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Topic: Contributions to liberal theory

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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  Liberal Union Information
Liberals were divided between progressive, centrist and conservative liberals, but because of the lack of organized political parties, these divisions were not very strong.
In 1888 the liberals are forced in opposition by a majority of the confessional political parties.
After the 1897 elections the liberals regain their majority and a cabinet led Pierson enacts a series of social laws, including the Learning Obligation law, which forces all children to go to school between the ages of six and twelve in order to combat child labour.
www.bookrags.com /wiki/Liberal_Union   (714 words)

 National Liberal Party (UK) at AllExperts
The National Liberals evolved as a distinctive group within the Liberal Party in 1931 when the main body of Liberals were maintaining in office the second Labour government of Ramsay MacDonald, who lacked a majority in Parliament.
Liberal Associations who supported National Liberal candidates remained affiliated to the National Liberal Federation until that body was dissolved in 1936, whilst one Liberal National Cabinet Minister, Walter Runciman, remained President of the National Liberal Federation even after the two groups were on opposite sides of the Commons.
At Westminster the independent Liberals were in a shattered state, with the tiny Parliamentary Party representing all shades of opinion and it was doubtful that the new leader, Clement Davies (himself a former Liberal National who had defected back to the independent Liberals) could carry all of his colleagues into a united party.
en.allexperts.com /e/n/na/national_liberal_party_(uk).htm   (1438 words)

 Liberalism - Knowmore
According to the tenets of this form of liberalism, as explained by writers such as John Dewey and Mortimer Adler, since individuals are the basis of society, all individuals should have access to basic necessities of fulfillment, such as education, economic opportunity, and protection from harmful macro-events beyond their control.
Liberals are in favour of a pluralist system in which differing political and social views, even extreme or fringe views, compete for political power on a democratic basis and have the opportunity to achieve power through periodically held elections.
Liberal conservatism is a hybrid of economic liberalism and conservative social philosophy.
knowmore.org /index.php/Liberalism   (10003 words)

 Liberalism - Knowmore
According to the tenets of this form of liberalism, as explained by writers such as John Dewey and Mortimer Adler, since individuals are the basis of society, all individuals should have access to basic necessities of fulfillment, such as education, economic opportunity, and protection from harmful macro-events beyond their control.
Liberals are in favour of a pluralist system in which differing political and social views, even extreme or fringe views, compete for political power on a democratic basis and have the opportunity to achieve power through periodically held elections.
Liberals in Europe are generally hostile to any attempts by the state to enforce equality in employment by legal action against employers, whereas in the United States many liberals favor such affirmative action.
www.knowmore.org /index.php/Liberalism   (10003 words)

 The Strange Death of Liberal International Theory
International theory is not only presented in purely explanatory terms, but Waltz sees such theory as narrowly concerned with the identification and explanation of law-like regularities, on the basis of which empirically testable hypotheses can be generated.
Although Moravcsik is at pains to differentiate his liberal theory from the rival paradigms of neorealism and institutionalism (and perhaps even constructivism), his underlying conception of politics differs little from Keohane's.
Liberal theory rests on a `bottom-up' view of politics in which the demands of individuals and societal groups are treated as analytically prior to politics...
www.ejil.org /journal/Vol12/No3/art1-04.html   (2011 words)

 Liberal League Information
It supports the government on most issues, and, despite being critical of Japan's close relationship with the United States, is supportive of the war in Iraq.
On domestic policy, the party is a liberal party.
In the 2005 lower house elections, the Liberal League's only sitting member of parliament declined to run for reëlection.
www.bookrags.com /wiki/Liberal_League   (213 words)

 Political Theory
The philosophical and interdisciplinary perspectives of political theory help students gain a wider sense of the theoretical options available to them in the study of politics and a deeper understanding of the political implications of the choices they are inclined to make.
Among the chief goals of work in political theory are therefore to promote students’ independence of mind and critical abilities, and to provide them with an opportunity to expand their imagination as a result of an encounter with unfamiliar visions of political life.
For students interested in concentrating in political theory, the political theorists at the University of Illinois share an approach that relies upon a substantial grounding in the history of political thought with the primary aim of contributing to our understanding of contemporary political and social life.
www.pol.uiuc.edu /research/subfields/theory.html   (446 words)

