunnel Port Ford head of the era.
Chamber size varied by year and application, with early 400 heads using a 71-72 cc chamber in most cases; some chambers were as small as 67 ccs.
www.highperformancepontiac.com /tech/0209hpp_engine_combustion_chamber   (3707 words)

 Renewable Resources Biomass Energy Technology
Combustion technologies convert biomass fuels into several forms of useful energy for commercial or industrial uses: hot air, hot water, steam and electricity.
Biomass combustion facilities that produce electricity from steam-driven turbine-generators have a conversion efficiency of 17 to 25 percent.
In combustion, however, the pyrolytic vapors are immediately burned at temperatures in the range of 1500° to 2000° C. In contrast, the process of gasification is controlled, allowing the volatile gases to be extracted at a lower temperature before combustion.
www.oregon.gov /ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/bioenergy.shtml   (1980 words)

 Class Definition for Class 123 - INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES
The space or combustion chamber above referred to is ordinarily the interior of the working cylinder of the engine, the products of combustion acting immediately upon a reciprocating, rotating, or oscillating piston moving within the same chamber in which combustion takes place or in an extension thereof.
where combustion products are used as a motive fluid having addition of steam or water within a prime mover, subclass 712 for an engine operated selectively or simultaneously by internal combustion of fuel and by expansion of motive fluid or subclass 775 for a process of introducing water or steam.
The combustible mixture ordinarily begins to enter the working cylinder at the beginning of the working stroke in which case it is ignited at atmospheric pressure, as above, after a definite portion of the working stroke has been performed and the whole charge supplied, the engine thus working upon a two-stroke cycle without compression.
www.uspto.gov /go/classification/uspc123/defs123.htm   (4097 words)

 ptdoityourself.net - Chrysler Hemi and Combustion Chamber Design
Hemispherical combustion chambers were commonly used in racing engines built up to the mid-1960s, when the success of the Ford-Cosworth DFV Formula One engine led to a resurgence of four-valve-per-cylinder designs with narrow valve angles incompatible with hemispherical combustion chambers.
The combustion chamber in diesel engines is located in the piston crown, where it is in fact spherical.
Twin Swirl Combustion Chamber - A special design of a four-stroke engine, in which the intake valves are arranged in such a way as to ensure that the gas flow ends in two separate swirls; this design improves swirl and thus enhances combustion of the fuel/air mixture within the cylinder.
www.ptdoityourself.net /tl/info_combustionchamber.html   (1422 words)

 Burnt Latke - Chamber Fan - Combustion Launchers - Spud Guns
The function of the chamber fan is to mix the fuel with the air inside the chamber to create a consistent explosive environment.
The fan is usually placed near the rear of the chamber for easy maintenance and blowing toward the muzzle to push the fuel into the existing air.
The force from the combustion does not usually impact the fan or cause it to move so it is possible to simply wedge the fan into place.
www.burntlatke.com /fan.html   (1296 words)

 The RxP fuel additive contains amongst others, a molecule that is a strong infra-red (IR) absorber. Once in vapor form ...
Once in vapor form inside the combustion chamber, it will absorb a large part of the IR radiation that is emitted during the combustion process.
Note that preheating of the intake air prior to entering the combustion chamber by using waste heat is widely practiced and it seems to be the general agreement that it is worthwhile.
In case of preheating the fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber by IR radiation, a temperature gradient is not an issue as radiation has no temperature, meaning the temperature of a gas having any temperature can still be increased by radiation.
www.rxp.com /science.htm   (1287 words)

 Rocket Propulsion
R in U.S. units), Tc is the combustion temperature, M is the average molecular weight of the exhaust gases, Pc is the combustion chamber pressure, and Pe is the pressure at the nozzle exit.
As with the staged combustion cycle, all of the propellants are burned at the optimal mixture ratio in the main chamber, and typically no flow is dumped overboard; however, the heat transfer to the fuel limits the power available to the turbine, making this cycle appropriate for small to midsize engines.
Thrust chamber designs are generally categorized or identified by the hot gas wall cooling method or the configuration of the coolant passages, where the coolant pressure inside may be as high as 500 atmospheres.
www.braeunig.us /space/propuls.htm   (4923 words)

