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Topic: Compressed gaseous hydrogen

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  Iowa Energy Center Grant: Literature Review of Hydrogen Production, Storage, Transportation and Utilization Technology
Hydrogen, like electricity, is an energy carrier and not an energy source, and significant research is underway to test the feasibility of a future transition to a total hydrogen energy economy.
Compressed gaseous hydrogen transport is only possible in heavy, expensive vessels that can withstand pressures up to 10,000 psi, or a system of pipelines that must either be constructed from the bottom up or retrofitted from existing natural gas pipelines.
Though hydrogen leaks are considered by most to be harmless because hydrogen is common to the universe, molecular hydrogen leaks may wreak havoc on the atmosphere.
www.energy.iastate.edu /renewable/wind/cs-hydrogenLit.html   (1670 words)

  Hydrogen vehicle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A primary benefit of using pure hydrogen as a power source is that it uses oxygen from the air to produce only water vapor as exhaust, moving the source of atmospheric pollution from many cars back to a single power plant, where it can be more easily dealt with.
Hydrogen is not a pre-existing source of energy like fossil fuels, but a carrier, much like a battery.
Hydrogen fuel cells run directly on hydrogen fuel, or on hydrogen produced in the vehicle from reforming methane or gasoline (this from petroleum), or natural ethanol, while hydrogen internal-combustion cars run on hydrogen only.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hydrogen_car   (1497 words)

 LH2 - the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
LH2 is an acronym used in the aerospace industry, which stands for liquid hydrogen.
Hydrogen at normal temperatures is a gas and to exist as a liquid must be cooled to a very low level, 20.268 K (−423 °F).
Liquid hydrogen has a very low density of 70.8 kg/m³ (at 20 K), so storage tanks for it have to be quite large.
www.world-knowledge-encyclopedia.com /?t=LH2   (70 words)

This application of hydrogen is the reverse of hydrogen's later role as a fuel, where its flammability is a major advantage and its low density the disadvantage that inhibits its use for flight in the atmosphere.
Gaseous hydrogen was used in 1820 as fuel for one of the earliest internal combustion engines, but it was quickly replaced by coal gas which was much more readily available and had a higher heating value per unit volume.
Important to the application of hydrogen as a fuel are its properties as a liquid, which were not known until near the end of the nineteenth century.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/SP-4404/app-a1.htm   (1939 words)

 Encyclopedia article on Hydrogen [EncycloZine]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Hydrogen is used in hydrodealkylation, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking.
Altough he wrongly assumed that hydrogen was a compound of mercury (and not of the acid), he was still able to describe many of hydrogen's properties quite accurately.
Under normal conditions hydrogen gas is a mix of two different kinds of molecules which differ from one another by the relative spin of the nuclei.
encyclozine.com /Hydrogen   (1720 words)

 HyWeb: Knowledge - Glossary
For natural gas the boiling temperature (where the phase transition from liquid to gaseous occurs) is -161.5°C (111.5 K) and for hydrogen it is -253°C (20 K).
H is the chemical symbol for hydrogen, the lightest element of the table of elements and the most abundant element of the universe.
hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO The necessary energy is supplied by the combustion („oxidation") of parts („partial") of the feedstock in the process itself.
www.hydrogen.org /Knowledge/glossary.html   (1461 words)

The Space Shuttle uses hydrogen as a fuel, because its mass is low, and the fuel is carried in an external fuel tank that is jettisoned during lift-off.
Compressed gaseous hydrogen is even less dense than liquid hydrogen.
This is one of the niches that hydrogen is used for.
www.dalefield.com /earth/hydrogen.html   (1429 words)

 HFCIT Hydrogen Storage: Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage
Refueling times, compression energy penalties and heat management requirements during compression also need to be considered as the mass and pressure of on-board hydrogen are increased.
Compressed hydrogen tanks [5000 psi (~35 MPa) and 10,000 psi (~70 MPa)] have been certified worldwide according to ISO 11439 (Europe), NGV-2 (U.S.), and Reijikijun Betten (Iceland) standards and approved by TUV (Germany) and The High-Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan (KHK).
Hydrogen boil-off must be minimized or eliminated for cost, efficiency and vehicle range considerations, as well as for safety considerations when vehicles are parked in confined spaces.
www.eere.energy.gov /hydrogenandfuelcells/storage/hydrogen_storage.html   (830 words)

 HyWeb: Wissen - Hydrogen application in urban vehicles
Hydrogen of hydrogen rich energy carriers enable the reduction of local emissions as well as the gradual introduction of renewable energies into the transportation sector and thus the reduction of greenhouse gases.
Hydrogen settles in several layers on graphite fibers with diameters of between 5 and 100 nanometers and lengths of 5 to 100 micrometers.
Compressed hydrogen storage of 7 Nm³ at 20 MPa and compressed oxygen storage at 20 MPA
www.hydrogen.org /Wissen/NHF97.htm   (5439 words)

