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Topic: Compound (fortification)

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  Fortification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Field fortifications are extemporized by troops in the field, perhaps assisted by such local labor and tools as may be procurable, and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth, brushwood and light timber.
Medieval-style fortifications were largely obsoleted with the arrival of cannons on the 14th century battlefield.
Fortifications in the age of flpowder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fortification   (625 words)

 Compound (fortification) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In military science, a compound is a type of fortification made up of walls surrounding several buildings in the center of a large piece of land.
The walls can either serve the purpose of being tall, thick, and inpenetrable, in which case they would be made of wood, stone, or some other like substance; or dangerous to attempt to scale, in which case they could be made of barbed wire or electrified.
Compounds are designed to double as living spaces and military structures in the middle of hostile territory; they are also used by the extremely wealthy, powerful, or paranoid, to protect themselves against real or imagined threats to themselves or their possessions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Compound_(fortification)   (139 words)

 Food fortification - the debate continues
Fortification could also introduce additional nutrients not present in the original food or present in very small quantities (such as vitamin A in maize).
While the role of food fortification is not to provide 100% of RDA provided through consumption through one single food, the fortified maize will go along way to achieve vitamin A sufficiency, especially when combined with vitamin A from other sources.
Given the proposed level of fortification (7.0 mg iron per 200 g dry maize meal) and level of consumption for children 1-3 years old and taking a bioavailability factor ranging between 0.5- 4.5%, a child would absorb between 0.035 to 0.31 mg of iron, i.e.
www.scienceinafrica.co.za /2002/june/food.htm   (966 words)

The fortification of milk commonly involves the addition of vitamins A and D. Since milk is an oil-in-water emulsion, the possibility exists to add vitamins in their oily form or use water dispersable forms of these.
In the iron fortification of powdered non-fat dry milk, ferrous sulphate at a level of 10 ppm was found to be stable for a period of 12 months.
In the fortification of salt with iron, it must first be ground to a coarse powder to facilitate uniform mixing and distribution of the iron fortificant.
www.fao.org /docrep/W2840E/w2840e0b.htm   (16590 words)

 Nutrition Reviews: Preventing iron deficiency through food fortification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Although targeted fortification is relatively easy to design for infant foods such as formulas and commercial infant cereals, or for schoolchildren through school feeding programs including such foods as fortified drinks or cookies, it is more difficult to target a fortified food specifically for adult fertile women.
Finally, the major foodstuffs that are used as iron fortification vehicles are discussed in relation to potential organoleptic problems, the presence of absorption inhibitors, and possible fortification compounds.
In general, the freely water-soluble compounds are highly bioavailable in rodents and humans, as are compounds that are water insoluble but soluble in dilute acids.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3624/is_199706/ai_n8769808   (1066 words)

The optimization of the iron fortification compounds with the highest potential absorption causing the least subsequent organoleptic problems in the food vehicles is first discussed, followed by a description of ways of protecting and enhancing the absorption of fortification iron, such as applications of acidifiers, haemoglobin, sodium iron ethylene diamine tetra-acetate and amino acid-chelated iron.
Fortification, one of the strategies to address IDA, is the addition of vitamins and/or minerals to a vehicle with the goal of increasing the nutritional content.
The optimisation of the iron fortification compounds in relation to bioavailability and organoleptic problems will first be discussed, followed by a description of protective methods that can be used to protect the fortified iron from absorptive inhibitors.
www.ajfand.net /issueIIIfiles/chen.html   (5695 words)

 Nutrition Reviews: Lessons learned with iron fortification in Central America / Discussion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Salt fortification with iodine was introduced since the late 40s and 5Os1; sugar fortification with vitamin A is carried out in national programs in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua, beginning in the 70s2; and cereal flour fortification with iron and B vitamins was introduced in the 60s.
Salt 3 and sugar4 fortification have been carefully characterized and evaluated, and the impact of these two interventions to prevent and to control iodine3 and vitamin A deficiency,4 respectively, is well established.
This did not happen with cereal flour fortification, however, and the effect of this intervention is unknown.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3624/is_200207/ai_n9106870   (1413 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
An effective fortification programme is defined as one that will reach at least 50% of the population group most vulnerable to vitamin A deficiency, and a safe programme is one that presents little risk of vitamin A toxicity to those most susceptible.
Fortification is generally considered to be effective and feasible if the food that is fortified is eaten regularly by all population groups at risk of deficiency, and if the food is centrally processed in a small number of sites.
This information will be important in setting fortification levels for the vehicle of choice, because the stability of the vitamin A in the fortified food may be affected by storage and processing conditions (e.g., exposure to air and light), and by the cooking method.
www.pathcanada.org /library/word_docs/FRAT.doc   (8676 words)

 Nutrition Reviews: Staple food fortification with iron: A multifactorial decision / Discussion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Fortification of staple foods is an adequate strategy to provide additional iron to populations.
Iron is a reactive compound, whose level in foods is limited because iron causes negative changes in the original properties of the food that is being fortified.
Therefore, the apparent advantages of the latter compounds over ferrous fumarate from a bioavailability point of view are reduced because of the maximum possible amounts able to be loaded into the flour.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3624/is_200207/ai_n9106865   (1418 words)

