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Topic: Compound eye

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In the News (Fri 14 Jun 19)

  Compound eye - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Drawing from Robert Hooke's, Micrographia of the compound eye of a grey drone fly.
In the acute zone the eye are flattened and the facets larger.
The evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda (Crustacea)." Contributions to Zoology, 67 (4) 223-236 (1998).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Compound_eye   (701 words)

 Eye - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Such eyes are typically roughly spherical, filled with a transparent gel-like substance called the vitreous humour, with a focusing lens and often an iris which regulates the intensity of the light that enters the eye.
Compound eyes are found among the arthropods and are composed of many simple facets which give a pixelated image (not multiple images as is often believed).
The eyes are automatically rotated to remain fixed on the object, directed by input from the organs of balance near the ears.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Eye   (4222 words)

 eye. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The human eye is a spheroid structure that rests in a bony cavity (socket, or orbit) on the frontal surface of the skull.
Accessory structures of the eye are the lacrimal gland and its ducts in the upper lid, which bathe the eye with tears, keeping the cornea moist, clean, and brilliant, and drainage ducts that carry the excess moisture to the interior of the nose.
The compound eye creates a poor image and cannot perceive small or distant objects; however, it is superior to the camera eye in its ability to discriminate brief flashes of light and movement, and in some insects (e.g., bees) it can detect the polarization of light.
www.bartleby.com /65/ey/eye.html   (983 words)

 Eye - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In most vertebrates and some mollusks, the eye works by allowing light to enter it and project onto a light-sensitive panel of cells known as the retina at the rear of the eye, where the light is detected and converted into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.
The common origin (monophyly) of all animal eyes is now widely accepted as fact based on shared anatomical and genetic features of all eyes; that is, all modern eyes, varied as they are, have their origins in a proto-eye believed to have evolved some 540 million years ago.
The anterior segment is the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humour: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Eye   (4959 words)

 Eye Search   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In most vertebrates and some mollusks the eye works by allowing light enter it and project onto a light-sensitive panel of cells retina at the rear of the eye, where the light is detected and signals are transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.
Eyes of widely varied species may have evolved differently, but they tend to be similar in function and appearance once fully developed.
The muscle tension pulls the eye against a pad of fat at the back of the eye, so that when the muscles exert different tensions, a torque is exerted on the globe that causes it to turn.
www.eyesearch.com /eye.html   (3346 words)

 Current Research: Todd Oakley
Eye evolution is paradoxical because tremendous morphological variability is coupled with genetic and developmental stasis across millions of years of evolution.
The ancestral absence of compound eye opsins suggests an ancestral absence of compound eyes themselves because all metazoan eyes express opsin.
The ultrastructure of the facets of ostracod compound eyes deviates from the common arthropod structure of eight retinular cells and four crystalline cone cells.
www.lifesci.ucsb.edu /eemb/faculty/oakley/research/research.html   (1358 words)

 BM Galleries - Octopus or Insect Eye?
As to which eye is more sophisticated, a highly refined insect eye or octopus eye, this is a bit like comparing a good orange with a good apple.
Dragonflies have one of the most elaborate eyes of any insect, huge domes on the front of the head capable of pinpointing the motion of a small flying insect from several yards distance, and all this while flying at a rapid speed.
The octopus eye and the vertebrate eye are extraordinarily similar.
ebiomedia.com /gall/eyes/octopus-insect.html   (1285 words)

 04.27.2006 - Artificial compound eye fabricated in lab
These eyes can eventually be used as cameras or sensory detectors to capture visual or chemical information from a wider field of vision than previously possible, even with the best fish-eye lens, said Luke P. Lee, the team's principal investigator.
The artificial compound eye (above) created by Luke P. Lee and his team is similar in size, shape and structure to an insect's compound eye (below), both seen in cross-section.
Not only are these units packed together in the same hexagonal, honeycomb pattern as in an insect's compound eye, but each is also remarkably similar in size, design, shape and function to an ommatidium, the individual sensory unit of a compound eye.
www.berkeley.edu /news/media/releases/2006/04/27_compoundeye.shtml   (1069 words)

One advantage of this type of compound eye is the ability to detect movement within a partial scene while using less brain processing time than that required to process the full image.
If we take the technology of a compound eye, appearing on many insects, and applied it to the requirement for human eyesight we would get an eye that is extremely large.
The refraction superposition compound optical design is similar to gradient index lens arrays, which are currently used to replace conventional lenses where optical distances are very short and where broad field coverage is needed.
eyedesignbook.com /ch2/eyech2-def.html   (1601 words)