 Department for Planning and Infrastructure : Perth Fuel Cell Bus Trial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Hydrogen may be used to power steam turbines or as fuel in a vehicle internal combustion engine.
Although it is the most abundant element in the universe, hydrogen is not found in pure form on earth and must be produced or reformed from a source.
The 'hydrogen economy' is a vision for the future in which our economic system is based around the use of hydrogen as an energy storage and transport medium.
www.dpi.wa.gov.au /fuelcells/hydrotech.html   (652 words)

 Fact Sheet: Hydrogen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Hydrogen Fuel Cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts chemical energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen into an electric current and the by-products of water and heat.
Hydrogen is not found in nature in its pure (elemental) form on earth and must be produced or reformed from a primary source.
Hydrogen is currently transported predominantly by ship as a liquid or by truck as a gas.
www.dpi.wa.gov.au /fuelcells/docs/factsheethydro.html   (714 words)

 HFP Infotools
alkaline fuel cell; with alkaline electrolyte, operating temperature 60 to 90°C; fuel: pure hydrogen; can only be operated with pure oxygen or with air if the CO has been removed; state of the art: so far used mainly in military applications and space travel; presently developed and manufactured by ZeTek Power for terrestrial applications.
Hydrogen as secondary energy carrier is seen as the key component of a global renewable world energy supply.
conversion of hydrocarbons (diesel, residual oil etc.) into a synthesis gas that consists of hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO The necessary energy is supplied by the combustion („oxidation") of parts („partial") of the feedstock in the process itself.
infotools.hfpeurope.org /glossary/main_00.html   (1447 words)

 BlueOvalNews Independent Voice of the Ford Community   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The E-450 shuttle bus is equipped with a 26-gallon equivalent, 5,000 pounds-per-square-inch hydrogen fuel tank with an expected range of about 150 miles.
Hydrogen internal combustion engines deliver up to a 99.7 percent reduction in CO2, making them an ideal power solution within the airport environment where emission levels are strictly regulated.
The turbocharged Ford 6.8-liter V-10 hydrogen engine is a natural fit in power generation applications, due to its minimal vibration and wear on engine and gen-set components.
www.blueovalnews.com /2005/products/engine.fordhydrogen0205.htm   (425 words)

 Hydrogen Technologies: Are Advancements Robust Enough to Deliver on Hydrogen's Immense Potential? : just-auto.com Press ...
Hydrogen is being regarded as a promising candidate to replace conventional hydrocarbon fuels in the long run.
Currently, hydrogen could be produced by three methods - thermo-chemical, electrolysis and photochemical reactions, depending on the sources used for generation of hydrogen.
Among various hydrogen storage methods presently in use are compressed and gaseous hydrogen storage, metal hydride hydrogen storage, slurry based chemical hydride storage and sodium borohydride hydrogen storage.
www.just-auto.com /press_releases_detail.asp?art=1766   (1047 words)

 MRS Bulletin: September 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
This survey focuses on the use of liquid hydrogen as an automotive fuel in comparison with the use of compressed gaseous hydrogen.
The energy penalties associated with liquefaction versus gas compression are compared, followed by an examination of the weight of hydrogen relative to carrier weight for the two alternative approaches.
compressed gaseous hydrogen, hydrogen storage, liquid hydrogen, liquid-hydrogen transfer, hydrogen transport.
www.mrs.org /publications/bulletin/2002/sep/wolf_abstract.html   (94 words)

 International Clearinghouse for Hydrogen Based Commerce - HYDROGEN VEHICLES 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
High-pressure hydrogen gas is stored at about 2,900 psi in compressed hydrogen gas tanks and then further pressurized to over 5,000 psi for delivery to the vehicles.
The new high-pressure hydrogen storage cylinder is made of an inner aluminum liner and an outer shell of several wound layers of a high-strength, high-elasticity carbon fiber.
Hydrogen currently costs $4 to $10 per kilogram, the unit in which it is measured, and the H2H's fuel tank holds five to six kg of hydrogen.
www.ch2bc.org /indexa3part2.htm   (3961 words)

 Technical Report: Hydrogen safer than gasoline (Hydrogen) energyportal24.com
It shows on a split-screen what might happen in case of a fuel leak in a vehicle (Geo Metro) which is operated on gasoline versus compressed gaseous hydrogen.
The hydrogen flame went straight up in a slender cone shape from the trunk deck and began to peter out after a little more than 1,5 minutes.
The lower ignition level limit for hydrogen in air is 4%, which is significantly higher than the 1,5% for hydrocarbon gases in air, which means that gasoline vapor can be ignited easily.
www.energyportal24.com /report_206.htm   (283 words)

