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Topic: Compressibility factor


In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  
  Compressibility - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
At low speeds, the compressibility of air is not important for aircraft design, but as the airflow nears and exceeds the speed of sound, a host of new aerodynamic effects become important in the design of aircraft.
In the case of an ideal gas, the compressibility factor Z is equal to unity, and the familiar ideal gas law is recovered:
Compressibility is a geological term used to quantify the ability of a soil to reduce in volume with applied pressure.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Compressibility   (1060 words)

  
 Process for controlling a pump to account for compressibility of liquids in obtaining steady flow - Patent 4797834
However, if the solvents are compressible, a lag in the flow occurs during the time the pumping piston is compressing the solvent taken in at low pressure to the pressure level of the high pressure line coupled to the column.
This correction factor is then used to correct for solvent compressibility in controlling the solenoid operated valves to obtain the correct solvent mix and to adjust the flow rate of the pump.
The correction factor CF is the fraction of Z consumed in the compression of the solvent in the cylinder 35 to raise it to a pressure sufficient to open the check valve 63.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4797834.html   (8306 words)

  
 Methods and apparatus for loading compressed gas - Patent 6655155
The methods and apparatus for transporting compressed gas includes a gas storage system having a plurality of pipes connected by a manifold whereby the gas storage system is designed to operate in the pressure range of the minimum compressibility factor for a given composition of gas.
The compression ratio of the gas is defined as the ratio between the volume of a given mass of gas at standard conditions to the volume of the same mass of gas at storage conditions.
To calculate the optimized compression of the gas to be transported, the compressibility factor is minimized and the mass of stored gas to mass of container ratio is maximized at a given pressure as compared to standard conditions for a particular gas.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6655155.html   (20140 words)

  
 Measurement Canada - G-17 Establishing Supercompressibility Factors pursuant to Section 40 of the Electricity and Gas ...
With the exception of orifice metering, references to compressibility correction were not evidenced in any formal specification documentation until the early 1970s when Technical Gas Circulars were issued as a means of providing national instruction to government inspectors on the manner in which meters were to be verified.
Section 40(2) states that a supercompressibility factor of one (1) may be used where the pressure within the meter does not exceed 700 kPa (100 psi) on the gauge pressure scale.
Where a supercompressibility factor other than one (1) is implemented, section 40(1) is applicable and the supercompressibility factor must be established in accordance with a procedure which has been approved by the Director.
strategis.ic.gc.ca /epic/internet/inmc-mc.nsf/en/lm01927e.html   (784 words)

  
 JPT (Feb 2003): Injection Tests for Reservoir Appraisals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The skin factor in the model is a “numerical†skin factor, which increases as the mobility ratio of injected and reservoir fluids increase.
For this case, the oil compressibility data were increased to five times that of the water compressibility.
Total-system compressibility should be used to calculate the distance to boundaries, regardless of the injected water volume.
www.spe.org /spe/jpt/jsp/jptpapersynopsis/0,2439,1104_11038_1040413_1040476,00.html   (1377 words)

  
 Compressed Air Glossary of Terms :: C :: Pneumatic Manufacturer Directory @ Pneumatic-Source.com
A machine in which air or gas is compressed by the mechanical action of rotating vanes or impellers imparting velocity and pressure to the air or gas.
Compression in which no heat is transferred to or from the gas during the compression process.
The tensile or compressive loading on the crosshead assembly with compressive piston rod loading on the outward stroke and tensile piston rod loading on the inward stroke.
www.pneumatic-source.com /resources/glossary/c.shtml   (1686 words)

  
 Gas mixing formulas Technical diving
A correction factor for the compressibility of the gas must be included in the equations when calculating partial pressures.
The general equation of state of an ideal gas that is used in partial pressure mixing, Boyle's law, states that the quantity (P*V) is a constant at constant temperature.
The compressibility factors (the values in the Z factor table) of each gas at these partial pressures are:
www.divetekadventures.com /Technical_gasMixingformulas.htm   (590 words)

  
 The basics of analyzer sample systems by Ian Verhappen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
For gases, compressibility changes as a function of pressure and temperature according to the rules of the ideal gas law, as shown in Equation 2.
The equivalent length factor 'K' in the Crane manual is empirical determined from experimental data.
After the 'K' factors have been determined for all the fittings, they are summed and this total equivalent length is then added to the actual pipe run length to calculate a total equivalent length.
www.iceweb.com.au /Analyzer/basics_of_analyzer_sample_system.htm   (3015 words)