 Contributions to liberal theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
These individuals are strongly associated with the liberal tradition and instrumental in the exposition of political liberalism as a philosophy.
Liberalism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from aristocracy.
Edmund Burke (United Kingdom 1729-1797, Whig politician) contributed to liberal theory by emphasizing the importance of rationality in politics, self-interest as the basis for government and moderation against extremes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Contributions_to_liberal_theory   (4643 words)

 Critical Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
According to these theorists, a “critical” theory may be distinguished from a “traditional” theory according to a specific practical purpose: a theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation, “to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them” (Horkheimer 1982, 244).
The theory of ideology, therefore, analyzes the ways in which linguistic-symbolic meanings are used to encode, produce, and reproduce relations of power and domination, even within institutional spheres of communication and interaction governed by norms that make democratic ideals explicit in normative procedures and constraints.
Liberal institutions do not escape this process and are indeed part of it with their institutionalization of self-interest and self-preservation, tending toward a “totally administered society.” In Eclipse of Reason Horkheimer turns this critique of instrumental reason against liberal democracy.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/critical-theory   (18982 words)

 Communitarian Criticisms and Liberal Lessons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
This unfairness to liberalism should be embarrassing to communitarians, for in criticizing liberalism, communitarians have often neglected their own interpretive principle that to understand a belief or practice it is necessary to see it in the context of the tradition of shared meanings out of which it arose.
Communitarians themselves have typically failed to appreciate that liberal thought is a tradition with a rich and varied history, and have neglected to understand liberal regimes in context as basic institutional frameworks for coping with a specific array of concrete challenges in a particular set of historical and cultural circumstances.
And liberal theorists have increasingly come to recognize that the practice of limited constitutional government, the protection of basic individual rights, and the promotion of virtues such as toleration depend in part on citizens who are experienced in the art of association.
mason.gmu.edu /~berkowit/communitariancriticismsandliberallessons.htm   (2494 words)

 Economic liberalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics developed in the Enlightenment, and believed to be first fully formulated by Adam Smith with advocates minimal interference by government in the economy.
Initially, the liberal theory of economics had to contend with the supporters of feudal privileges for the wealthy, aristocratic traditions and the rights of kings to run national economies in their own personal interests.
The liberal theory of economics fell partially out of practice in the late 19th and early 20th century, when many countries followed the protectionism of Germany, which wanted to achieve self-sufficiency in order to be able to survive a long war.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Liberal_theory_of_economics   (672 words)

 Rawlings Resources & Information - rawlings baseball gloves
Philosopher Peter Singer was critical of A Theory of Justice in his book on globalization titled One World, in which he wrote that he was astonished that Rawls had failed "to discuss the injustice of the extremes of wealth and poverty that exist between different" peoples.
In Political Liberalism Rawls addressed the most common criticism levelled at Theory-the criticism that the principles of justice were simply an alternative systematic conception of justice that was superior to utilitarianism or any other comprehensive theory.
It failed to distinguish between a comprehensive moral theory which addressed the problem of justice, and that rawlings electronic pogo stick of a political conception of justice that was independent of any comprehensive theory.
www.bizhisto.com /Biz-Retail-Companies-R---Sc/Rawlings.html   (2021 words)

 Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Micro-level theories focus on the behavior of individuals engaged in political activities, that is, the smallest possible political unit.
Role theory has been applied to political lobbyists who are expected by their employers to control the entire legislative process--an impossible expectation.
In addition to classifying theories in terms of their scope, we might divide all of political science theory into one of two general classifications: normative theory and empirical theory.
www.usca.edu /polisci/apls301/theory.htm   (5391 words)

 Max Weber - Psychology Wiki - a Wikia wiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
One of his 19th century liberal views was his staunch nationalism based on classical republicanism, and that a nation with freedom for individuals is maintained by the virtues and character of its citizens.
Weber's other main contribution to economics (as well as to social sciences in general) is his work on methodology: his theories of "Verstehen" (known as understanding or Interpretative Sociology) and of antipositivism (known as humanistic sociology).
Weber's other contributions to economics were several: these include a (seriously researched) economic history of Roman agrarian society, his work on the dual roles of idealism and materialism in the history of capitalism in his Economy and Society (1914) which present Weber's criticisms (or according to some, revisions) of some aspects of Marxism.
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Max_Weber   (7376 words)

