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Topic: Compatibility decomposition


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In the News (Thu 20 Jun 19)

  
  Compatibility equivalence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Compatibility equivalence refers to a state in which two technically dissimilar things may be considered functionally identical.
In Unicode, for instance, the compatibility equivalence of two strings (sequences of letters, numbers, or other characters) means that they can be reduced to identical strings by recursive application of both canonical decomposition and compatibility decomposition routines.
Two Unicode strings that have the relation of compatibility equivalence may sometimes be considered identical, but generally they are not—the "micro sign" (µ) and "greek small letter mu" (μ) are similar, for example, but they are not considered strictly identical.
www.encyclopedia-1.com /c/co/compatibility_equivalence.html   (115 words)

  
 Patent 4933889: Method for fine decomposition in finite element mesh generation
This invention is concerned with fine decomposition and is intended for use in conjunction with the general type of coarse decomposition disclosed by Nackman and Srinivasan, two of the present inventors, in U.S. patent application, Ser.
Compatibility across a symax edge is handled explicitly while treating each pair of the coarse elements that share the symax edge.
Compatibility across a touching radius is guaranteed by adding the same number n of nodal points along all radii.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4933889.html   (8084 words)

  
 Unicode Character Encoding of Archived Linguistic Data
The relationship between a compatibility character and its near synonym is captured in Unicode in the same manner as canonical equivalence: a normative decomposition mapping is provided for compatibility characters.
This type of decomposition is known as a compatibility decomposition, as opposed to a canonical decomposition.
Compatibility characters are those that would not have been encoded (except for compatibility) because they are in some sense variants of characters that have already been coded...
ldc.upenn.edu /exploration/expl2000/papers/constable2/constable2.html   (10148 words)

  
 Unicode case mapping
Conversely, the presence of a formatting tag also indicates that the decomposition is a compatibility decomposition and not a canonical decomposition.
For a canonical decomposition, this indicates that the character is a canonical equivalent of another single character.
For a compatibility decomposition, this indicates that the character is a compatibility equivalent of another single character.
lists.w3.org /Archives/Public/w3c-sgml-wg/msg02124.html   (1288 words)

  
 Re: [idn] SC/TC equivalence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Compatibility characters are characters that have compatibility decompositions.
Performing compatibility decomposition removes only formatting information (which shouldn't really be present in plain text in the first place).
Other compatible equivalents are roman numeral IV versus letters IV, and fullwidth A versus halfwidth A. These are not merely characters with the same meaning, they are really the same characters, just formatted differently.
www.imc.org /idn/mail-archive/msg03781.html   (324 words)

  
 Unicode Architecture: Not Just a Pile of Code Charts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
There are two broad categories of decomposing characters: those with canonical decompositions (these characters are often referred to as "precomposed characters" or "canonical composites") and those with compatibility decompositions (the term "compatibility characters" is frequently used to refer specifically to these characters; a more specific term, "compatibility composite," is better).
For compatibility composites, the Unicode standard not only specifies the characters to which they decompose, but also information intended to explain what nontext information is needed to express exactly the same thing.
Canonical and compatibility decompositions, combining characters, normalized forms, canonical accent ordering, and related topics are all dealt with in excruciating detail in Chapter 4.
www.informit.com /articles/article.asp?p=30893&seqNum=4&rl=1   (1205 words)

  
 Unicode Composition
The compatibility equivalence can be even more useful in normalization, since it levels the differences between compatibility characters which are inappropriately distinguished in many circumstances.
For example, a compatibility composition of "office" does not produce "o\uFB03ce", even though "\uFB03" is a compatibility character that is comprised of the three characters "ffi".
Generate the compatibility decomposition for the source string S,, according to the rules in The Unicode Standard, Chapter 3 and the decomposition mappings in the latest supported version of the Unicode Character Database.
www.unicode.org /reports/tr15/pdtr15.html   (1357 words)

  
 MDO for Aircraft Design
Work in two areas is described here: system decomposition using compatibility constraints to simplify the analysis structure and take advantage of coarse-grained parallelism; and collaborative optimization, a decomposition of the optimization process to permit parallel design and to simplify interdisciplinary communication requirements.
Through the compatibility constraints, the optimizer enforces the requirement that the various subproblems are using consistent data, as the auxiliary variables are driven toward their computed counterparts.
Decomposition with compatibility constraints was studied in an aircraft design problem using the program, PASS (Ref. 5).
aero.stanford.edu /Reports/MDO94.html   (6173 words)

  
 Docs For Class UtfNormal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Convert a UTF-8 string to normal form D, canonical decomposition.
Convert a UTF-8 string to normal form KC, compatibility composition.
Convert a UTF-8 string to normal form KD, compatibility decomposition.
wikipedia.sourceforge.net /doc/MediaWiki/UtfNormal.html   (290 words)

