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Topic: Continental shelf

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  Continental Shelf | World of Earth Science
The continental shelf is a gently sloping and relatively flat extension of a continent that is covered by the oceans.
Seaward, the shelf ends abruptly at the shelf break, the boundary that separates the shelf from the continental slope.
The shelf's gentle slope and relatively flat terrain are the result of erosion and sediment deposition during the periodic fall and rise of the sea over the shelf in the last 1.6 million years.
www.bookrags.com /research/continental-shelf-woes-01   (528 words)

 Ocean Regions: Ocean Floor - Continental Margin & Rise
This shelf is relatively shallow, tens of meters deep compared to the thousands of meters deep in the open ocean, and extends outward to the continental slope where the deep ocean truly begins.
The continental slope connects the continental shelf and the oceanic crust.
The continental slope, which is still considered part of the continent, together with the continental shelf is called the continental margin.
www.onr.navy.mil /focus/ocean/regions/oceanfloor2.htm   (273 words)

 Continental Shelf
The definition of the continental shelf and the criteria by which a coastal State may establish the outer limits of its continental shelf are set out in article 76 of the Convention.
The term "continental shelf" is used by geologists generally to mean that part of the continental margin which is between the shoreline and the shelf break or, where there is no noticeable slope, between the shoreline and the point where the depth of the superjacent water is approximately between 100 and 200 metres.
The continental margin consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise.
www.un.org /Depts/los/clcs_new/continental_shelf_description.htm   (372 words)

 10(p) Physiography of the Ocean Basins
The red area that borders the various landmasses is the continental shelf.
The yellow to green zone around the continental shelf is the continental slope and continental rise.
Continental shelf is a shallow (average depth 130 meters) gently sloping part of the
www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/10p.html   (1036 words)

 ocean: Continental Shelves, Slopes, and Rises
Virtually all continents are surrounded by a gently sloping submerged plain called the continental shelf, which is an underwater extension of the coastal plain.
The edge of the shelf occurs at a depth that ranges from 20 to 550 m (66 to 1,800 ft), averaging 130 m (430 ft).
It is assumed that submarine canyons on the continental shelf were initially carved during periods of lower sea level in the course of the ice ages.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/sci/A0860098.html   (406 words)

 SUMMARY: North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment - 20 February 1969   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The dispute, which was submitted to the Court on 20 February 1967, related to the delimitation of the continental shelf between the Federal Republic of Germany and Denmark on the one hand, and between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands on the other.
That rule was to the effect that in the absence of agreement by the parties to employ another method, all continental shelf boundaries had to be drawn by means of an equidistance line unless "special circumstances" were recognized to exist.
Article 6, however, related directly to continental shelf rights as such, and since it was not excluded from the faculty of reservation, it was a legitimate inference that it was not considered to reflect emergent customary law.
www.icj-cij.org /icjwww/idecisions/isummaries/icssummary690220.htm   (2761 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
It is along the continental shelf that sediment is transported from the shoreline to the shelf break.
We believe that incorporating a continental shelf into this experiment would better replicate conditions found on the continental margin.
Below is a short synopsis of preliminary results from a series of experiments aimed to investigate the role of waves and currents in continental shelf developement.
www1.umn.edu /safl/stratigraphy/shelf/page1.html   (120 words)

The equidistance method cannot be employed for the delimitation of the continental shelf unless it is established by agreement, arbitration, or otherwise, that it will achieve a just and equitable apportionment of the continental shelf among the States concerned.
The delimitation as between the Parties of the said areas of the continental shelf in the North Sea is governed by the principles and rules of international law which are expressed in Article 6, paragraph 2, of the Geneva Convention of 1958 on the Continental Shelf.
It is in respect of the delimitation of the continental shelf areas lying beyond and to seaward of those affected by the partial boundaries thus established, that the Court is requested by each of the two Special Agreements to decide what are the applicable 'principles and rules of international law'.
www.angelfire.com /la3/malagar/North.htm   (3970 words)

 The Outer Continental Shelf
The continental shelf is an extension of the continent's landmass under the ocean.
The continental shelf regions are important economically, primarily because their waters are the source of much seafood, and because of the energy these regions provide, both in the form of fossil fuels, such as oil and gas, and renewable energy resources.
The U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) as defined by the Federal government consists of the submerged lands, subsoil, and seabed, lying between the seaward extent of the States' jurisdiction and the seaward extent of Federal jurisdiction.
ocsenergy.anl.gov /guide/ocs/index.cfm   (338 words)

