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# Topic: Confounding factor

###### In the News (Mon 22 Jul 19)

 Confounding factor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In statistics, a confounding factor is a factor which is the common cause of two things that may falsely appear to be in a causal relationship. In statistical experimental design, attempts are made to remove confounding factors from the experiment. Neither: they are joint effects of a common cause or confounding factor, namely, hot weather. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Confounding_factor   (115 words)

 5.5.9.4. Interaction effects matrix plot The latter depends on the number of factors, k, the choice of the k factors, the constraints on the number of runs, n, and ultimately on the experimental design that the analyst chooses to use. For those main factors along the diagonal that have flat lines (that is, are unimportant), the naive conclusion to use either setting, perhaps giving preference to the cheaper setting or the easier-to-implement setting, may be unwittingly incorrect. In this case, the 2-factor-interaction confounding structure may be deduced by comparing all of the 2-factor interaction subplots (and effect estimates) with one another. www.itl.nist.gov /div898/handbook/pri/section5/pri594.htm   (2978 words)

 TREATMENT OF CONFOUNDING FACTORS IN AN ECOLOGIC STUDY For example, average annual income may not represent the confounding effects of monetary income because its confounding effects may depend on the fraction of the population that is very poor, or very rich. The factors affecting radon exposure, r, are geology and house construction details, while the factors affecting M, lung cancer rates corrected for smoking, are human behavioral and genetic characteristics, so it is very difficult to imagine a CF, other than geography which was treated in Sec. There can just as easily be confounding factors X that are correlated in the same direction with M and r in which case the effect is to make the B-value more negative, increasing the discrepancy with the LNT prediction. www.phyast.pitt.edu /~blc/TreatmentOfConfoundingFactors.htm   (7503 words)

 Glossary for Power Lines There is a factor of confounding when the association observed between the exposure and the disease is influenced by other variables than the one studied. It is the measurement of association between a factor and a disease that results from case control study. That is a measurement of association between a factor and a disease in the case of cohort study. www.greenfacts.org /es/lineas-electricas/toolboxes/glossary.htm   (3617 words)

 Confounding Variables   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Confounding variables are two variables (explanatory or lurking variables) that are confounded when their effects on a response variable cannot be distinguished from each other. It could, however, be due to some confounding factor such as differences in ambient illumination that result from unnoticed differences in the orientation of each room with respect to the sun. In any experiment an appropriate statistical test can help in the decision as to whether or not to attribute the results to chance, but only the most careful analysis of the actual conditions of the experiment can suggest whether or not the result might be due to a confounding factor. score.kings.k12.ca.us /lessons/wwwstats/confounding.variables.html   (238 words)

 chapter8   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) The potential confounders should be associated with the exposure among the source population for cases, not merely among cases of the disease as a consequence of both variables being risk factors for disease. A confounding factor must be a risk factor for the disease: the potential confounding factor need not be an actual cause of the disease, but if it is not, it must be a marker for an actual cause of the disease. A confounding factor must be associated with the exposure under study in the source population: in a cohort study, the association between the potential confounding factor and the exposure must be present among subjects at the start of follow-up. www.bol.ucla.edu /~lclchn/chapter8.html   (2235 words)

 News - Confounding Factor to disband, claim reports // Xbox /// Eurogamer Reports this week have suggested that Confounding Factor, the development studio founded by Lara Croft creators Toby Gard and Paul Douglas, will cease operations after it finishes up work on Xbox title Galleon. Now several sources are reporting that once the US version appears, Confounding Factor will shut its doors - quoting sources close to the company as the originators of the news. Confounding Factor was formed in 1997 by Gard and Douglas, both of whom had formerly worked on the original Tomb Raider title for Core Design - Gard in particular is often credited as Lara Croft's creator. www.eurogamer.net /article.php?article_id=56055   (227 words)

 CVG - News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Confounding Factor, developer of Xbox seafaring adventure epic Galleon, is strongly rumoured to be set to close just weeks after finally releasing its first and only product in Europe. Confounding Factor is of course the development studio founded by original Tomb Raider creators Toby Gard and Paul Douglas, and was set-up in 1997 after the pair walked out on Core Design. A phone call put through to Confounding Factor earlier today resulted in no further information on the closure reports - we were told that founder Toby Gard was the only person who could comment, and he was unavailable at the time of writing. www.computerandvideogames.com /news/news_story.php?id=107039   (286 words)

 Module 26: DEALING WITH CONFOUNDING VARIABLES: International Development Research Centre For a variable to be confounding, it must be associated with the first risk factor (smoking in example 1) and be an independent risk factor for the problem (lung cancer). For a factor to be a potential confounding variable there has to be a triangular relationship between the first risk factor, the potential confounding factor and the problem under investigation, as shown in Figure 26.1. Confounding can result in the association between a risk factor and the outcome appearing smaller (under-estimated) or appearing bigger than it is (over-estimated). www.idrc.org /en/ev-56459-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html   (3205 words)

