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Topic: Comparative method

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  Comparative psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Comparative psychology may be said to have come into being in the late nineteenth century, with the work of George Romanes on animal psychology, inspired by Charles Darwin.
Strictly speaking, comparative psychology ought to involve the use of a comparative method, in which similar studies are carried out on animals of different species, and the results interpreted in terms of their different phylogenetic or ecological backgrounds.
However, the broader use of the term "comparative psychology" is enshrined in the names of learned societies and academic journals, not to mention in the minds of psychologists of other specialisms, so it is never likely to disappear completely.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Comparative_psychology   (1021 words)

 Comparative method - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The comparative method is a method for proving relatedness in the sense just given, as well as a method for reconstructing the proto-phonemes of a languages of a family and uncovering the phonological changes the languages of a family have undergone.
Another assumption implicit in the methodology of the comparative method is the uniformity of the proto-language being reconstructed.
The methods of the comparative method ensure that a single reconstruction is arrived at after comparing various data from different daughter languages.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Comparative_method   (3306 words)

 Comparative method   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The comparative method is the "gold standard" by which mainstream linguists judge whether two languages are related; relation is deemed certain only if a reconstruction of the common ancestor (or at least a partial reconstruction) is feasible.
The full reconstruction of an unrecorded protolanguage can never be complete (for example, proto-syntax is far more elusive than phonology or morphology, and all elements of linguistic structure undergo inevitable erosion and gradual loss or replacement over time), but a consistent partial reconstruction can and must be attempted as proof of genetic relationship.
During the time the comparative method was being developed (late 18th to late 19th century), two major developments occurred which improved the method's effectiveness.
hallencyclopedia.com /Comparative_method   (1423 words)

 The comparative method (from linguistics) --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
The comparative method in historical linguistics is concerned with the reconstruction of an earlier language or earlier state of a language on the basis of a comparison of related words and expressions in different languages or dialects derived from it.
The comparative method was developed in the course of the 19th century for the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European…;
Comparative grammar was the most important branch of linguistics in the 19th century in Europe.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-35114   (833 words)

 Comparative psychology - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Early comparative psychology was concerned to use experiments on animals to discover fundamental principles, especially of learning, that might be applicable to humans.
Throughout the long history of comparative psychology, repeated attempts have been made to enforce this more disciplined approach, especially since the rise of ethology in the mid twentieth century, and behavioral ecology in the 1970s gave a more solid base of knowledge against which a true comparative psychology could develop.
Pavlov's early work used dogs, but although they have been the subject of occasional studies since they have not figured prominently; however increasing interest in the study of abnormal animal behaviour has led to a return to the study of most kinds of domestic animal.
open-encyclopedia.com /Comparative_psychology   (952 words)

 Encyclopedia: Comparative method
Other approaches to the problem that have been proposed, such as Joseph Greenberg's "mass lexical comparison" method, are still considered too unreliable by most linguists.
Mass lexical comparison or mass comparison is a highly controversial method developed by the well-known linguist Joseph Greenberg to find genetic relationships among languages in the remote past, beyond the limits of the traditional comparative method, or in situations where there are too many languages to practically apply the...
Comparative Politics An international journal that publishes scholarly articles devoted to the comparative analysis of political institutions and behavior.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Comparative-method   (464 words)

 Westgard QC, Inc., Lesson: MV - The Comparison of Methods Experiment
The analytical method that is used for comparison must be carefully selected because the interpretation of the experimental results will depend on the assumption that can be made about the correctness of results from the comparative method.
If the two methods are expected to show one-to-one agreement, this initial graph should be a “difference plot” that displays the difference between the test minus comparative results on the y-axis versus the comparative result on the x-axis, such as shown in the accompanying figure.
For methods that are not expected to show one-to-one agreement, for example enzyme analyses having different reaction conditions, the graph should be a “comparison plot” that displays the test result on the y-axis versus the comparison result on the x-axis, as shown by the second figure.
www.westgard.com /lesson23.htm   (2403 words)

 [No title]
Comparative politics is emerging as a distinct subdiscipline of political science, defined by both substantive and methodological criteria. Substantively, research in comparative politics seeks to account for variation among political units on consequential social, political, cultural and economic outcomes.
Comparative politics research places these outcomes on dimensions, for example a dimension that goes from a Hobbesian state of nature to political order, and seeks to account for the placement of a political unit in a specific time period on that dimension.
Comparative political economy did not settle on clearly identified values on a dependent variable, one for each country/year, and seek to map the impact of a variety of independent variables on the dependent variable.
www.stanford.edu /~dlaitin/papers/Cpapsa.doc   (13492 words)