 Mahler AGS - hydrogen generation, nitrogen plant, oxygen generator - Advanced Gas Systems, Engineering
With more than 4,500 plants built worldwide since 1950, Mahler AGS is a highly respected manufacturer of on-site gas plants for hydrogen generation, oxygen generation and nitrogen generation.
hydrogen plant, oxygen plant and nitrogen plant) as well as plants for the purification and recovery of technical gases and process waste gases.
Highlights: Our hydrogen generator is the first remote controlled hydrogen plant in the world, our oxygen generator technology gives the lowest consumption figures and our nitrogen generator is one of the biggest On-site supply PSA-Systems ever built.
www.mahler-ags.com   (299 words)

 CEP - Clean Energy Partnership
At the pump for gaseous hydrogen, fuelling begins as soon as the customer opens the main valve on the pump.
Firstly, the pressure inside the pressure vessels which serves as the tank is automatically determined; the dispenser pump computer calculates on this basis a refuelling curve; a complete refuelling is obtained by the dispenser pump’s increasing of the filling pressure in several stages.
At the dispenser pump for liquid hydrogen, the fuel is pumped from the liquid hydrogen supply tank with the aid of a cryogenic pump into the vehicle tank.
www.cep-berlin.de /fillingstation.html   (412 words)

 Green Car Congress: New Materials for Hydrogen Storage
Storage is one of the Grand Challenges for using hydrogen in transportation, and researchers are rising to it.
While storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen or liquefied hydrogen in high-pressure or cryogenic tanks is one option, finding an advanced solid-state or liquid chemical material that can be filled with, hold and then release hydrogen as needed is another.
Their preliminary work indicates, however, that the hydrogen release is not easily reversed; they have yet to achieve rehydriding (refilling the material with hydrogen).
www.greencarcongress.com /2005/03/new_materials_f.html   (565 words)

 The Environmental Literacy Council - Steps Toward the Hydrogen Economy*
A consensus has emerged during the last few decades that the ideal working fluid for many industrial and transportation applications is hydrogen because its combustion yields water which may then serve as the raw material for recovering the hydrogen and oxygen from which it was formed.
The fossil-fuel-based hydrogen economy is currently undergoing rapid changes because the need to minimize air pollution in our urban centers has served to focus attention on the desirability of replacing gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles by fuel-cell systems.
Because of high hydrogen transmission costs for substantial distances, the use of condensable fluids is preferred over sea-based production of gaseous compressed hydrogen.
www.enviroliteracy.org /article.php/487.html   (2645 words)

 BMW Education: Viewing What's News Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The latter boasts a higher energy density and is favoured by BMW Group as it gives vehicles a greater range.
As part of the opening ceremony, the fuelling of a BMW test car with liquid hydrogen was presented to the government representatives.
BMW AG will be offering customers a production car with hydrogen combustion engine during the production period of the current BMW 7 Series.
www.bmweducation.co.uk /whatsnew/view.asp?docID=202   (207 words)

 Dynetek Industries: FAQS
Compressed gas vehicles submitted to test crashes have been totally destroyed but show little or no damage to the compressed gas cylinder.
Vehicles can be "fast filled" in five to six minutes using compressed gas stored in cascades of natural gas cylinders or fuelled overnight on a "timed fill" basis in about five to eight hours.
The hydrogen detection system consists of four hydrogen sensors: two in the trunk, one under the hood and another in the passenger compartment.
www.dynetek.com /faqs.php   (1131 words)

 A Strategy for the Hydrogen Transition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
It has two preconditions: uncompromised ultralight-hybrid vehicles whose inherently high efficiency permits their fuel-cell stacks to rely on conveniently compact onboard tanks of compressed gaseous hydrogen, making onboard liquid-fuel reformers unnecessary and uncompetitive; and integration of fuel-cell market development between vehicles and buildings.
Its hydrogen could be made in the building by a mass-produced "hydrogen appliance"—either an offpeak electrolyzer or a natural-gas steam reformer.
The general-vehicle market could then be opened to hydrogen by first using the spare off-peak capacity of buildings' hydrogen sources to serve vehicles too—particularly vehicles whose drivers work or live in or near the same buildings.
www.rmi.org /sitepages/pid311.php   (521 words)

 Linde to supply climate-neutral hydrogen for official presentation of new BMW
The climate neutrality of the liquid hydrogen is guaranteed thanks to the acquisition of CO2 certificates.
Linde's strategic objective is to considerably increase the proportion of sustainably generated hydrogen in the long term.
Linde will also be the exclusive global hydrogen supplier for BMW's drive events, which are to run under the motto "Drive for the Future", on the basis of a long-term partnership.
www.tmcnet.com /usubmit/-linde-supply-climate-neutral-hydrogen-official-presentation-new-/2006/11/14/2073610.htm   (1147 words)

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