 Continental Margins: Geodynamic Constraints and Implications for the Legal Continental Shelf Under UNCLOS I - ...
The location of the ocean-continent transition zone is of particular relevance to UNCLOS article 76 on the legal continental shelf because it may be used as evidence to the contrary in positioning the foot of the continental slope, and as such enlarge a legal shelf claim.
The transition from continental to oceanic crust is found at the outer limits of a continental margin, often in water depths of thousands of metres, although the exact location may be difficult to pinpoint.
While the continental composition of the Lomonosov Ridge is generally acknowledged, the structural and tectonic relationships between its extremities and the adjacent continental margins are poorly understood.
www.agu.org /meetings/fm05/fm05-sessions/fm05_T12C.html   (3453 words)

 [No title]
Article 76 provides technical guidance in the process of claiming continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles if there is a "natural prolongation" of the coastal state's landmass outside of that distance.
The section describes how the outer limit of the continental shelf may be defined according to the position of the foot of the continental slope and either geodetic measurements or patterns of sediment thickness variation oceanward of it.
In terms of the oil industry exploration/exploitation processes, the areas of potential "extended" continental shelf are characterized by mostly "deep" or "ultra-deep" water.
www.aapg.org /explorer/2004/04apr/cont_shelf.cfm   (887 words)

3. The continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the land mass of the coastal State, and consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise.
6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5, on submarine ridges, the outer limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
8. Information on the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured shall be submitted by the coastal State to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf set up under Annex II on the basis of equitable geographical representation.
www.un.org /Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/part6.htm   (1360 words)

 The Deep Sea
The ocean bottom is divided into three major areas: the continental shelf, the continental slope, and the deep ocean basin.
It is beyond the continental shelf that the “deep sea” begins.
The shelf ends at a depth of about 200 meters (660 ft), giving way to the steeper continental slope, which descends about 3,700 meters (12,000 ft) to the deep ocean basin.
www.ocean.udel.edu /deepsea/level-2/geology/deepsea.html   (453 words)

 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf
The exploration of the continental shelf and the exploitation of its natural resources must not result in any unjustifiable interference with navigation, fishing or the conservation of the living resources of the sea, nor result in any interference with fundamental oceanographic or other scientific research carried out with the intention of open publication.
Where the same continental shelf is adjacent to the territories of two or more States whose coasts are opposite each other, the boundary of the continental shelf appertaining to such States shall be determined by agreement between them.
Where the same continental shelf is adjacent to the territories of two adjacent States, the boundary of the continental shelf shall be determined by agreement between them.
www.oceanlaw.net /texts/genevacs.htm   (1098 words)

 900 Offshore/ Continental Shelf   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
District 920, Middle Shelf, is a zone of fishing banks and deep basins in the mid-portions of the continental shelf and includes the Scotian Shelf and the Gulf of Maine
The landscape is that of a submerged coastal plain, and the structure reflects long periods of terrestrial erosion, the passage of continental ice sheets, and the influence of the ocean.
Beyond the shelf break (200 m) the bottom slopes steeply to a depth of 2,000 metres, reaching a maximum of 5,000 metres at the edge of the Region.
museum.gov.ns.ca /mnh/nature/nhns2/900/900.htm   (2200 words)

 Continental shelf pump - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In oceanic biogeochemistry, the continental shelf pump is proposed to operate in the shallow waters of the continental shelves, acting as a mechanism to transport carbon (as either dissolved or particulate material) from surface waters to the interior of the adjacent deep ocean.
The role of marsh-dominated heterotrophic continental margins in transport of CO between the atmosphere, the land-sea interface and the ocean.
Is there a "continental shelf pump" for the absorption of atmospheric CO Tellus, Ser.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Continental_shelf_pump   (819 words)

 New England Seabirds -Continental Shelf Edge, Hydrographers Canyon
The shelf is simply a submerged coastal plain composed of sediments laid down upon the crystalline bedrock foundation at the seaward margin of the continent.
In the Gulf of Maine the shelf is very rugged - due to glaciation during the last Ice Age - and extends some 200 miles out from the coast of Maine to the southern flank of a huge offshore rim known as Georges Bank.
Land-based sediments from the shelf sporadically spilling over the edge in the underwater equivalent of avalanches have formed this feature, but, unlike the sediments on the shelf, these lie on top of a foundation of oceanic rock, formed nearly 200 million years ago at the Mid-Ocean Ridge.
www.neseabirds.com /wheretoshelfedge.htm   (3758 words)