 Glossary: confounding factor A confounding factor in a study is a variable which is related to one or more of the variables defined in a study. A confounding factor may mask an actual association or falsely demonstrate an apparent association between the study variables where no real association between them exists. If confounding factors are not measured and considered, bias may result in the conclusion of the study. www.greenfacts.org /glossary/abc/confounding-factor.htm   (95 words)

 Confounding Factor goes down with the ship - Xbox News at GameSpot Sources with close connections to the development pipeline of Galleon, the long-awaited adventure title from Confounding Factor, say the studio founded by Lara Croft creators Toby Gard and Paul Douglas will cease to exist when all tasks are completed on the Xbox title. Confounding Factor was founded in April of 1997 by Gard and Douglas, shortly after the first Tomb Raider title shipped (in late ’96). When contacted, the game's US publisher was unable to comment on the future of Confounding Factor, but an Atlus USA spokesperson did state that the title was now slated for release stateside in early August, substantially sooner than previously expected. www.gamespot.com /xbox/adventure/galleon/news_6102624.html   (345 words)

 GamerFeed : News : Microsoft : Confounding Factor Signs Off   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Confounding Factor's upcoming Galleon will be the first, and last, title from the development company, according to a recent Gamespot report. Thus, Confounding Factor was born and work on Galleon began. When asked about the current status of Confounding Factor, an Atlus U.S.A. spokesperson refused to comment, quickly changing the subject to reveal that Galleon had been pushed up from a late September release to an early August launch. microsoft.gamerfeed.com /gf/news/7177   (360 words)

 Gamasutra - Features - "Interview with Toby Gard of Confounding Factor" [10.23.98] Confounding Factor was formed in April 1997 by Toby Gard and Paul Douglas. Now based in Bristol, England the team is well advanced in its work on Confounding Factor's first game. It would probably be best to computer generate her though or pick one of the female Hong Kong action stars, at least they'd be able to reproduce the moves. www.gamasutra.com /features/19981023/gard_01.htm   (2388 words)

 chapter10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Once case-control matching is undertaken, it may prove necessary to stratify on the matching factors, even if the matching factors were not confounders in the source population. In many situations, the potential matching factor will have at least a weak relation to the disease, so it will not be clear whether factor needs to be controlled as a confounder and whether matching will benefit the statistical efficiency. Matching on factors that are affected by both disease and exposures, or intermediate, will bias the both the crude and adjusted estimated effect, such as matching on symptoms or signs of the exposure or the disease. www.bol.ucla.edu /~lclchn/chapter10.html   (2249 words)

 Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects Wright, R.F. and Jenkins, A. Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects. C increase in air temperature and increase in air carbon dioxide concentrations to 560 ppmv) was superimposed on the clean rain treatment for four years (1995-1998). Sea-salt inputs and temperature are climate-related factors that influence water chemistry and can confound long-term trends caused by changes in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. www.macaulay.ac.uk /recover/HESS477-486.htm   (820 words)

 Confounding Factor to disband, claim reports - Ferrago News Portal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Gamespot has word that Cofounding Factor, developers of Galleon, may well be closing down after the game is released in the USSources with close connections to the development pipeline of Galleon, the long-awaited adventure title from Confounding... IGN has word that Factor 5, developers of the Star Wars: Rogue Squadron line of games, has ceised development for GamecubeIn a conversation with IGNcube today, Factor 5 president Julian Eggebrecht said the company would not develop any more titles... The game is based on the Fear Factor "reality" television show, and has players recreating stunts from the show using the GBA.... www.ferrago.com /portal/cluster/13946   (361 words)

 Gamestyle -- Galleon review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Confounding Factor has tried to implement a fun combat system, but instead we are left with something that does not engage nor challenge the player. Combat is simply there, as a means to progress the story and spice up the long spells of isolation. Confounding Factor certainly bit off more than it could chew, and set itself too high a challenge, but what we have here is a wonderful failure. www.gamestyle.net /xbox.php?action=review&id=169   (1006 words)

 PHRC Study 196 Members The objective of this study is to examine the possibility that parental blood pressure might be a confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Such a study is a reminder that many factors are involved in influencing birth weight. www.birthworks.org /primalhealth/databank.phtml?study=196   (283 words)

 Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Energy and Energy-Related Bibliographic Citations Physicochemical characteristics of sediment unrelated to contaminant levels and bioavailability may influence the outcome of toxicity tests. In particular, sediment organic matter content has the potential to be a confounding factor in toxicity tests using the midge larva Chironomus tentans because the larvae are infaunal and feed on organic matter in the sediments. These results suggest that both organic matter quantity and quality can be confounding factors in toxicity tests using C. tentans. www.osti.gov /energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=361925   (369 words)

