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Topic: Consumption


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  The Theory of the Leisure Class: IV
Such consumption as falls to the women is merely incidental to their work; it is a means to their continued labour, and not a consumption directed to their own comfort and fulness of life.
The consumption of luxuries, in the true sense, is a consumption directed to the comfort of the consumer himself, and is, therefore, a mark of the master.
Where leisure and consumption is performed vicariously by henchmen and retainers, imputation of the resulting repute to the patron is effected by their residing near his person so that it may be plain to all men from what source they draw.
xroads.virginia.edu /~HYPER/VEBLEN/chap04.html   (7643 words)

  
 WHO | 3. Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends
Despite the relatively low consumption by weight in low-income food-deficit countries, the contribution of fish to total animal protein intake is considerable (nearly 20%).
Recommending the increased consumption of fish is another area where the feasibility of dietary recommendations needs to be balanced against concerns for sustainability of marine stocks and the potential depletion of this important marine source of high quality nutritious food.
Alow consumption of fruits and vegetables in many regions of the developing world is, however, a persistent phenomenon, confirmed by the findings of food consumption surveys.
www.who.int /nutrition/topics/3_foodconsumption/en/index5.html   (1277 words)

  
 United Nations Division for Sustainable Development - Consumption and  Production Patterns   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
During UNCED in 1992 the issue of changing consumption patterns was born out of the recognition that reducing the environmental impacts of consumption and production and reducing population growth were both necessary if sustainable development is to be achieved (Rio Principle 8).
A focus on changing consumption and production pattern is especially useful for integrating environmental and economic factors, for focusing on the demand side as well as the supply side of the economy, and for highlighting the need for policy measures which affect the behavior of a large number of economic agents.
Many, if not most, of the problems arising from unsustainable consumption and production patterns are due to the fact that environmental services are undervalued and, thus, tend to be used wastefully, whether as inputs into the production process or at the end-use stage in households or by public institutions.
www.un.org /esa/sustdev/sdissues/consumption/cp6.htm   (3113 words)

  
 Consumption Tax, by Al Ehrbar: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
Proponents of a consumption tax argue that it is superior to an income tax because it achieves what tax economists call "temporal neutrality." A tax is "neutral" if it does not alter spending habits or behavior patterns and thus does not distort the allocation of resources.
The one objection to a consumption tax that is based on pure economics is that it would require a higher tax rate in order to raise the same revenue as the income tax.
The practical objection to a consumption tax used to be that it is too complicated to monitor the amounts that people save or dissave each year.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/ConsumptionTax.html   (1630 words)

  
 Intermediate Macroeconomics - Consumption
The change in consumption from one year to the next divided by the change in income is the marginal propensity to consume.
Consumption reported in the national GDP accounts and used in empirical studies does not correspond to the theoretical meaning of consumption.
Consumption smoothing is not the only motive - there is also a precautionary savings motive that is not reflected in life-cycle model.
www.iso.gmu.edu /~tlidderd/311/ch10Lect.html   (5647 words)

  
 consumption. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Consumption is also viewed as a basically subjective phenomenon, with individual utility, or satisfaction, assuming primary importance.
The process of consumption is central to any system of economics; Adam Smith made it the sole end of production.
Production, the wholesale and retail trades, and consumption are closely linked, and the exchange of goods and services for money along the various stages from the producer to the ultimate consumer is the foundation of modern capitalist economy.
www.bartleby.com /65/co/consumpt.html   (327 words)

  
 Modern History Sourcebook: Thorstein Veblen: Conspicuous Consumption, 1902
Such consumption as falls to the women is merely incidental to their work; it is a means to their continued labour, and not a consumption directed to their own comfort and fullness of life.
But the derivative fact--the vicarious leisure and consumption rendered by the wife, and the auxiliary vicarious performance of leisure by menials--remains in vogue as a conventionality which the demands of reputability will not suffer to be slighted.
This vicarious consumption practised by the household of the middle and lower classes can not be counted as a direct expression of the leisure-class scheme of life, since the household of this pecuniary grade does not belong within the leisure class.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1902veblen00.html   (4850 words)

  
 Food consumption National Food Review - Find Articles
In contrast, per capita chicken consumption (retail weight basis), which totaled less than half of beef consumption in 1966 and 1976, is forecast to rival beef this year.
Consumption of fish and shellfish in 1989 is expected to be 15.4 pounds per person, the same level as the last few years.
Consumption was 113.6 pounds per capita versus 109.9 pounds, which translates into 13.2 gallons and 12.8 gallons, respectively.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m3284/is_n2_v12/ai_7778163   (886 words)