 Engine Mechanical Operation - Combustion Process   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
At the end of the compression stroke the fuel/air mixture has been compressed into the combustion chamber to a moderate pressure and temperature by the motion of the piston to the right.
The combustion proceeds so quickly that we can consider the piston to be motionless and the volume of the combustion chamber to be a constant.
The combustion increases the temperature of the exhaust gases, any residual air in the combustion chamber, and the combustion chamber itself.
wright.nasa.gov /airplane/engburn.html   (551 words)

 Pulverized Coal Combustion System
Combustion and conversion systems can generally be categorized into either of the following two categories: 1) current commercial technologies or 2) emerging technologies.
Ash is formed in the combustion chamber while coal combusts.
In general, pc combustion results in approximately 65%—85% fly ash, and the remainder is coarser bottom ash or boiler slag.
www.undeerc.org /carrc/html/CoalCombustion.html   (245 words)

 Diesel-Central.com the technical source for Diesel Truck information, Truck Pulling, and Drag Racing
When the engine is throttled, less of the air fuel mixture is admitted to the combustion chamber, but the ratio of the air to fuel in the mixture is always nearly 14.7:1.
At the start of combustion, the combustion chamber on a diesel engine is filled with air, which is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen.
What they mean is that the combustion air is given a high rate of twist as it enters the combustion chamber, allowing the air and fuel to burn quickly and efficiently.
www.diesel-central.com /News/cackle.htm   (2198 words)

 Consutech incineration process   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
This chamber (or chambers) is designed to retain the combustion gases at 1800°F with retention time based on waste composition and regulatory guidelines.
Remaining in the lower chamber are the non-combustibles, such as metal and glass, and carbonous residue from the burned material.
The gases flowing from the lower chamber are a result of the interaction of the air with the waste during the controlled burning process.
www.consutech.com /inciner.htm   (585 words)

For this reason a large proportion (usually around 60%) of the air not used for combustion is used as a coolant, first for the metal casing, and then for the gas exiting the chamber to cool it before it reaches the turbines.
In the can-annular combustion chamber, a can, or flame-holder, is built around the flame tubes for this purpose.
The rates of fuel and air injections into the combustion chamber need to be calculated so that the reaction between the fuel and the air is complete.
www.bath.ac.uk /~en3abo/gasturbines/combustion.htm   (497 words)

 Combustion Chamber
As refuse moves through the combustion chamber, it is turned by 3 reciprocating grate stokers for efficient burning.
With computer-controlled combustion, and a temperature of over 2,000 degrees F., the process is clean and efficient.
This facility is the first in the nation to use Takuma's Automatic Combustion Control system which continually monitors and reacts to conditions in the furnace.
www.co.olmsted.mn.us /health/combustion_chamber.asp   (174 words)

 Cylinder Head Combustion Chamber Volume - Circle Track Magazine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
This is a process whereby we physically measure the volume of the combustion chamber.
CC Volume Is Important The volume of the combustion chamber is a key ingredient in determining the compression ratio.
If the combustion chamber volumes are different from cylinder to cylinder, the energy they produce will be different from cylinder to cylinder.
www.circletrack.com /techarticles/ctrp_0611_cylinder_head_volumes   (1341 words)

 Wedge Combustion Chamber Shape Breathing Improvement
The “as-cast” shape of the combustion chamber in Chrysler production heads is no worse than those of other manufacturers, but all can be improved.
However, the chamber wall on one side restricts and confuses the gas as it enters the chamber.
If your calculation results in a smaller chamber volume than you would prefer for compression purposes (ratio is too high), slightly more metal can be removed with relative safety from the exhaust reliefs only, by cutting them back to the left or right edge of the bore or gasket (whichever is closer).
victorylibrary.com /mopar/chamber-tech-c.htm   (2400 words)

 Combustion Chamber That Produces Almost No NOx Emissions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Georgia Tech researchers have created a new combustor (combustion chamber where fuel is burned to power an engine or gas turbine) designed to burn fuel in a wide range of devices — with next to no emission of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO), two of the primary causes of air pollution.
The combustion community is working very hard to find ways to burn the fuel completely and derive all of its energy while minimizing emissions,” said Dr. Ben Zinn, Regents’ professor, the David S. Lewis Jr.
By eliminating all high temperature pockets through better control of the flow of the reactants and combustion products within the combustor, the device produces far lower levels of NOx and CO and avoids acoustic instabilities that are problematic in current low emissions combustors.
www.azom.com /details.asp?newsID=5783   (609 words)

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