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Topic: Comparative psychology

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  Comparative psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Comparative psychology may be said to have come into being in the late nineteenth century, with the work of George Romanes on animal psychology, inspired by Charles Darwin.
Strictly speaking, comparative psychology ought to involve the use of a comparative method, in which similar studies are carried out on animals of different species, and the results interpreted in terms of their different phylogenetic or ecological backgrounds.
However, the broader use of the term "comparative psychology" is enshrined in the names of learned societies and academic journals, not to mention in the minds of psychologists of other specialisms, so it is never likely to disappear completely.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Comparative_psychology   (997 words)

 Experimental psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method.
It is usually taken to include the study of perception, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, the experimental analysis of behavior, and some aspects of physiological psychology.
With the expansion of psychology as a discipline in the latter half of the twentieth century, and the growth in the size and number of its subfields, the phrase "experimental psychology" has come to cover too broad an area to be much used.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Experimental_psychology   (435 words)

 Encyclopedia: Comparative psychology
The comparative method (in linguistics) is a method used to detect genetic relationships between languages and to establish a consistent relationship hypothesis by reconstructing: the common ancestor of the languages in question, a plausible sequence of regular changes by which the historically known languages can be derived from that common...
Behavioral ecology is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment (both intrinsic and extrinsic).
Comparative psychologists study the behavior of humans and other animals, with a special eye on similarities and differences that may shed light on evolutionary and developmental processes.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Comparative-psychology   (2441 words)

 MANY FACES: Chap. 13 Comparative Psychology & Animal Learning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Morgan's Cannon is one of the fundamental axioms of modern comparative psychology.
In contrast, comparative psychology was moved by the influence of ethologists to consider a broad range of behaviors and species, using a variety of experimental techniques.
Comparative psychology and animal learning provide the behavioral technology that is the foundation for physiological investigations of brain-behavior relationships.
teachpsych.lemoyne.edu /teachpsych/faces/text/Ch13.htm   (9417 words)

 Loeb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
As the title implies, Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychology is a peculiar melange of neurophysiological and behavior studies.
[39] Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychology is a foundational text in the emergence of behaviorism.
Loeb, J. Comparative physiology of the brain and comparative psychology.
www.brynmawr.edu /Acads/Psych/rwozniak/loeb.html   (3237 words)

 Phylogenetic Comparison (Nissen, 1951)
Comparative psychology may be defined broadly as the science concerned with similarities and differences of behavior at various phylogenetic levels.
Its implication for comparative psychology is that in behavior also we may expect to find discontinuity -qualitative rather than merely quantitative changes- as we pass from the lower to the higher animal forms.
The contribution that comparative psychology can make to the problems of phylogeny is a function of (1) the scope and precision of its data, (2) the adequacy of the behavioral categories under which the data are organized, and (3) the comparability of the data.
www.comnet.ca /%7Epballan/Nissen1951.htm   (4517 words)

 [No title]
It is particularly appropriate for me since I teach Comparative Psychology, a course on the effects of ecology and evolution on the development and exhibition of a variety of animal behaviors.
Psychology has studied the role of environmental factors in the elicitation and determination of behavior for many years, and recently has begun to look more closely at the role of ecological factors influencing the evolution and exhibition of various behaviors.
My doctoral training specialized in comparative psychology and animal behavior, but it occurred years ago when the applications of the Theory of Evolution and the principles of ecology to animal behavior were not as well understood as they are today.
www.uwosh.edu /grants/docs/mccannoffcampus.doc   (1191 words)

 C.W. Tolman on Leontiev
At the heart of the difficulty is the absence in comparative psychology of a clear theoretical foundation, of any clear idea of what the similarities and differences among species will mean once they are discovered and described.
An alternative and almost traditional view in comparative psychology has been that it is intelligence that evolves -usually implying the rise of learning in opposition to instinct.
The overall task of comparative psychology could in fact be described as discovering how human psyche evolves from, and is continuous with, more advanced processes are qualitatively discontinuous with the older, and thus understandable in terms of but not reducible to them.
www.comnet.ca /~pballan/Leontiev.htm   (2859 words)

Psychology introduces the student to the traditions, content, methodologies and results of the scientific study of behavior.
The student learns what systematic psychology has shown about how we perceive, learn and are motivated to think and take action; how we differ from one another; how we develop from infancy to old age; and how interpersonal factors affect our relations with each other in the home, at work and in the social order.
A psychology minor is available by completing PSYC 100, one course from both Core A and Core B and additional electives to total a minimum of 18 credits in psychology.
www.svsu.edu /catalog/ugradprog/psychology.html   (175 words)