 The Compound Eye   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The arthropod (e.g., insects, crustaceans) eye is built quite differently from the vertebrate eye (and mollusk eye).
There may be thousands of ommatidia in a compound eye with their facets spread over most of the surface of a hemisphere.
Even so, the resolving ability of the honeybee eye is poor in comparison with that of most vertebrate eyes and only 1/60 as good as that of the human eye; that is, two objects that we could distinguish between at 60 feet could only be discriminated by the bee at a distance of one foot.
home.comcast.net /~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/C/CompoundEye.html   (747 words)

 Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye -- Oakley and ...
Taxa were scored for presence/absence of compound eyes and separately for presence/absence of median eyes.
The y axis represents the difference between the ln likelihood of the compound eye homology hypothesis (five nodes basal to myodocopids fixed with compound eyes present) and the ln likelihood of an independent origin hypothesis (same five nodes fixed to absence).
of median eye homology in maxillopods and ostracods.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/032483599v1   (2991 words)

 SDNHM: The Eyes Have It
The images collected by all the parts of a compound eye are integrated in the animal's brain.
In a compound eye, the lens is an inflexible, crystalline cone that directs light down the ommatidium, toward its light-sensitive cells (retinulae).
In a compound eye, the rhabdom is a translucent cylinder formed by the surrounding retinulae (photoreceptive cells).
www.sdnhm.org /kids/eyes/glossary.html   (877 words)

 ScienceDaily: Researchers Create A Biologically Inspired Artificial Compound Eye
Using the eyes of insects such as dragonflies and houseflies as models, a team of bioengineers at University of California, Berkeley, has created a series of artificial compound eyes.
Video Cameras Learn From Insect Eyes (September 1, 2006) -- The bane of all wedding videos -- that picture of the bride in front of the window where her face is so dark that you can't see the features -- may soon be a thing of the past.
Compound Eyes, Evolutionary Ties (October 4, 2006) -- Biologists at UCSD have discovered that the presence of a key protein in the compound eyes of the fruit fly allows the formation of distinct light gathering units in each of its 800 unit eyes, an...
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/04/060428135325.htm   (2350 words)

 University of Kentucky Entomology for Kids
Using the glue gun, attach individual eyes to each other, or to the newspaper covering the bowl, using the bowl as a mold.
Cover both surfaces of the eye with at least 2-3 coats of spray paint, in a bright, dark, or metallic color.
The compound eye can be displayed with a large easel, or on a shelf.
www.uky.edu /Ag/Entomology/ythfacts/bugfun/cmpdeye.htm   (318 words)

 compound - a definition from Whatis.com
1) In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements, in such a way that the atoms of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break.
A compound differs from a mixture, in which bonding among the atoms of the constituent substances does not occur.
Examples of this usage include compound eye (found in various insects), compound microscope (a high-power magnifying instrument consisting of more than one lens), compound sentence (a sentence that is a conjunction or disjunction of smaller sentences), and compound document, an organized collection of user interfaces that form a single integrated perceptual environment.
whatis.techtarget.com /definition/0,,sid9_gci859528,00.html   (433 words)

 Eye color pigments, screening pigments, mosaicism, Drosophila, ommochromes, pteridines
Eyes which are mosaic because of excision of a transposable element in Drosophila mauritiana have patches with both pigment types.
Stark, W.S., Srygley, R.G. and Greenberg, R.M. Analysis of a compound eye mosaic of outer rhabdomeres absent marked with cardinal.
Note that the depth-focus ("z") series of the eye using the technique of "optical neutralization of the cornea" reveals identifyable primary and secondary pigment cells with pigment in a white background (as well as R1-6 and R7 rhabdomeres).
starklab.slu.edu /eyecolor1.htm   (884 words)

 Cornell News: New old insect eye
The compound eyes of most insects have many hundreds of lens facets, each sampling only one small point in the insect's visual field, but the composite lens eyes of strepsipteran insects have no more than 50 facets.
According to the investigators, this kind of eye is well equipped to sample not points but "chunks" of the visual field, greatly improving the visual capabilities of these strange insects.
In contrast to the more familiar compound eye that allows most insects to sample the visual world point by point, Strepsipteran optic units sample "chunks" of an image.
www.news.cornell.edu /releases/Nov99/new_eye.5.1.hrs.html   (1504 words)

 Formable compound micro-lens arrays
An optical system modeled after the compound eye is adaptable to a variety of applications and geometries.
Another is a hemispherical optical array developed at the University of Berkeley that nearly perfectly matches the optical properties and size of the eye of a honeybee.
Compound lens arrays are a practical alternative to existing camera systems and offer significant advantages for applications in communications, micro-vision systems, motion detectors, rangefinders, and other optical sensor systems.
newsroom.spie.org /x4676.xml   (870 words)