 DLF's Comparative Method Class   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Such efforts have been labeled differently, such as "comparative studies," "cross-cultural analysis," and "cross-national analysis." Whatever their label, however, they are a part of the common enterprise of describing, explaining, and developing theories about socio-cultural phenomena as they occur in social units (groups, tribes, societies, cultures) that are evidently dissimilar to one an other.
Methodological evaluation, how ever, should also focus on the conceptual aspects of scientific inquiry, because the adequacy of scientific research is affected by the philosophical assumptions and the theoretical frameworks employed by an investigator and by the ways he moves between his body of conceptual presuppositions and his empirical research operations.
In addition, both scholars conducted extensive comparative studies, which remain among the best, even though the quality of data and the research techniques available to them were inferior to those developed since their time.
poli.haifa.ac.il /~levi/bsmelser.htm   (1628 words)

 Arizona Rangelands: Inventory and Monitoring: Comparative Yield Method
The comparative yield method was developed by Haydock and Shaw in Australia during the 1970's as a rapid method to determine total biomass when sampling in quadrats.
Unlike the weight-estimate method or the doubling sampling method, the comparative yield method the difficulty of determining absolute biomass values.
The comparative yield method is regularly used for rangeland inventory or monitoring applications where only large differences in biomass need to be identified, such as evaluating range condition or carrying capacity.
ag.arizona.edu /agnic/az/inventorymonitoring/comparativeyield.html   (637 words)

 Article: COMPARATIVE LAW: Method, Science or Educational Discipline?, vol. 7.3
It is interesting to note the opinion of Nersesyants, who argues that the method of comparative law represents a general legal method correspondingly adapted to the conceptualized perception of legal phenomena, compared with one another on the basis of various forms of expression of the formal equality principle.
In the second case, comparative law is juxtaposed with general theory of law and, therefore, it is obviously more expedient to speak about comparative jurisprudence as a science constituting an independent field of knowledge than merely a comparative method.
It is argued that the designation of comparative law consists in the application of the comparative method in those instances where the process of comparison exceeds the frameworks of one legal system.
www.ejcl.org /73/art73-2.html   (2456 words)

 Comparative CT Method
Comparative CT method is essentially an abbreviated version of the relative standard curve method.
Using the comparative CT method utilizes the assumption that the primer efficiencies are relatively similar.
Prior to utilizing this method, it is necessary that the primer efficiencies are shown to be relatively similar by experimentation.
www.uic.edu /depts/rrc/cgf/realtime/deltact.html   (514 words)

 Genetics 590
Comparative methods for examining adaptation depend on evolutionary models.
Maddison, W. A method for testing the correlated evolution of two binary characters: are gains and losses concentrated on certain branches of a phylogenetic tree Evolution 44: 539-557.
Comparative methods at the species level: geographic variation in morphology and group size in Grey-Crowned Babblers (Pomatostomus temporalis).
depts.washington.edu /~genetics/courses/genet590/1996/genet590.html   (673 words)

 [No title]
Comparative politics is emerging as a distinct subdiscipline of political science, defined by both substantive and methodological criteria.
Comparativists relying on each of the three methods have been insufficiently reflexive on the advances in their counterparts to ask new questions of data, to model statistically recurrent processes, and to adjust the focus of narrative to variables that come out as important in statistical and formal studies.
The classic statements on the comparative method, by Eckstein, by Lijphart, by Przeworski and Teune, by David Collier, and by Skocpol and Somers are all cited and neatly developed in Lichbach and Zuckerman (1997b).
www.stanford.edu /class/polisci311/Cpapsa5.doc   (12710 words)

 Algebraic Analysis of Coded Data
This means that the comparative method does not work with samples or populations but with all relevant instances of the phenomenon of interest and, further, that the explanations which result from applications of the comparative method are not conceived in probabilistic terms because every instance of a phenomenon is examined and accounted for if possible.
The comparative method is based on John Stuart Mill's (1943) three methods of inductive inquiry: the method of agreement, the method of difference, and the indirect method of difference.
The method of difference, as applied to natural settings rather than the laboratory, involves collecting a number of cases which are identical except for one causal condition (the treatment variable) and the outcome variable.
www.analytictech.com /mb870/Handouts/algebrai.htm   (3401 words)

 Comparative Justice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Comparative research is usually carried out by the "safari" method (a researcher visits another country) or "collaborative" method (the researcher communicates with a foreign researcher).
To summarize the historical-comparative method in a few words, it is basically an alternative to both quantitative and qualitative research methods that is sometimes called historiography or holism.
It is also difficult to compare punishments, since in some countries, the family members of the offender are punished, and the range of punishments includes such things as stoning and mutilation.
faculty.ncwc.edu /toconnor/111/111lect16.htm   (3506 words)

