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Topic: Comparative genomics


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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  
  Comparative genomics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Comparative genomics is the study of relationships between the genomes of different species or strains.
Comparative genomics is an attempt to take advantage of the information provided by the signatures of selection to understand the function and evolutionary processes that act on genomes.
Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is one of the important goals of the field.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Comparative_genomics   (491 words)

  
 Genomics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Genomics is the study of an organism's genome and the use of the genes.
Genomics appeared in the 1980s and took off in the 1990s with the initiation of genome projects for several species.
This theory holds that the mitochondria and chloroplast organelles found in many animal and plant genomes were originally free-living bacteria that were absorbed by an ancestral eukaryote, and that subsequently became an integral part of the eukaryotic cell.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genomics   (768 words)

  
 genome.gov | Comparative Genomics Fact Sheet
Comparative genomics is an exciting new field of biological research in which the genome sequences of different species - human, mouse and a wide variety of other organisms from yeast to chimpanzees - are compared.
Comparative genomics also provides a powerful tool for studying evolutionary changes among organisms, helping to identify genes that are conserved among species, as well as genes that give each organism its unique characteristics.
More recently, a comparative genomic analysis of six species of yeast prompted scientists to significantly revise their initial catalog of yeast genes and to predict a new set of functional elements thought to play a role in regulating genome activity.
www.genome.gov /11509542   (904 words)

  
 Comparative genomics approaches to the study of drought tolerance
Comparative genomics takes this goal several steps further: to identify and find the role of every gene in every species, to see what changes are significant in making one species different (in phenotype, growth habit, adapted environment) from another, and to determine how these changes came about.
Comparative genomics of these and other species will allow the identification of traits that are shared by all plants (and, hence, are required for general survival) and those that are only shared by some or all drought-tolerant individuals (and, hence, presumably are required only to survive in drought-prone regions).
Comparative genomic approaches to drought tolerance are now competent to identify the genes responsible for drought tolerance in crop plants and their close relatives.
www.cimmyt.org /ABC/map/research_tools_results/wsmolecular/workshopmolecular/WSdroughtComparative.htm   (2488 words)

  
 Current genetics - Comparative Genomics
Using the tools of comparative genomics it is feasible to predict not yet annotated human genes, the existence of the predicted genes is afterwards verified by laboratory methods.
It is possible to generate a comparative map of a given part of the genome (human, rat and mouse) using algorithms for prediction of synteny regions with the combination of knowledge of available genome maps and sequences.
It was comparative genomics that showed that rat and mouse are, at least on the level of DNA sequences, closer to the humans and primates than other mammalian models (pig, dog).
biol.lf1.cuni.cz /ucebnice/en/comparative_genomics.htm   (1043 words)

  
 Structural genomics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Structural genomics consists in the determination of the three dimensional structure of all proteins of a given organism, by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy or computational approaches such as homology modelling.
As opposed to traditional structural biology, the determination of a protein structure through a structural genomics effort often (but not always) comes before anything is known regarding the protein function.
One of the important aspects of structural genomics is the emphasis on high throughput determination of protein structures.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Structural_genomics   (213 words)

  
 Comparative Genomics and Understanding of Microbial Biology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
She is involved in genome analysis of microbial species and the use of comparative genome analysis in elucidating species diversity.
Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.
Genome sequences of Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn and Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol6no5/fraser.htm   (4128 words)

  
 Comparative Genomics
The genomes of related species exhibit conservation of gene order (collinearity) and conservation of gene sequence because the genomes of present day species have evolved from common ancestral genomes.
Comparative genomics enables the application of information gained from intensely studied model systems to related organisms that are important for human health and agriculture.
Although these are the standard tools for comparing genomic sequence, the plain text report they produce is not always the most informative way to visualize the relationship.
brassica.agr.gc.ca /navigation/compgen_e.shtml   (452 words)

  
 Functional and Comparative Genomics Fact Sheet
Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species.
Genome researchers look at many different features when comparing genomes: sequence similarity, gene location, the length and number of coding regions (called exons) within genes, the amount of noncoding DNA in each genome, and highly conserved regions maintained in organisms as simple as bacteria and as complex as humans.
Genome size does not correlate with evolutionary status, nor is the number of genes proportionate with genome size.
www.ornl.gov /sci/techresources/Human_Genome/faq/compgen.shtml   (1915 words)

  
 genome.gov | Comparative Genomics
Sequencing the genomes of the human, the mouse and a wide variety of other organisms - from yeast to chimpanzees - is driving the development of an exciting new field of biological research called comparative genomics.
By comparing the finished reference sequence of the human genome with genomes of other organisms, researchers can identify regions of similarity and difference.
The successful sequencing of the human genome and the recent draft assemblies of the mouse and rat genomes have demonstrated that large-scale sequencing projects can generate high-quality data at a reasonable cost.
www.genome.gov /11006946   (732 words)