 Eye Evolution???
Use: it can differentiate the direction and the intensity of light because cup-shaped pigment cells of the eyes shield the light sensitive cells in all directions with only one opening for light entry.
Nautilus is an animal with a shell (cephalopoda) and lives in the ocean bottom of low light intensity.
Compound eyes can be found in all insects whilst simple eyes are found mostly in larva and also acts as an accessory in some flying insects.
library.thinkquest.org /28030/eyeevo.htm   (311 words)

 UC Berkeley researchers create a biologically-inspired artificial compound eye
Berkeley -- Using the eyes of insects such as dragonflies and houseflies as models, a team of bioengineers at University of California, Berkeley, has created a series of artificial compound eyes.
They are the first hemispherical, three-dimensional optical systems to integrate microlens arrays — thousands of tiny lenses packed side by side — with self-aligned, self-written waveguides, that is, light-conducting channels that themselves have been created by beams of light, said Lee, the Lloyd Distinguished Professor of Bioengineering at UC Berkeley.
The eyes are fully described for the first time in the April 28 issue of the journal Science.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-04/uoc--ubr042406.php   (985 words)

 Halfbakery: Compound Eye Sunglasses
Now, in each of the holes you put a small LCD shutter that is capable of blocking some, most or all of the light, and between the holes you put tiny optical sensors.
Each hole would have its own sensor (with a lens over the front) so that the light landing on the sensor would come from the direction in which the hole is facing.
I'd consider something a bit further from your eye, such as a windshield with LCD built in to block sun, a camera to watch for the sun, and a camera to watch for the location of your eye.
www.halfbakery.com /idea/Compound_20Eye_20Sunglasses   (1089 words)

 Researchers Recreate Insect's Eye in Lab   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
BERKELEY, Calif., May 1, 2006 -- Using the eyes of insects such as dragonflies and houseflies as models, a team of bioengineers at the University of California, Berkeley, has created a series of artificial compound eyes that could be used to make ultrathin camera phones or wearable cameras.
These eyes can eventually be used as sensory detectors to capture visual or chemical information from a wider field of vision than previously possible, even with the best fish-eye lens, said Luke P. Lee, the team's principal investigator.
Lee said he thought that the artificial compound eyes will be put to use within a few years.
www.photonics.com /content/news/2006/May/1/82475.aspx   (1229 words)

 Cokemachineglow.com - Robert Pollard: From a Compound Eye
What I do have, however, is a copy of From a Compound Eye and, more importantly to you, Mr.
On From a Compound Eye, Pollard adds accessibility to the experiments and the music is left to bloom, not wither.
Thankfully, From a Compound Eye serves as a “best-of” from Pollard’s entire repertoire, taking away the genius from Fading Captain Series 1 through infinity, while ignoring the weaker material.
www.cokemachineglow.com /reviews/pollard_eye2005.html   (833 words)

 Robert Pollard: From a Compound Eye - PopMatters Music Review
The main difference, however, is that From a Compound Eye sounds more complete -- not only because it's a double album, but also because Pollard has checked his notorious tendency to commit every random musical idea to tape, no matter how unfinished.
Indeed, From a Compound Eye is both a synopsis and reaffirmation of Pollard's influences.
What is notably missing from From a Compound Eye, however, are the lo-fi experiments that made GBV cult gods.
www.popmatters.com /music/reviews/p/pollardrobert-fromacompound.shtml   (1001 words)

 Bio-POEMS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Description: Biologically inspired compound eyes have been developed by a novel 3D microfabrication method, which is inspired by the unique optical scheme of the natural compound eyes found in many insects.
The combination of polymer microlenses, reconfigurable microtemplating, soft lithography and self-written waveguides by self-aligned 3D photo-polymerization step enables the realization of complicated optical structures with thousands of omni-directional self-aligned microlens and waveguide arrays in a photosensitive polymer resin.
The characterizations of artificial ommatidia and compound eyes have been carried out with a modified reflection/transmission confocal microscope.
biopoems.berkeley.edu /projects/projects-jeong-ACE.html   (121 words)

Compound eyes are composed of a great number of facets.
While a compound eye cannot register the fine detail of our own eyes, it is particularly good at detecting and following motion.
B-EYE: See the world through the eye of a bee.
science.exeter.edu /jekstrom/Bee/Eye/Eye.html   (141 words)

 Flickr: Photos tagged with compound
TimTec provides synthetic organic compounds for screening in vials and microplates, building...
New molecule, API, compound or a complex intermediate, Ceres will locate a supplier with...
See also: bug, fly, eyes, closeup, wings, dragonfly, legs
www.flickr.com /photos/tags/compound   (152 words)

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