 Comparative psychology --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia
Comparative ethics, in contrast to normative ethics, is thus...
The field of psychology has a number of subdisciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior.
Social psychology, for example, deals with human thought and action in a social context, while physiological psychology is concerned with thought and behavior at...
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-9320128   (702 words)

 George Herbert Mead: The Problem of Comparative Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Such movements would all have a place in a general or comparative physiology, and the assumptions of functional psychology imply that we would also be comparing movements, which correspond at least to all our so-called psychical experience, with movements in the lower forms which would represent whatever psychical experience they may have.
If comparative psychology means the comparison of the psychical phenomena of man with the same in the lower animals no such presence of corresponding elements can be assumed.
We may then compare ourselves with other forms in terms of the act, and in so far there arises the possibility of a comparative science of intelligence which admits of whatever interpretation is possible in terms of our own psychology.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Mead/Unpublished/Meadu03.html   (5184 words)

 Conwy Morgan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
First, behaviorism has its deepest roots in the comparative psychology of animal behavior, and it is Morgan's text that defined what it meant to be a comparative psychologist.
While Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)[13], Charles Darwin (1809-1882),[14] and George John Romanes (1848-1894)[15] fashioned a conception of mental evolution that lay the groundwork for the comparative study of mind, Morgan gave comparative psychology the status of science.
It was a statement of his new conviction in the possibility of the study of mental evolution, and, as such, was clearly an acceptance of Romanes's conception of a true comparative psychology, as opposed to a mere study of animal conduct."[36]
www.brynmawr.edu /Acads/Psych/rwozniak/morgan.html   (2519 words)

 C:\DOCS\MSS\INFANT1.HTM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Their responses to these pups were compared with responses of 22 virgins that were tested with pups of the same type.
Compared with Day 21 cesarean pups, full-term naturally delivered pups, with which mothers interact at parturition, are larger and more mature.
They were compared with the 29 rats of Group Combined Virgin from Experiment 1, which had been tested with cesarean pups only.
cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk /archive/00000760/00/infant1.htm   (6229 words)

 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - comparative psychology
Keywords: ascription of mental states • autism • comparative psychology • developmental psychology • evolution and development of mindreading • evolutionary psychology • intentionality • mindblindness • neurocognitive mechanisms • neuropsychology.
Keywords: aggregation • comparative psychology • dispositions • induction • methodology • naturalism • philosophy of science • psychological testing • social entities.
Keywords: associations • comparative psychology • consciousness • evolution of consciousness • instinct • intelligence •; memory •; other minds • perception • reasoning.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/C/ComparPsy.html   (197 words)

 Comparative Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The problems to which ethologists address themselves identify ethology as comparative psychology in the sense that comparative anatomy and comparative embryology are comparative sciences.
This comparative psychology, emphasizing the relation of behavior to general biol ogy rather than solely to physiology, returns to that familiar in the United States during the first decades of this century (but gone with the Journal of Animal Behavior).
The present definition of comparative psychology in the United States seem s to be: all psychology dealing with animals that is not treated under learning, motivation, and physiological psychology; or, to state it another way, studies on animals that do not conveniently fit anywhere else.
cogprints.org /605/00/biblio28.html   (7688 words)

 Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
May receive credit towards the Psychology major or minor for only one of PSYC 310, 311, or 315.
A comprehensive overview of historical antecedents of contemporary psychology with emphasis on their implications for future developments in the field.
An overview of clinical psychology, with emphasis on clinician’s use of methods of evaluation and on treatment and modification of behavior.
www.iup.edu /registrar/catalog/course/psyc.shtm   (1415 words)

 psych wURLd -- MegaPsych Psychology Bookmarks (Catagories)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
If we are to know whether that research will generalize to humans (or to other animal species), we must know as much as we can about our animal subjects.
Psychology textbook publishers are making much material available on the Internet.
Psychology is a science, not because it has all the answers, but because of how it attempts to answer the questions.
www.tulsa.oklahoma.net /~jnichols/bookmarks.html   (929 words)

 [No title]
You may recall that we left comparative psychology's development as an empirical response to Darwin's 'Descent of Man' very much on the verge of becoming a science.
He compared the learning curves of cats who had been given the opportunity of observing others escaping from a box with those who had never seen the box being solved and found no difference in their rate of learning.
In Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist' he addresses a number of practical human problems such as education, the development of emotional reaction and the effects of factors like alcohol or drugs on human performance.
www.dur.ac.uk /~dps0rwk/comp6.html   (2186 words)