  
 genome.gov | Background on Comparative Genomic Analysis
By comparing the human genome with the genomes of different organisms, researchers can better understand the structure and function of human genes and thereby develop new strategies in the battle against human disease.
In addition, comparative genomics provides a powerful new tool for studying evolutionary changes among organisms, helping to identify the genes that are conserved among species along with the genes that give each organism its own unique characteristics.
The successful sequencing of the human genome, which is scheduled to be finished in April 2003, and the recent draft assemblies of the mouse and rat genomes have demonstrated that large-scale sequencing projects can generate high-quality data at a reasonable cost.
www.genome.gov /10005835   (844 words)

  
 CBSE: Comparative Genomics
Comparing genomes and disease progression in similar species may lead to the discovery of new strategies for the treatment and prevention of disease.
Exploration of the function of ultra-conserved regions in the genome and the mechanism for the conservation.
By looking at the conserved 5-6% of the genome, UCSC researchers working in collaboration with researchers from the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, have identified 481 “ultra-conserved” regions of 200 or more DNA bases that are completely identical in the genomes of the three species (4).
www.cbse.ucsc.edu /research/research_genprimcmp.shtml   (1180 words)

  
 American Museum of Natural History
The Institute is a preeminent center for collections, research, and training in the field of non-human comparative genomics and pursues seminal research in the study of gene variation, which informs our understanding of the human genome, the evolution and history of life, and the conservation of Earth's biodiversity.
The ICG is an outgrowth of the expansion of the Museum's capacity in key areas related to comparative genomics, beginning with the establishment of the Molecular Program in 1990, one of the first such museum-based programs in the world.
With the creation of the Institute for Comparative Genomics, the Museum is consolidating its already considerable genomics and genetics research efforts with its education and outreach mission around an issue of crucial public importance.
www.amnh.org /science/facilities/genomics.php   (404 words)

  
 Centre for Comparative Genomics
The new science of comparing these similarities and differences across all living organisms is known as Comparative Genomics.
Comparative Genomics has become the cornerstone to research and development in agricultural and biomedical sciences and can lead to major social and economic benefits.
The Centre for Comparative Genomics will be an international leader in the field of Comparative Genomics, integrating and utilising world-class bioinformatics and information technology to provide tangible economic and social benefits for Western Australian communities in the fields of biomedical and agricultural science.
ccg.murdoch.edu.au /index.php/Centre_for_Comparative_Genomics   (418 words)

  
 Comparative Genomics Centre HP
The Comparative Genomics Centre is a medical research centre founded by the School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences in association with the School of Medicine, at the James Cook University.
The central hypothesis behind the work of the Comparative Genomics Centre is that those genes that have been performing the same function through-out evolutionary history are unlikely to be involved in common diseases.
For example, by studying the genetics of yeast, coral, fruit fly, mice and humans, the Comparative Genomics Centre aims to distinguish genes involved in self/non self discrimination that have been conserved through evolution from those that have arisen only recently, with a view to comparing their disease associations.
www.jcu.edu.au /fmhms/school/pms/CGC/CGC_HP.html   (625 words)

  
 November 2001: Ecce homology: A primer on comparative genomics
Comparative genomics is the ultimate key to functional genomics.
Researchers in nematode genomics, for example, (http://nema.cap.ed.ac.uk/nematodeESTs/Nest.html) are comparing the genomes of parasitic species with that of C.
Comparing human with microbial genomes may also allow for the development of bacterial- or fungal-specific antibiotics without equivalent targets in the human cell that could cause toxicity.
pubs.acs.org /subscribe/journals/mdd/v04/i11/html/11lesney.html   (2020 words)

  
 Comparative Microbial Genomics
The Comparative Microbial Genomics Group at CBS uses a combination of computational predictions and experiments to explore the relationships between the hundreds of sequenced bacterial genomes.
It was originally designed for analysis of complete genomes, but can also be used quite readily for analysis of regions of DNA as small as a few thousand bp in length.
Genomic characteristics of the Campylobacter fetus sap island, Zheng-Chao Tu, D.W.Ussery, D.T. Pride, and M.J. Blaser, Genome Letters, 2, 34-40, 2003.
www.cbs.dtu.dk /researchgroups/compmicro.php   (1078 words)