  
 Abstract: Critical Compressibility Factors for Chain Molecules   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
For many proposed equations of state for fluids composed of chain-like molecules, the compressibility factor is related to the chain number concentration only through the total monomer concentration.
In addition, for equations of state that are analytical at the critical point, we find that the critical compressibility factor approaches one-third in the limit of infinitely long chains, contrary to experimental trends.
Appropriate scaling leads to the proper trend for the compressibility factor, as demonstrated with a simple equation.
www.boulder.nist.gov /div838/theory/abstracts/lue4.html   (108 words)

  
 PB Network | Issue 51 | Measurements of Fuel Gas Consumption During Performance Testing of Power Plants
Compressibility is a measure of how much a real gas varies from the relationship between volume, pressure and temperature for a perfect gas (PV = mRT).
The measure of the variation is termed the compressibility factor (Z) and for natural gas it is a function of the constituents of the gas mixture, the temperature and the pressure.
Appropriate account should be taken of the compressibility characteristics of the gas; and all components of the orifice plate flow meter, including the orifice pipeline section, should be calibrated at an approved independent test facility on gas at the expected line pressure and Reynolds Number just prior to power plant testing.
www.pbworld.com /news_events/publications/network/issue_51/51_34_ArnoldM_Technotes.asp   (1502 words)

  
 Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science
The name "acentric factor" was used to imply that the factor roughly measures the deviation of the intermolecular potential function from that of the simple fluids.
In a series of papers, Halm and Stiel defined a fourth parameter for polar fluids through the vapor pressure and showed that their approach was applicable for the entropy of vaporization (19), density of saturated liquids and vapors (20), and second virial coefficients (21).
The average absolute deviation from experimental values of the predicted compressibility factors for the saturated vapor and liquid equation was 1.87%, and for the superheated vapor equation was 2.92%.
digital.library.okstate.edu /OAS/oas_htm_files/v56/p125_132nf.html   (2409 words)

  
 Process IT Development
The gas compressibility factor (Z) describes the difference between ideal and actual behaviour of a gas.
The following plot shows the compressibility factor of a gas typically used for gas lift, varying with pressure for a number of different temperatures.
The Process IT Development Gas Compressibility Service is an OPC client which allow the calculation of gas compressibility on-line, using process pressures and temperatures.
www.procdev.com /zcalcs   (298 words)

  
 Compressibility Factor for Gas Condensates
The compressibility factor of natural gases is necessary in many petroleum engineering calculations.
Occasionally, experimental data became unavailable and the gas compressibility factor is estimated from correlations using gas composition or gas gravity.
In case the gas composition is unavailable, the study presents a new gas gravity correlation to estimate pseudo-critical properties of the gas condensate.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/enfuem/2001/15/i04/abs/ef000216m.html   (288 words)

  
 Thermodynamic Models
The simplest extension of the ideal gas equation is the virial equation, where the compressibility factor is assumed to depend on the pressure or the volume:
Generalized equations of state assume the compressibility factor is a function of the reduced temperature and pressure, and sometimes a third parameter.
In this model, the third parameter is the critical compressibility factor.
home.olemiss.edu /~cmpcs/4213.html   (637 words)

  
 Chapter: 05. Aerodynamic Characteristics
An empirical form factor is applied (a function of the aerofoil thickness/chord ratio, the sweep, and the transition point), followed by the calibration factor.
High-speed compressibility drag is calculated by Piano as a function of the wing's sweepback angle, thickness/chord ratio, lift coefficient, and one or more user-controlled parameters that reflect the aerofoil technology level.
In addition to this basic wing-related compressibility drag, corrections can be specified to allow for some zero-lift compressibility drag contribution from the fuselage and nacelles, and for any drag 'creep' displayed by older aerofoils.
www.lissys.demon.co.uk /pug/c05.html   (3441 words)

  
 SPE 2003 paper proposal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
(1933) studied pressure drop during flow through a large number of unconsolidated and consolidated porous media, correlated the data using friction factor and Reynolds’ number with grain diameter as a characteristic length, and showed that an increased pressure drop at high flow rate is beyond that proportional to velocity.
Although turbulent factor or turbulent flow was used by some other researchers (Wright, 1968; Gewers and Nichol, 1969), most researchers in this area did not agree to accept the term, because turbulent flow could never happen in porous media.
Derived a new formula to calculate the b factor, which leads the conclusion that b is not a function of rock properties, but depending on sample length, causing argument from Firoozabadi et al (1992).
infohost.nmt.edu /~zeng/homepage1.html   (1200 words)