 As a result, theory is intimidating   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
It is an unbounded corpus of writings which is always being augmented as the young and the restless, in critiques of the guiding conceptions of their elders, promote the contributions to theory of new thinkers and rediscover the work of older, neglected ones.
Theory makes you desire mastery: you hope that theoretical reading will give you the concepts to organize and understand the phenomena that concern you.
But theory makes mastery impossible, not only because there is always more to know, but, more specifically and more painfully, because theory is itself the questioning of presumed results and the assumptions on which they are based.
www.umsl.edu /~gradyf/theory/culleretc.htm   (678 words)

 International Relations Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Neoliberalism is the name given to strands of thought separate from (yet connected with) "commercial" liberalism (the linking of free trade with peace), "republican" liberalism (the linking of democracy and peace), "sociological" liberalism (theories of international integration), and (opposed to) anti-capitalist ideologies (like Marxism, socialism, anarchism, and fascism).
Regime theory (explained in the Primer on International Law under the section on Treaty Law) is also a liberal (and pluralist or consensus-oriented) strand of thought.
Liberal interventionists are especially opposed to totalitarianism in all its forms, and justify war mainly in terms of just war theory.
faculty.ncwc.edu /toconnor/430/430lect03.htm   (4889 words)

liberal feminism is not feminism merely added to liberalism.  Rather, there is a real difference between liberalism and liberal feminism in that feminism requires a recognition, however implicit and undefined, of the sexual-class identification of women as women.
Robertson's own liberal view begins with a rock-bottom commitment to strong moral rights, most especially the right of individuals to be at liberty.  In making moral rights foundational to morality and the construction of a just society, contemporary liberals follow Locke rather than Mill, who espoused a goal-based view of rights.
Liberals contend that procreative liberty deserves privileged status because of its importance to personal conceptions of identity and the meaning of life.  In what sense is the decision to procreate central to personal identity?  Answering this question involves moral judgments about the meaning and importance of reproduction. 
www.uky.edu /~buddy/FeministSocialJusticeApproach.htm   (5284 words)

 CalendarHome.com - - Calendar Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
He had important contributions in the fields of education, moral philosophy, theology, metaphysics, political economy, history and physical science.
It was here that he published his grammar book in 1761 (a remarkably liberal grammar for its day) and other books on history and educational theory.
Both Priestley and Scheele were unaware that oxygen was a chemical element; Priestley named the gas (which he had generated by heating red mercuric oxide with a "burning lens") "de-phlogisticated air", in accordance with the phlogiston theory which held at the time.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /cgi-bin/encyclopedia.pl?p=Joseph_Priestley   (1485 words)

 Sir Karl Popper   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
scientific theories are universal in nature, and can be tested only indirectly, by references to their implications.
Historicism is the theory that history develops inexorably and necessarily according to knowable general laws towards a determinate end.
Theories that say more about the way things appear are to be preferred over those that do not; the more generally applicable a theory is, the greater its value.
dks.thing.net /Sir_Karl_Popper.html   (1700 words)

 Libertarianism information - Search.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Locke built on the idea of natural rights to propose a labor theory of property; each individual in the state of nature "owns" himself and, by virtue of their labor, owns the fruits of his efforts.
His economic analysis suggested that anything interfering with the ability of individuals to contribute their best talents to any enterprise--a reference to mercantilist policies and monopolistic guilds--would lead to an inefficient division of labor, and hamstring progress generally.
Nevertheless, the Cato Institute's official stance is that classical liberalism and libertarianism are synonymous; they prefer the term "liberal" to describe themselves, but choose not to use it because of its confusing connotation in some English-speaking countries (most self-described liberals prefer a mixed economy rather than a free market economy).
c10-ss-1-lb.cnet.com /reference/Libertarianism   (7894 words)

 Chapter 28
The form of liberalism associated with the modern captitalist welfare state is known as "modern liberalism," or "welfare-state liberalism." And the form of liberalism associated with Karl Marx and his modern-day followers is sometimes called "egalitarian liberalism." Modern liberalism is the subject of Chapters 39-40, and egalitarian liberalism is the subject of Chapters 36-38.) [v
This means, according to the classical liberals, that each has the right to decide how his or her talents and abilities will be exercised; and each has the right to what is produced by the exercise of those talents and abilities (less the amount justly due in taxes, which we discuss in the next chapter).
The classical liberals also came to believe that whether or not there is some objectively true form of the good life, human beings are nevertheless in a state of radical and irresolvable disagreement as to its nature.
www.schoolofabraham.com /Herrickhandout.htm   (8823 words)

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