  
 RECOMB Comparative Genomics Satellite Workshop   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The core of comparative genome analysis is the establishment of the correspondence between genes (orthology analysis) or other genomic features indifferent organisms.
The RECOMB Satellite Workshop on Comparative Genomics is a forum on all aspects and components of this field, ranging from new quantitative discoveries about genome structure and process to theorems on the complexity of computational problems inspired by genome comparison.
The first RECOMB satellite workshop on Comparative Genomics was held in Minneapolis in 2003.
www.nada.kth.se /~jensl/recombcg2004.html   (876 words)

  
 Yeast Comparative Genomics
Its mission is to create the tools for genomic medicine and make them freely available to the world and to pioneer their application to the study and treatment of disease.
With the completion of the Human and Mouse genomes and the increasing number of mammalian genomes in the sequencing pipelines of centers around the world, comparative genomics holds the promise for understanding complete genomes.
We aligned the genomes automatically, developping algorithms that use the conservation of gene order (synteny) to resolve the correspondence of orthologous genes despite the large number of duplicated genes in the yeast genome.
www.broad.mit.edu /annotation/fungi/comp_yeasts/background.html   (763 words)

  
 Comparative Mouse Genomics Centers Consortium
The Environmental Genome Project (EGP) was established by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to study how variation in human DNA sequences (genetic polymorphism) influences susceptibility to environmentally-induced disease.
The Comparative Mouse Genomics Centers Consortium (CMGCC) was initiated by the EGP to develop transgenic and knockout mouse models based on human DNA sequence variants in environmentally responsive genes.
Comparative genomics using mouse models for human DNA polymorphism is technically feasible, because human and mouse genes are closely related at the DNA and protein sequence levels.
www.niehs.nih.gov /cmgcc/about.htm   (930 words)

  
 PlantGDB - Resources for Plant Comparative Genomics
PlantGDB is an NSF-funded project "Cyberinfrastructure for (Comparative) Plant Genome Research Through PlantGDB" to develop plant species-specific EST and GSS databases, to provide web-accessible tools and inter-species query capabilities, and to provide genome browsing and annotation capabilities.
With cyberinfrastructure we mean conceptual and technological solutions to the problem of efficiently connecting data, computers, and people with the goal of enabling derivation of novel scientific theories and knowledge.
Genome browsers are now available for 11 plant species.
www.plantgdb.org   (196 words)

  
 NYU > Biology > Center for Comparative Functional Genomics
The genomic and bioinformatic faculty in our center are engaged in collaborative projects with scientists at NYU's Courant Institute of Math and Computer Sciences, The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG), and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories (CSHL), as well as collaborators at Harvard and Rockefeller University.
In addition, we are currently recruiting additional faculty for a total of 16 genomic faculty in the Center from NYU Biology plus 2-3 joint faculty positions between NYU Courant and NYU Biology.
The Brown 7 genome labs approximately 8,000 Sq ft are the first to be completed and include "open plan" laboratories with space for 47 researchers (wet bench plus bioinformatics), plus rooms for common equipment, and a genome core facility.
www.nyu.edu /fas/dept/biology/resources/ccfg.html   (608 words)

  
 Comparative Microbial Genomics Workshop - Thailand
Due to the massive availability of sequences of genomes of microbes and other organisms, comparative genomics has gained recognition as a powerful tool for deciphering biological processes both through sequence comparisons and comparative regulation.
The workshop is designed to enable participants to use comparative genomic tools through lectures and hands-on practical to extract biological meanings and discover novel genes from the vast amount of genomic data and solving problems of their research interest.
The workshop will also serve as a platform for participants to establish multidisciplinary collaborations in comparative genomics research among various groups of scientists and researchers at national and international level.
www.cbs.dtu.dk /courses/thaiworkshop2   (678 words)

  
 SWBIC - Comparative Genomics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
GenomePixelizer may be useful in detection of duplication events in genomes, tracking the "footprints" of evolution, as well as in displaying the genetic maps and other aspects of comparative genetics.
Gramene was recently funded by the USDA IFAFS programme to create a curated, open-source, Web-accessible data resource for comparative genome analysis in the grasses.
Our goal is to facilitate the study of cross-species homology relationships using information derived from public projects involved in genomic and EST sequencing, protein structure and function analysis, genetic and physical mapping, interpretation of biochemical pathways, gene and QTL localization and descriptions of phenotypic characters and mutations.
www.swbic.org /links/1.4.6.php   (468 words)

  
 Team 16: Population and Comparative Genomics
We also aim to understand what fraction of genetic variation is harboured within functional elements of the human genome, mainly non-genic, and develop methodologies for their efficient identification.
Genome-wide analysis of gene expression variation in the human genome and association with nucleotide (mostly regulatory) variation with a focus on disease susceptibility genes.
Comparative analysis of the human genome to identify functional genomic elements.
www.sanger.ac.uk /Teams/Team16   (472 words)

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