  
 Consumption Tax Information
Thus, for a U.S. consumption tax to raise as much revenue as the current income tax, it would appear that the consumption tax rate would have to be higher than the current income tax rates.
Indications that a tax is a consumption tax—An indication that a tax is a consumption tax is that it exempts savings, and for businesses, it allows investment in capital (such as land, building, and equipment) to be deducted when acquired, rather than depreciated over a period of years.
Key benefits of a consumption tax—A commonly cited economic benefit of a consumption tax over an income tax is that a consumption tax does not penalize a taxpayer who earns and saves in early years and then consumes in later years, relative to a taxpayer who does not postpone consumption.
www.cob.sjsu.edu /facstaff/nellen_a/ConsumptionTax.html   (2542 words)

  
 FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ATLAS
The map shows the annual relative change in the number of undernourished for developing countries for the period 1990-92 to 1999-2001, while for transition countries the period is 1993-95 to 1999-2001.
In this map, the average annual growth rate of the daily food consumption measured in calories is superimposed on countries with 20% or more undernourishment.
These consumption amounts are measured at the household door and do not consider in household waste, table waste or subsequent non-food use.
www.fao.org /es/ess/chartroom/gfap.asp   (837 words)

  
 Consumption: a key concept in Economics
Fourth, only newly produced goods enter into the definition of consumption, wheareas the purchase of, say, an old house is not considered consumption, since it was already counted in the GDP of the year in which it was built.
Thus, aggregate consumption may be influenced by demographic factors, such as an older and older population, even though one should not rely too much on these relationships since demographic variables are extremely slow in changes, whereas consumption clearly reacts to economic climate.
An autonomous increase of consumption, if at the same level of income, would reduce savings, but the positive loop just described (known as the "Keynesian multiplier") will imply an increase of income level with a positive impact on future savings.
www.economicswebinstitute.org /glossary/cons.htm   (1172 words)

  
 ROE Sustainable Consumption & Transport
ROE has been working on sustainable consumption issues since 2001 promoting a multi-stakeholder approach and is expanding the scope of this work to provide an effective response at the regional level.
The aims of the project ‘Sustainable Consumption Opportunities for Europe’ are to raise awareness of sustainable consumption issues and to support the development of multi-stakeholder partnerships in the pan-European region, with particular emphasis on transition countries.
The focus is on multi-stakeholder dialogue and on promoting a positive understanding of sustainable consumption related to quality of life for all.
www.unep.ch /roe/programme_consumption.htm   (334 words)

  
 Cirrhosis mortality and per capita consumption of distilled spirits, United States, 1949-94: trend analysis -- Roizen ...
consumption of spirits, one occurring from 1942 to 1943 and the
The apparent per capita consumption of spirits fell by 22% from 1942 to 1943 and by 23% from 1946 to 1947.
The decline in the consumption of spirits in 1946-7,
www.bmj.com /cgi/content/full/319/7211/666   (3065 words)

  
 Watch Your Step:  Understanding the Impact of Your Personal Consumption on the Environment - Case Study Collection ...
To the extent that material consumption drives energy use, resource extraction, pollution, climate change, and landfill buildup, this means that industrialized nations have a larger per-capita impact on the environment (Brown et al.
The United States, by virtue of its massive per-capita consumption of natural resources and energy and its generation of CO and waste, could be considered the most overpopulated country in the world in terms of environmental impact (Cohen 1995, Gardner and Sampat 1999).
Clearly, consumption in the industrialized world is rapidly converting natural capital to material goods, resulting in declines in primary forests, biodiversity, and clean air and water, and increases in ozone, atmospheric pollution, and solid-waste landfills.
ublib.buffalo.edu /libraries/projects/cases/footprint/footprint.html   (5355 words)

  
 The Pros and Cons of a Consumption Tax   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Now one way to think about a consumption tax relative to the existing income tax is suppose we had our current system, but we made IRA contribution limits infinity, so you could put as much as us wanted into an IRA and you could take it out for any reason, all right.
So if you move the tax from income to consumption, you're raising the relative burden on low savers, which are low and moderate income households, so almost any revenue neutral shift from the income tax to a consumption tax will be regressive in that manner.
Most of these consumption taxes, like a retail sales tax or value added tax or the flat tax, or whatever, talk about cleaning out the tax system, all the special exemptions and deductions and credits and stuff like that.
www.brookings.edu /pagedefs/5269fa04b501ff3e2ed1601b0a1415cb.xml   (1862 words)

  
 Agenda 21 - Changing Consumption Patterns - United Nations Environment Programme
Since the issue of changing consumption patterns is very broad, it is addressed in several parts of Agenda 21, notably those dealing with energy, transportation and wastes, and in the chapters on economic instruments and the transfer of technology.
Special attention should be paid to the demand for natural resources generated by unsustainable consumption and to the efficient use of those resources consistent with the goal of minimizing depletion and reducing pollution.
Although consumption patterns are very high in certain parts of the world, the basic consumer needs of a large section of humanity are not being met.
www.unep.org /Documents.multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=52&ArticleID=52&l=en   (1723 words)