 Comparative Psychology of Invertebrates : The Field and Laboratory Study of Insect Behavior (Research in Developmental ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Comparative Psychology of Invertebrates : The Field and Laboratory Study of Insect Behavior (Research in Developmental and Comparative Psychology)
A presentation of research in insect behavior focusing on the theoretical writing and experiments of researcher T.C. Scheirla with an emphasis on the significance of comparative psychology on evolutionary biology.
The 12 essays consider topics in the comparative study of behavioral evolution and development, field research into the social organization of ants, and social parasitism in ants.
cadgate.com /book/un/815321961   (127 words)

 Cogprints - Comparative psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This chapter was prepared following a series of visits to laboratories and field stations where comparative psychology is under very active investigation.
Ethologists, mostly European zoologists, study the behavior of a number of species from an objective (in the Watsonian or Pavlovian sense) point of view that does not exclude an active interest in physiological correlates of behavior.
What follows is based not only on the current publications of ethologists, but also on visits to their laboratories, and on many and long discussions with them.
cogprints.org /605   (384 words)

 Comparative Psychology |Animal Psychology | Human Animal Psychology | Questia.com Online Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Comparative psychology deserves a place in the undergraduate...historical reasons...
Kail...laid a foundation for a comparative psychology of memory development...months." Journal of...
Gewirtz, Jacob L...received his doctorate in comparative psychology from the Johns Hopkins...received her doctorate in...
questia.com /library/psychology/.../comparative-psychology.jsp   (450 words)

 C. Lloyd Morgan: Introduction to Comparative Psychology: Chapter 5: Association of Ideas in Animals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
One of the greatest difficulties against which the student of zoological psychology has to contend is, that the language in which he needs must describe and endeavour to explain the mental processes of animals embodies the results of a vast amount of analytic thought.
And the difficulty we have in finding evidence of their existence is perhaps due to the fact that such associations have little or no practical utility.
Dr Stout, in his Manual of Psychology, well describes the role of association in the lower phases of mental development as affording opportunities for the acquirement of meaning He emphasizes the importance of the incorporation of new items of experience with those already acquired.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Morgan/Morgan_1903/Morgan_1903_05.html   (4408 words)

 Classics in Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
One important corollary of this view was that scientists who wished to understand the consciousness of animals could do so, despite their inability to experience the world as animals do, by analogy to the more elementary characteristics of human consciousness.
Experimentation was introduced into the study of animal behavior as early as the 1870s in the work of Douglas Alexander Spalding who, among other things, systematically manipulated the visual experience of newborn chicks in order to assess the relevance of such experience to the emergence of visually guided pecking.
At the same time, however, she called attention to the possibility of distortion in behavior brought about by the artificiality of the experimental environment and identified naturalistic, longitudinal observation with occasional experimentation as the methodological ideal.
www.thoemmes.com /psych/washburn.htm   (1203 words)

 Comparative Psychology
This comparative psychology, emphasizing the relation of behavior to general biology rather than solely to physiology, returns to that familiar in the United States during the first decades of this century (but gone with the Journal of Animal Behavior).
The present definition of comparative psychology in the United States seems to be: all psychology dealing with animals that is not treated under learning, motivation, and physiological psychology; or, to state it another way, studies on animals that do not conveniently fit anywhere else.
A period of sexual stimulation (including the presentation of teaser-bulls) and of sexual display and foreplay produced shorter latencies of response to cows as well as enhanced conception rates when the semen collected was used in artificial insemination.
web.utk.edu /~wverplan/biblio28.html   (7658 words)

 C. Lloyd Morgan: Introduction to Comparative Psychology: Chapter 16: Do Animals Reason   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
We find that, after experience with several pairs of signals, the monkeys yet failed when a new pair was used to do the obvious thing to a rational mind-viz., to compare the two, think which meant food, and act on the knowledge directly.
By a more articulate idea is meant one in which comparatively distinct elements are held in a comparatively distinct relation." But the data on which behaviour is founded are essentially concrete.
We have definitely entered on a new phase of Comparative Psychology, that in which careful and conscientious observation is made the basis of a discussion founded on an adequate knowledge of psychology.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Morgan/Morgan_1903/Morgan_1903_16.html   (5822 words)

 Dissertations, Essays on Comparative Psychology
Since Lorenz' discovery of obedient imprinting in 1935, the interpretation of this behavioral phenomenon has changed several times.
Lorenz himself always emphasized the distinctive nature of imprinting processes (the main variants: filial, sexual, food, and habitat) when compared with other kinds of learning.
However, today, we speak of sensitive, rather critical periods, and we now know that secondary imprinted attachments can be as stable as primary ones, thereby limiting the impact of assumed reversibility.
www.essayboom.com /essay/Comparative_Psychology-91110.html   (127 words)

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