 Continental shelf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Below the slope is the continental rise, which finally merges into the deep ocean floor, the abyssal plain.
As the continental shelf and the slope are part of the continental margin, both are covered in this article.
Combined with the sunlight available in shallow waters, the continental shelves teem with life compared to the biotic desert of the oceans' abyssal plain.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Continental_shelf   (695 words)

 Maine Inner Continental Shelf Maps - Sidebar - Maine Geological Survey   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The surficial materials of the inner continental shelf of the northwestern Gulf of Maine are the most complex of any place along the Atlantic continental margin of the United States.
The Physiographic Map of the Maine Inner Continental Shelf (Reference 9) shows the geomorphology of the offshore region covered by this series of surficial geologic maps in a single, smaller scale map.
Rocky seabed occupies approximately 41% of the inner continental shelf and is the most abundant seafloor type in this map series.
www.maine.gov /doc/nrimc/mgs/pubs/series/ics/ics-sidebar.htm   (3114 words)

 Continental Shelf - submission to the Commission by Brazil (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.umd.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
On 17 May 2004, Brazil made a submission through the Secretary-General to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, pursuant to article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982.
The submission contains the information on the proposed outer limits of the continental shelf of Brazil beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
Article 76, paragraph 8, stipulates that the limits of the shelf established by a coastal State on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission shall be final and binding.
www.un.org.cob-web.org:8888 /Depts/los/clcs_new/submissions_files/submission_bra.htm   (590 words)

 What is the Outer Continental Shelf?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) consists of the submerged lands, subsoil, and seabed, lying between the seaward extent of the States' jurisdiction and the seaward extent of Federal jurisdiction.
The continental shelf is the gently sloping undersea plain between a continent and the deep ocean.
In 1953, Congress designated the Secretary of the Interior to administer mineral exploration and development of the entire OCS through the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA).
www.gomr.mms.gov /homepg/whoismms/whatsocs.html   (241 words)

 COAST - Continental Margins - Continental Shelf
At most places along the boundary of every continent is an area of shallow water which may range from a few kilometers to more than 1,000 kilometers in width.
These areas, where the oceans cover a portion of the continental land mass, are called continental shelves.
At the edge of the continental shelf is an area called the continental slope, a much steeper zone that drops away to the ocean floor.
www.coast-nopp.org /visualization_modules/physical_chemical/basin_coastal_morphology/principal_features/continental_margins/continental_shelf/shelf.html   (103 words)

 UNEP Shelf Programme
The UNEP Shelf Programme is a partnership of international organizations with expertise in marine geoscience and maritime law, established to assist developing States and small island developing States in defining the outer limits of their continental shelf and preparing their submissions for assessment by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.
They will be allowed to mine the “extended continental shelf” and harvest sedentary organisms living on it (sovereign fishing rights are limited to the EEZ).
States must collect and interpret large volumes of geophysical data describing the shape of the continental margin, measuring sediment thickness and locating the “foot of slope” of the continental shelf.
continentalshelf.org   (402 words)

 NZ Continental Shelf Project - NIWA Science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Determining the extent of this continental prolongation from the landmass, and hence defining the outer legal continental shelf boundary, is the basis of boundary delimitation.
The New Zealand Continental Shelf Project commenced in 1996, with New Zealand undertaking a $44 M bathymetry, marine geology and geophysics survey and data analysis programme over ten years.
New Zealand is required to lodge its submission with the United Nation’s Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf by May 2009.
www.niwascience.co.nz /rc/coast-oceans/unclos   (456 words)

 U.S. Government Encourages Renewables on Outer Continental Shelf
Development of wind, wave, current and solar power projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf is now being structured by the federal government agency with oversight of oil and gas development.
The agency is seeking public comment on its proposal to permit development of renewables on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), the submerged lands seaward of coastal states’ waters.
The objectives of the new program are to provide access to the Outer Continental Shelf for renewable energy projects in a way that balances competing and complementary uses of offshore acreage; takes into account the evolving nature of the energy industry; and provides a fair return to the United States for access to the OCS.
www.ens-newswire.com /ens/jan2006/2006-01-02-01.asp   (1042 words)

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