  
 ERS/USDA Briefing Room - Food Consumption
The spinach analysis indicates that per capita spinach consumption is greatest in the Northeast and West.
On average, for each 1-ounce reduction in milk consumption, a child consumes 4.2 ounces of soft drinks, resulting in a net gain of 31 calories and a loss of about 34 milligrams of calcium.
Therefore, changes in beverage consumption among children may have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity and overweight conditions among children.
www.ers.usda.gov /briefing/consumption   (1615 words)

  
 Elements of Political Economy
All consumption, which does not take place to the end that an income or revenue may be derived from it, is unproductive consumption.
From this explanation, it also follows, that, by productive consumption, nothing is lost: no diminution is made of the property, either of the individual, or of the community; for if one thing is destroyed, another is by that means produced.
This consumption is, indeed, the cause of that protection, under which all production has taken place; but if other things were not consumed in a way different from that in which things are consumed by government, there would be no produce.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/economics/mill-james/ch04.htm   (6525 words)

  
 VPD-Sustainable Consumption Through Economic Instruments
To shed some light on the problem we first need to distinguish between consumption and the consumption of materials and energy, and the assimilitave capacity of the environment to deal with waste Consumption involves the use of goods and services to meet current wants.
The reason that the distinction is important is that consumption can rise while the ratio of resources to consumption can fall at the same time.
First, reducing consumption can only come about either (a) by raising the fraction of income that is saved for future consumption (investment), or (b) by reducing incomes generally.
www.iisd.ca /consume/pearce.html   (2684 words)

  
 Newsvine - consumption   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Smokers who believe they can avoid fatal disease by slashing the number of cigarettes they smoke each day are sorely mistaken, according to a new study which suggests the only safe way to escape the risk is to quit.
Though eating beef from a cloned cow may seem incredibly creepy, the FDA has decided the manufactured twin is just as safe as the original animal, and requires no special identification once in the food supply.
Conservative economists often argue that wage stagnation and income inequality are not as big a threat to Americans' standard of living as they've been made out to be.
www.newsvine.com /consumption   (1061 words)

  
 Creating the Consumer - Global Issues
The full-blown commercialized consumption that most in the wealthy nations (and the wealthier in poor nations) partake in today is not something that has always been around.
World consumption has expanded at an unprecedented pace over the 20th century, with private and public consumption expenditures reaching $24 trillion in 1998, twice the level of 1975 and six times that of 1950.
A vivid example of this increasing consumption and its associated impacts is the use and promotion of consumption by children, which we look at next.
www.globalissues.org /TradeRelated/Consumption/Rise.asp   (6064 words)

  
 Estimating Air (Breathing Gas) Consumption
Although gas consumption can be affected by numerous factors (such as physical size, work load, water temperature, use of drugs, anxiety from seeing that 14 ft hammerhead shark, excitement of watching the grace of a large manta ray, general physical and emotional condition), it can be approximated.
If the diver monitors gas consumption (in terms of psig or bar consumed), the duration of the dive, and holds a constant monitored depth, then an average rate of gas consumption at depth (in terms of psig/ata-min or bar/ata-min; analogous to miles per gallon or km per liter in a car) can be calculated.
When estimating consumption based on pressure, it is imperative that the pressure factor calculated is based on the size of the cylinder used.
www.mindspring.com /~divegeek/estimating.htm   (3034 words)

  
 United Nations Environment Programme
Fosters the development of cleaner and safer production and consumption patterns that lead to increased efficiency in the use of natural resources and reductions in pollution.
Focuses on understanding the forces that drive consumption patterns around the world and how to translate those findings into tangible activities for business (including the advertising industry) and other stakeholders.
The UNEP/UNESCO Research Project on Youth and Sustainable Consumption reports on the expectations of young people around the world for the future and their attitudes as consumers.
www.unep.org /themes/consumption   (208 words)

  
 Fish Consumption Advisories - Fishing Wisconsin - WDNR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Fish consumption advisories for specific waterbodies are issued when fish are found to contain contaminants at levels that may pose health risks to people who eat fish.
Since 2001, Wisconsin has provided statewide consumption advice that applies to most of Wisconsin's inland waters, in addition to special advice for specific waterbodies.
The DNR's current fish consumption advisories are availiable in Choose Wisely: A Health Guide for Eating Fish in Wisconsin [PUB-FH-824, PDF, 497KB].
dnr.wi.gov /org/water/fhp/fish/pages/consumption   (650 words)

  
 ERS/USDA Briefing Room - Food Consumption: Food Supply and Use
For most commodity categories, the total amount available for domestic consumption is estimated as the residual after exports, industrial uses, seed and feed use, and year-end inventories are subtracted from the sum of production, beginning inventories, and imports.
Serve as a proxy for the average level of annual U.S. food consumption and the consumption of specific commodities.
Per capita consumption is calculated by dividing the available food supply by an estimate of the total U.S. population on July 1 of a given year.
www.ers.usda.gov /briefing/consumption/Supply.htm   (602 words)

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