 Boas on the Limitations of the Comparative Method
It must, therefore, be clearly understood that anthropological research which compares similar cultural phenomena from various parts of the world, in order to discover the uniform history of their development, makes the assumption that the same ethnological phenomenon has everywhere developed in the same manner.
The method which is at present most frequently applied in investigations of this character compares the variations under which the customs or beliefs occur and endeavors to find the common psychological cause that underlies all of them.
Thus we have seen that the comparative method can hope to reach the results for which it is striving only when it bases its investigations on the historical results of researches which are devoted to laying clear the complex relations of each individual culture.
www.anthrobase.com /Browse/home/hst/cache/bocomp.html   (2944 words)

 Bill Newmann, The Comparative Method
In this class, we will be examining the political systems within Asia with the goal of comparing the different styles of political development within the region.
At essence, we are comparing the similarities and differences in the political life of various nations.
To properly compare anything, a scholar must look at different things through the same lens, or put different things through the same tests.
www.people.vcu.edu /~wnewmann/CompMeth.htm   (2051 words)

 Comparative Tarot Review
Comparative Tarot is an in-depth process named and pioneered by Valerie Sim, who was involved in the design of this deck and also wrote the little white instruction booklet (LWB) for it.
Briefly, the Comparative Tarot method involves comparing the same card from several decks for additional nuances and insight into the meaning of any given card or cards in a spread.
Comparative amplification from the Marseilles deck is that of lawyer; judge; intellectual man. The Universal speaks of an intellectual decision maker and articulate man (but I have to say, this king is one pretty fierce looking dude, and I don't know if I want him to help me with my decisions.
www.aeclectic.net /tarot/cards/comparative/review.shtml   (1078 words)

 Facts about topic: (Comparative method)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The comparative method (in linguistics (The scientific study of language)) is a method used to detect genetic relationships between languages and to establish a consistent relationship hypothesis by reconstructing:
Other approaches to the problem that have been proposed, such as Joseph Greenberg (United States linguist who studied the historical relations among 5,000 languages (1916-2001)) 's "mass lexical comparison (additional info and facts about mass lexical comparison) " method, are still considered too unreliable by most linguists.
Without going into detail, Latin [d] and English [t] are both derived from primitive *d (the asterisk means that the sound is inferred rather than historically documented) in the reconstructible common ancestor of both languages (called Proto-Indo-European (additional info and facts about Proto-Indo-European) or PIE for short).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/co/comparative_method.htm   (1201 words)

 PA General Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
A considerable literature is now available on the relevance and nature of these problems to comparative biology and what kind of techniques can be used in comparative research (see e.g., Harvey and Pagel 1991; Harvey and Purvis 1991; Gittleman and Kot 1991; Gittleman and Luh 1992).
The present manual is written for applying one type of comparative method: phylogenetic autocorrelation.
Theoretical and simulation studies indicate that phylogenetic autocorrelation is particularly useful in comparative research involving: small sample sizes (less than 50 species); systematic information in the form of taxonomic ranks; uncertainty of a model of trait evolution across lineages; and, checking that phylogeny is not confounding comparative tests.
www.ent.orst.edu /pa/introduction.htm   (300 words)

 LINGUIST List 5.1405: Comparative method in linguistics, continued
The problem, of course, is the appropriate context: we compare phonemes in words and/or morphemes and morphemes in paradigms, but it's not clear what the context might be for word orders.
I would imagine that if all the languages in a family shared an unusual word order (vis a vis their dominant types, whatever those might be) in counterfactuals, we might want to attribute that order to their latest shared ancestor.
A hangover from the elaboration of the comparative method on Indo-European, or, I should rather say, on the discovery of Sanskrit.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/5/5-1405.html   (1088 words)

 Definitions: Absolute and Comparative Advantage
This also means that if the US has a comparative advantage in one of the two goods, France must have the comparative advantage in the other good.
It is not possible for one country to have the comparative advantage in both of the goods produced.
France's comparative advantage good however, is that good in which it has the least productivity disadvantage in production, namely cheese.
internationalecon.com /v1.0/ch40/40c090.html   (1061 words)

 comparative. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
Although such constructions may seem redundant or even illogical, in reality both standard and nonstandard varieties of all languages are replete with such constructions.
In fact, even Shakespeare used double comparatives and superlatives, as in Mark Antony's statement “This was the most unkindest cut of all” from Julius Caesar.
Nowadays, although double comparatives and superlatives are not considered standard usage, they are kept alive in vernacular dialects.
www.bartleby.com /61/36/C0523600.html   (316 words)

 DLF's Comparative Method Class   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
In illustrating these methods, it will be necessary to bear in mind the twofold character of inquires into the laws of phenomena; which may be either inquires into the cause of a given effect, or into the effects or properties of a given cause.
Instead of comparing different instances of a phenomenon, to discover in what they agree, this method compares an instance of its occurrence with an instance of its nonoccurrence, to discover in what they differ.
The two instances which are to be compared with one another must be exactly similar, in all circumstances expect the one which we are attempting to investigate: they must be in the relation of A B C and B C, or a b c and b c.
poli.haifa.ac.il /~levi/Mill.htm   (1818 words)

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