 Corn Masa Flour Fortification
During its assessment of wheat fortification practices in the region SUSTAIN learned of a relatively new maize-based flour that was becoming increasingly popular in both Central America and Mexico.
The success of iron fortification depends on a number of inter-related factors, including the fortificant compound, the food vehicle, the diet consumed in combination with that vehicle, and the iron status of the consumer.
The agreement -- the first attempt to establish standards for the fortification of CMF -- is widely regarded to be a model for the region.
www.sustaintech.org /activities2.htm   (817 words)

 Fortification and Spiking; New Problem For the Herb Industry
Fortification refers to increasing the amount of the marker compound already present.
A third method is a combination of fortification, extraction, and concentration.
This is where the extract of kola nut is combined with pure caffeine from the decaffeination coffee process, and then mixed with maltodexatran and spray dried.
www.greatestherbsonearth.com /articles/fortification_spiking.htm   (1245 words)

 Double Fortification Of Salt With Iron And Iodine
The double fortification of salt with iron and iodine for simultaneous prevention of iron deficiency anemia and iodine deficiency disorders has been a goal of researchers for at least 20 years.
The stabilizing effect of various compounds on the iron in fortified salt was investigated by Narasinga Rao et al.
The role of stabilizers in double fortification is to bind iron or iodine in a form that prevents their reactions, yet dissolve in the digestive system, to be nutritionally useful.
www.chem-eng.utoronto.ca /~diosady/sltdbl.html   (3390 words)

 Folic Acid Supplements Still Advised
He says that since folic acid fortification exposes 274 million people to folic acid to prevent only 2,000 potential birth defects per year, "it is surprising that public health officials have not demanded a higher standard of proof that the current level of fortification is safe and effective.
She served on the FDA panel that made the fortification recommendations and supports the March of Dimes recommendation that a woman capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 mcg of folic acid from foods or supplements daily.
Some experts argue that the level of folic acid fortification is not high enough, while others say that there is not enough evidence that the current level is safe and effective.
my.webmd.com /content/article/23/1728_57376.htm   (930 words)

 Fixwell Knives   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Critical technical barriers determining potential effectiveness of knives fortification are the bioavailability of the balance of inhibitors and enhancers.
Use of high bioavailability iron compounds is limited by the matrix; encapsulation of a soluble iron compound (ferrous fumarate or FeSO4), which disintegrates in the upper gastrointestinal tract, will solve this problem.
Practical constraints in condiment fortification relate to cost as determined by the price of premix, sustainability of local production, marketing strategies, packaging, targeting those in need according to variation in consumption and the monitoring of the process.
home.1asphost.com /fixwellknives/fixwell-knives.html   (298 words)

Any person who manufactures, imports or supplies a fortification mix for the purpose of these regulations, without being registered with the Department, including the requirements specified in Annexure II, shall be guilty of an offence.
(c) The fortification standards referred to in Table 3 and Table 4 of these Regulations shall be the minimum micronutrient levels in uncooked wheat flour and uncooked maize meal when sampled at the point of manufacturing, importation or sale.
Wherever the official logo is used, it shall be used in the format of either Annexure VII or Annexure VIII and shall be printed in a prominent position on the main panel in bold print against a contrasting or clear background on all types of packaging material.
www.doh.gov.za /docs/regulations/2003/ffortification.html   (2318 words)

 Food Product Design: Functional Foods Annual - September 2002 - Fortification (R)Evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The last FDA mandate for fortification, the folic-acid fortification program, became effective January 1998 in response to the positive effect of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects.
Fortification can restore nutrients lost during food processing to preprocessing levels (often called enrichment), as occurs in milled grains, such as white rice and wheat flour, to replace nutrients lost when the bran is removed.
As for fortification levels for these, Bank says it’s tough to generalize because each compound may have suggested levels, but it may vary according to the health effect targeted.
www.foodproductdesign.com /archive/2002/0902FFA_04.html   (3212 words)

 Fortification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The art/science of laying siege to a fortification and of destroying it has the popular name of siegecraft and the formal name of.
Fortification is usually divided into two branches, namely and.
There is also an intermediate branch known as.
www.kernersville.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Fortification   (398 words)

 Fortification drive brings easier to handle iron to market
An iron compound, developed to fortify foods in countries with high rates of deficiency, is seeing interest from multinational food makers looking to overcome the formulation difficulties experienced with common forms of the mineral.
Adding iron to drinks is technically difficult as the high moisture increases the reactivity of water-soluble iron compounds, resulting in unwanted odours and metallic offtastes.
After significant investment to bring the compound up to food-grade standards, it is now sold at $9 per kg, much more expensive than other iron forms but more effective, according to the firm.
nutraingredients.com /news/news-ng.asp?n=61826-iron-akzo-nobel-ferra...   (903 words)