 Confounding Factor vor dem Aus? - 4players.de: Aktuelle News über -Spiele -Entwickler Confounding Factor, der 1997 von den Lara-Schöpfern Toby Gard und Paul Douglas gegründet wurde, kurz vor der Schließung stehen. Eine offizielle Stellungnahme liegt zwar noch nicht vor, aber die Verkäufe des anfangs für den Dreamcast, dann für den GameCube und schließlich für die Xbox entwickleten Piratenabenteuers verliefen in Europa bisher eher schleppend und die mit wohl längste Entwicklungszeit in der Videospielgeschichte hat sicher Unmengen an Geldern verschlugen. Confounding Factors Homepage ist jedenfalls nicht mehr erreichbar und leitet direkt auf die offizielle Website zu Galleon weiter, was sicher kein gutes Omen ist... www.4players.de /rendersite.php?LAYOUT=dispnews&newsid=33815&sid=&ID=&SYSTEM=&GAMEID=1746&setid=6401&STARTTIME=&UPDATEDATE=   (151 words)

 BioMed Central | Abstract | Secondary structure in the target as a confounding factor in synthetic oligomer microarray ... Secondary structure in the target as a confounding factor in synthetic oligomer microarray design Secondary structure in the target is pervasive, and a significant fraction of the target is found in double stranded conformations even at high temperature. Stable structure in the target has the potential to interfere with hybridization and should be a factor in interpretation of microarray results, as well as an explicit criterion in array design. www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2164/6/31/abstract   (446 words)

 confounding - OneLook Dictionary Search Confounding : Online Plain Text English Dictionary [home, info] Phrases that include confounding: confounding factor, confounding variable, bias confounding factor, confounding factor bias, confounding factors, more... Words similar to confounding: confound, confusion, contradictory, mix-up, more... www.onelook.com /?loc=rescb&w=confounding   (147 words)

 Statisitcs Quiz   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) In each case identify a weakness in design and mention any potential confounding factor. To determine which sales approach is best when selling cars, a new dealership plans to test different techniques. Assume that you have 50 students at your disposal all of which are willing to take either type of class, and two instructors who are willing to teach either or both classes. www.unca.edu /math/OnLine/Stat185/Quizzes/Q_MS_Exper.html   (294 words)

 Lara's Home Forums -> Confounding Factor to release first and last game Confounding Factor to release first and last game Confounding Factor developer of Galleon will be closing their doors once the game is released in North America. Gard and Douglas left Core Design and created Confounding Factor when a dispute occurred with a sequel to a Tomb Raider game. www.larashome.com /forums/index.php?showtopic=11693&view=getlastpost   (307 words)

 Confounding Factor sink with Galleon - Ferrago   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) With the Xbox version of Galleon already released in the UK to the public's total disinterest by SCI, the US version is also nearing launch, after which sources claim UK developer Confounding Factor will disband. CF was founded by Tomb Raider mastermind Toby Gard back in 1997, but his debut title suffered massive delays and set-backs, which resulted in a UK launch last month which proved too little too late. It now appears Confounding Factor will be heading for a similarly watery grave. www.ferrago.com /story/4120   (229 words)

 Geek.com Geek News - One release may be all for Confounding Factor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) The rumor mill seems to be in overdrive with regards to the future of Confounding Factor, the studio headed up by Lara Croft creator Toby Guard. After spending a mere 7 years developing the title Galleon, it has been released in Europe and has pretty much bombed, entering the market in the bottom half of the Top 40 and, from what I have seen, looking very dated and clunky. If the rumors are true then Confounding Factor will be no more. www.geek.com /news/geeknews/2004Jun/bga20040716026024.htm   (538 words)

 Penn State Faculty Research Expertise Database (FRED)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study. U.S. National Library of Medicine is the creator, maintainer, and provider of all MeSH 2004 data fred.hmc.psu.edu /ds/retrieve/fred/meshdescriptor/D015986   (88 words)

 gamesTM.co.uk - CONFOUNDING FACTOR - TOBY GARD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) After leaving Lara and Core Design, which went on to create a rapidly tiring string of sequels, Gard moved to Bristol and set up Confounding Factor. Everyone working at Confounding Factor sacrificed a lot of time to complete it. It takes a team to make a game and we had some incredibly rough times making it. www.gamestm.co.uk /pma/162   (811 words)

 PGNx Media: News: Confounding Factor's Toby Gard Now Working On Next Tomb Raider News Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02) Confounding Factor's Toby Gard is working with Crystal Dynamics on the next Tomb Raider. Toby worked on the first Tomb Raider game but left Core Design after Eidos asked the developer to make a new game in a year. Since then, he founded Confounding Factor and worked on the recently-released Galleon. www.pgnx.net /news.php?page=full&id=5612   (141 words)

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