  
 Parameter editor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The convergence factor is to enable the user to determine when a solution is valid.
The friction factor is the amount by which the work done by friction on those bounding shells that are in contact is weighted.
Sticking friction is a flag which denotes whether to use sticking friction on the interface between the die and the workpiece or to use a Tresca sliding friction model.
www.bath.ac.uk /mech-eng/fsu/fmppage/reports/fmp24/node9.html   (994 words)

  
 Compressibility factor, density, specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, free-energy function, viscosity, and thermal ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Compressibility factor, density, specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, free-energy function, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of steam
They include, for the real gas, the compressibility factor, the density, the specific heat at constant pressure, the enthalpy, the entropy, the free-energy function, the viscosity, and the thermal conductivity.
For the table given in dimensionless form, conversion factors to some frequently used units are given.
naca.larc.nasa.gov /reports/1956/naca-tn-3273   (129 words)

  
 Compressibility Factor
The large deviations of real gases from ideal gas behavior is best seen by determining the compressibility factor.
The compressibility factor, Z = PV/RT, is found in this experiment at a number of pressures and the plot of Z versus the pressure gives an excellent picture of the behavior of real gases.
At this point the compressibility is given by: Z
academic.uofs.edu /faculty/cab302/courses/compfact.htm   (580 words)

  
 Natural Gas Flow Meter Software
In previous years of AGA Report No. 3, the compressibility factor of air was considered a constant and was given at standard conditions (14.73 psia, 60 F).
However, assuming constant air composition, the compressibility of air is a function of temperature and pressure.
In order to consider the changes of compressibility factor of air and keep the same expression for the factors approach, Ftb and Fpb were set to one.
www.starlingassoc.com /fpbandft.htm   (339 words)

  
 AERADE
For the rectangular wing, when the product of the compressibility factor and the aspect ratio is zero, the method is restricted to flows in which the Mach line from the wing root leading edge does not cross the tip.
The correction factor is a function of aspect ratio, taper ratio and compressibility factor.
For arrangements of three wings of other planforms, results for the correction factor for the cruciform arrangement may be factored by the ratio of the correction factor values obtained for delta wings in the two arrangements.
aerade.cranfield.ac.uk /subject-listing/esdu/ES75.html   (2175 words)

  
 Pet Fluids
(i) the apparent molecular weight (ii) the specific gravity, (iii) gas compressibility factor (z-factor) and use it to calculate the gas density and formation volume factor, (iv) coefficient of isothermal compressibility and (v) coefficient of viscosity.
Be able to take surface gas and liquid productions as well as their mole fractions and recombine them to calculate reservoir gas mole fractions for wet gases and condensate gases above the dew point.
Be able to calculate the physical properties (density, viscosity, isothermal compressibility, formation volume factor) for oil field waters from empirical or graphical correlations.
web.umr.edu /~numbere/05_pe141_objectives.htm   (571 words)

  
 MAUTC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The goal of this project is to determine an accurate compressibility factor for overall bus durability as well as for the individual components, including the axle, frame members, body, engine mounts, and suspension components.
The goal of this project is to determine an accurate compressibility factor for overall bus durability as well as for the individual components, including the axle, frame members, body, engine mounts, and suspension compenents.
To determine an accurate compressibility factor for overall bus durability as well as for the individual components, including the axle, frame members, body, engine mounts, and suspension components.
www.pti.psu.edu /mautc/projects/pipubinfo.cfm?ID=PSU-R-65   (208 words)

  
 Compressibility and Ideal Gas Approximations
These temperatures are proportions of the critical temperature, which is a factor in the compressibility.
Compressibility expresses how much a gas is behaving like an ideal gas under any conditions.
If the compressibility equals one, then the gas is behaving exactly like an ideal gas.
www.shodor.org /UNChem/advanced/gas/compress.html   (177 words)

  
 RMP Lecture Notes
A good compromise is a generalized compressibility factor equation.
Thus, a "generalized compressibility factor chart" can be used to get z once we have the reduced temperature and pressure.
Compare results using the ideal gas law and the compressibility factor equation.
www.cbu.edu /~rprice/lectures/realgas.html   (1161 words)

  
 ChE E3820y: CO2 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR AND VIRIAL COEFFICIENT (CO2)
You are dealing with a large cylinder of compressed CO The compressibility factor Z for a gas is defined by the equation
Thus it seems possible that data from isothermal expansion experiments can be used to measure Z. This experiment is designed to make that conjecture precise, obtain expansion data, and calculate values for Z for carbon dioxide and helium, as functions of pressure.
For carbon dioxide, calculate and plot compressibilty factor Z as a function of P, based on the theory above.
www.columbia.edu /~leonard/CHESite/co2.html   (836 words)

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