  
 Patent 4324819: Catalyst for hydrazine decomposition and the method of producing the catalyst
The catalysts of this invention are designed to be used in applications where it is necessary to initiate the decomposition reaction at moderately low temperatures or where a quick initial response to the flow of the monopropellant is not required.
In such systems, the heat of the decomposition of the monopropellant is sufficient to sustain the decomposition reaction once decomposition is obtained, but subsequent initiation of the reaction presents special problems.
These systems are effective for maintaining the decomposition reaction of hydrazine-base monopropellants as long as the flow of the monopropellant is continuous and the temperature of the reaction chamber is kept above the auto-decomposition temperature of the monopropellant.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4324819.html   (12328 words)

  
 HPCCP 1994 Summary Progress Report
The genetic string for the decomposition problem is an integer vector of length n+m, where n is the number of analysis subroutines and m is the number of potential break points (allowing m+1 independent subtasks).
In addition to careful planning of the decomposition, advanced tools for differentiation may exploit the special character of compatibility constraints to make problems involving large numbers of auxiliary variables tractable.
Finally, the compatibility constraint approach and collaborative optimization were applied to a launch vehicle design problem, described in reference 4.
aero.stanford.edu /Reports/MDOProgress94.html   (2217 words)

  
 UAX #15: Unicode Normalization
Generate the compatibility decomposition for the source string S according to the decomposition mappings in the latest supported version of the Unicode Character Database.
Canonical decomposition is the process of taking a string, recursively replacing composite characters using the Unicode canonical decomposition mappings (including the algorithmic Hangul canonical decomposition mappings, see Annex 10: Hangul), and putting the result in canonical order.
Compatibility decomposition is the process of taking a string, replacing composite characters using both the Unicode canonical decomposition mappings and the Unicode compatibility decomposition mappings, and putting the result in canonical order.
www.unicode.org /reports/tr15   (7195 words)

  
 ICU Userguide
The decomposition of a character which results from recursively applying the canonical mappings until no characters can be further decomposed and then re-ordering non-spacing marks according to the canonical behavior rules.
The decomposition of a character which results from recursively applying both compatibility mappings and canonical mappings until no characters can be further decomposed then re-ordering non-spacing marks according to the canonical behavior rules.
Compatibility decomposition may remove formatting information, which is the opposite of what happens during a canonical decomposition. 
icu.sourceforge.net /userguide/glossary.html   (2970 words)

  
 Collator (icu4j)
If the canonical decomposition mode is set, the Collator handles un-normalized text properly, producing the same results as if the text were normalized in NFD.
If canonical decomposition is turned off, it is the user's responsibility to ensure that all text is already in the appropriate form before performing a comparison or before getting a CollationKey.
This is the default decomposition setting unless otherwise specified by the locale used to create the Collator.
icu.sourceforge.net /apiref/icu4j/com/ibm/icu/text/Collator.html   (2885 words)

  
 Re: [idn] Re: Is space allowed in a hostname?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
This "compatibility decomposition" can be partitioned into groups of script-specific compatibility equivalences, and IMO, each group has its own degree of appropriateness in the context of domain name.
For example, only with NFKC, compatibility ideographic character (Kc) can be mapped to its equivalent unified ideographic character (Ku).
That mapping is OK. However, NFKC does not unify a certain pairs of TC/SC which are purely in font-variant relations (like between italic/subscript A and normal A) and share the same meanings and readings.
www.imc.org /idn/mail-archive/msg06908.html   (375 words)

  
 A tutorial on character code issues
They were included for compatibility with other standards so that data presented using some other code can be converted to ISO 10646 and back without losing information.
Compatibility characters are included in the Unicode Standard only to represent distinctions in other base standards and would not otherwise have been encoded.
characters with compatibility mappings: should they be used, or should the corresponding non-compatibility characters be used, perhaps with some markup and/or style sheet that corresponds to the difference between them.
www.cs.tut.fi /~jkorpela/chars.html   (13640 words)

  
 Mailgate: comp.std.internat: Horizontal ellipsis as a compatibility character
The conclusions to be drawn, such as whether compatibility characters are "deprecated" in some sense, and whether it would be better to use their compatibility equivalents (optionally with some stylistic suggestions) instead, are different matters, and at a different level of rigorousness.
For such issues, it is relevant that the Unicode standard explicitly says (in section 3.6): "Compatibility characters are included in the Unicode Standard only to represent distinctions in other base standards and would not otherwise have been encoded.
The horizontal ellipsis character is compatibility equivalent to a sequence of three full stops.
www.mailgate.org /comp/comp.std.internat/msg00812.html   (494 words)

  
 4.10 unicodedata -- Unicode Database
The Unicode standard defines various normalization forms of a Unicode string, based on the definition of canonical equivalence and compatibility equivalence.
However, it is supported in Unicode for compatibility with existing character sets (e.g.
The normal form KC (NFKC) first applies the compatibility decomposition, followed by the canonical composition.
www.python.org /doc/current/lib/module-unicodedata.html   (411 words)

  
 Destruction of Energetic Materials in Supercritical Water - Storming Media
An important result was the development of safe and practical means to deliver water-insoluble energetic materials (EM) into the supercritical region These methods included: 1) slurried particles, 2) dissolution in an organic solvent or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 3) digestion in aqueous alkali.
Results show that supercritical water is a favorable medium for decomposition of waste and off-spec EM.
The process appears to be controllable, and the decomposition products are contained until they are consciously released.
www.stormingmedia.us /26/2678/A267804.html   (190 words)