 Fortification of Fluid Milk With Solids   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Fortification of Fluid Milk With Solids or Minerals Most fluid milk which is available in the supermarket for purchase is fortified only with vitamins.
This is added as a calcium compound and as with all calcium supplements, it is assimilated by our bodies at a much lower level than the calcium found in dairy products.
It is most often added to skim or lowfat milk to improve the body and taste and usually up to the level of 10% total solids, as compared with the 11.5 percent or more found in whole milk.
www.penpages.psu.edu /penpages_reference/29201/2920146.HTML   (374 words)

 Proceedings: Section 4   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
These compounds may be safe, but in some cases more data are needed to corroborate their safety.
In extensive tests, ferrous fumarate was found to be suitable for fortification of cereal-based weaning foods, biscuits, and wafers; however, because of its brown color and insolubility, it is not appropriate for fortification of milk and white or off-white foods (Hurrell, 1989; Hurrell et al., 1989; Hurrell and Cook, 1990).
Iron fortification of infant cereals: a proposal for the use of ferrous fumarate or ferrous succinate.
www.jsi.com /intl/omni/fe_ch4.htm   (2241 words)

 Iron fortification of corn masa flour   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
To measure the suitability of several iron compounds, manufacturing, sensory, and bioavailability studies were conducted.
The third study consisted of a stable isotope iron absorption analysis to measure bioavailability among healthy females living in Guatemala.
Results from the three studies are as of yet unpublished, but preliminary findings are leading to the identification of the optimal iron source for fortification of corn masa flour, and with it, the means to improve nutrition among iron-deficient populations in the developing world.
www.aaccnet.org /meetings/99mtg/abstracts/acabd90.htm   (188 words)

 We don speek them crazy tongues in theese heer parts.
If your battle takes place at a Compound with a repair bay your damages will be reduced by 1 point, and a further 1 if it takes place at a Compound with a not-in-use War factory.
You can only build mobile suits at this location or Compounds, but to build a Compound you cannot be attacked on the same day, and somebody must attack each thing that could possibly attack you that day, plus each Compound in the area.
From any Compound you can move to - The area the Compound is in, or Earth Orbit if the compound is on Earth, has a spaceport or if you are in a Pegasus or a Rogue ship, or Europe if in Gibralter.
www.geocities.com /oywrpg/info.html   (1775 words)

 Addressing Malnutrition In South Africa.
One of these is a National Food Fortification Program where it is recommended to fortify wheat, maize flour and retail sugar, three of the five most commonly consumed food vehicles as reported by the National Food Consumption Survey.
Effectiveness as measured by field and clinical trials, using the compound as a supplement or in food fortification.
It is electrolyticaly manufactured and has extremely poor bioavailability factors, especially with particle sizes as stipulated by the DOH to be in the region of 45 micrometers in diameter.
www.scienceinafrica.co.za /2002/january/food.htm   (1448 words)

 24th FNRI Seminar Series Focuses on Food Fortification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The annual seminar will be held at the FNRI Auditorium, DOST Compound, General Santos Avenue, Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila on July 7, 1998.
Activities in the morning, starts at 9:00 with the presentation of four FNRI completed researches on food fortification and a special report on the nutrition situation of vulnerable groups.
Topics include the Food Fortification Strategy of the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition, Sangkap Pinoy Seal Program, DOST’s Food Fortification R and D Agenda, and success stories of the food industry with the Sangkap Pinoy Seal Program.
www.fnri.dost.gov.ph /htm/24semina.htm   (381 words)

 Fortification Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
For other meanings of '''fort''', '''fortress''' or '''fortification''', see fort (disambiguation)disambiguation page.}}
'''Fortifications''' are military constructions and buildings designed for defense (military)defense in warfare.
Permanent fortifications are erected at leisure, with all the resources that a state can supply of constructive and mechanical engineeringmechanical skill, and are built of enduring materials.
www.echostatic.com /index.php?title=Fortification   (315 words)

 Zinc and Copper: Proposed Fortification Levels and Recommended Zinc Compounds -- Rosado 133 (9): 2985 -- Journal of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
food fortification is to increase the intake of specific nutrients
Of these compounds, zinc oxide is by far the most commonly
compound to be added to a particular food is bioavailability.
www.nutrition.org /cgi/content/full/133/9/2985S   (2838 words)

 Iron bioavailability from iron-fortified Guatemalan meals based on corn tortillas and black bean paste -- Davidsson et ...
Fortification of corn masa flour with iron and/or other nutrients: a literature and industry experience review.
Fortification of sugar with iron sodium ethylenediaminotetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) improves iron status in semirural Guatemalan populations.
An evaluation of EDTA compounds for iron fortification of cereal-based foods.
www.ajcn.org /cgi/content/full/75/3/535   (3341 words)

 Fortification: Overcoming Technical and Practical Barriers -- Hurrell 132 (4): 806 -- Journal of Nutrition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
This compound is widely used to fortify infant cereals in Europe
of ascorbic acid on the absorption of the insoluble iron compounds.
Bioavailability in man of different samples of reduced iron and prediction of the effects of iron fortification.
www.nutrition.org /cgi/content/full/132/4/806S   (6522 words)

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