  
 Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP)
A character whose compatibility decomposition is not identical to its canonical decomposition.
Two character sequences are said to be compatibility equivalents if their full compatibility decompositions are identical.
The normalization form that results from the compatibility decomposition of a Unicode string, followed by the replacement of all decomposed sequences by primary composites where possible.
www.sdnpbd.org /mother_language_day/terms_glossary.htm   (7275 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Where no such tag is given, the decomposition is designated as canonical.
is used to distinguish it from canonical decompositions.
In some instances a canonical decomposition or a compatibility decomposition may consist of a single character.
www.terena.nl /library/multiling/unicode/readme-UNIDATA.txt   (1236 words)

  
 Pressure Effects on Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition Temperature - Storming Media
The decomposition temperature for 98% peroxide is ^1240 K (^2230 R), a temperature regime in which most alloys show a precipitous decline in strength.
Analytical computations of maximum decomposition temperature at low pressures should be quite accurate using industry equilibrium chemistry codes such as the NASA/Lewis CEA computer program.
Reported historical articles predict that ^50 K (^90 R) increase in temperature due to real gas effects could be expected at pressures of 20.7 Mpa (3000 psi a) for 100% peroxide.
www.stormingmedia.us /35/3575/A357504.html   (476 words)

  
 Gaps in the System
The ideal of Unicode is the second scenario: characters are to be treated as Platonic ideals, as distingushable emic units, which a text processor can deal with and traverse without needing to have a Master's degree in forensic graphology.
With canonical decomposition, it would seem that everyone wins: users get their pretty combinations of glyphs, programmers get their platonic forms of characters to work with.
Implementations that use full decomposition for polytonic Greek and fonts that correctly map the accentual and diacritic combinations are the best bet for consistency *and* good presentation in the long run.
www.tlg.uci.edu /~opoudjis/unicode/unicode_gaps.html   (4683 words)

  
 Normalizer (icu4j)
In addition, you can have it perform compatibility decompositions so that you can treat compatibility characters the same as their equivalents.
The form is defined such that the "raw decomposition", the recursive canonical decomposition of each character, results in a string that is canonically ordered.
Options do not change the basic composition or decomposition operation that is being performed, but they control whether certain optional portions of the operation are done.
icu.sourceforge.net /apiref/icu4j/com/ibm/icu/text/Normalizer.html   (4472 words)

  
 Recommendations for revision of the TEI Guidelines, Chapter 4
The existence of a `compatibility decomposition' is indicated in the Unicode Character Database.
In some cases, this is the case due to the existence of compatibility characters, in other cases, there are simply different possibilities to express the same character, as in characters composed of a base character and some diacritical marks.
It should be noted, that not all characters introduced for compatibility with other standards, are labeled as such in the database.
www.tei-c.org /P4X/Status/p2chrev.html   (5506 words)

  
 Re: [idn] Re: Is space allowed in a hostname?
> This "compatibility decomposition" can be partitioned into > groups of script-specific compatibility equivalences, and IMO, > each group has its own degree of appropriateness in the > context of domain name.
For example, only with NFKC, > compatibility ideographic character (Kc) can be mapped to its > equivalent unified ideographic character (Ku).
When NFKC maps circled "A" > into bare "A", it may be useless or unnecessary in domain name > context.
psg.com /lists/idn/idn.2002/msg01577.html   (513 words)

  
 nntp.perl.org - perl.perl6.internals (7861)
The bad (or good?) news is that I don't have the time to work on this design document much more, maintain or develop it, and certainly not implement any of it (another reason why I have been reluctant to publish this).
The normalized forms are useful for string equivalence comparisons, but one probably cannot automatically convert everything to a canonical normalized form because then the I/O equivalence (you read in data and write out data: are the data identical?) could easily be broken.
For proper implementation of Unicode collation, Unicode normalization (decomposition to canonical mappings) is required.
nntp.x.perl.org /group/perl.perl6.internals/7861   (4224 words)

  
 UseFor draft 7 (obsolete)
Backward compatibility has been a major goal of this endeavour, but where this standard and earlier documents or practices conflict, this standard should be followed.
Non-ASCII characters from Unicode are represented by sequences of octets satisfying the syntax of a UTF8-xtra-char (2.4.2), which excludes certain octet sequences not explicitly permitted by [RFC 2279].
The requirement that names be invariant under NFKC, rather than NFC, means that all characters with a "compatibility decomposition" are forbidden (Unicode provides the property "NFKC_NO" to make this test easier).
www.xyzzy.claranet.de /usefor07.htm   (13721 words)

  
 hm_div_4-1
When dry are Explosives of Class 1 other than those of compatibility group A, which are wetted with sufficient water, alcohol, or plasticizer to suppress explosive properties; and
Are specifically authorized by name either in the Code of Federal Regulations Transportation (49) Part 172.101Table or have been assigned a shipping name and hazard class by the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety.
Materials that are thermally unstable and that can undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition even without participation of oxygen (air).
mcmis.volpe.dot.gov /mcmisfile/hm_div_4.1.htm   (223 words)

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