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Topic: Control theory

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  Control Theory
When you press the button on a light controlled crossing, you initiate a sequence of light changes, which enable you to cross the road safely, and when you relax in the comfort of your centrally heated home, spare a thought for the thermostat, which works constantly for you maintaining a comfortable temperature.
Experts in the field of control theory would like us to refer to this as open loop control, for reasons that will become obvious later, but I prefer the more descriptive term of “sequencer”.
One point to note here is that the light timer control illustrates the use of a sequencer based on events (on/off) linked to a particular time and day.
www.pc-control.co.uk /control_theory_main.htm   (824 words)

 Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory
General strain theory has defined measurements of strain, the major types of strain, the links between strain and crime, coping strategies to strain, the determinants of delinquent or nondelinquent behavior, and policy recommendations that are based on this theory.
While control theory rests on the premise that the breakdown of society frees the individual to commit crime, strain theory is focused on the pressure that is placed on the individual to commit crime (Agnew, 1992:49).
Control theory, however, is based on the absence of significant relationships with nondeviant others, and social learning theory is based on positive relationships with deviant others (Agnew, 1992:49).
www.criminology.fsu.edu /crimtheory/agnew.htm   (4719 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Controllability and observability are main issues in the analysis of a system before deciding the best control strategy to be applied.
Other "classical" control theory specifications regard the time-response of the closed-loop system: these include the rise time (the time needed by the control system to reach the desired value after a perturbation), peak overshoot (the highest value reached by the response before reaching the desired value) and others (settling time, quarter-decay).
Optimal control is a particular control technique in which the control signal optimizes a certain "cost index": for example, in the case of a satellite, the jet thrusts needed to bring it to desired trajectory that consume the least amount of fuel.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=control_theory   (2613 words)

 Automatic control theory
Controllability is related to the possibility of forcing the system into a particular state by using an appropriate control signal.
However, the "optimal control" structure in MPC is only a means to achieve such a result, as it does not optimize a true performance index of the closed-loop control system.
In control theory it is sometimes possible to linearize such classes of systems and apply linear techniques: but in many cases it can be necessary to devise from scratch theories permitting control of non-linear systems.
www.webservicesfree.com /Articles/Automatic-control-Articles/Automatic-control-theory-introduction.htm   (2326 words)

 Robust Control Theory
From [Chandraseken98], "Robust control refers to the control of unknown plants with unknown dynamics subject to unknown disturbances".
The techniques for robust control have been criticized for their accessibility to the practicing engineer, the tediousness of the methods, the general application to normal systems and the conservatism that they often present.
An introduction to stochastic control is treated as the combination of optimal control (deterministic) and optimal estimation (non-deterministic).
www.ece.cmu.edu /~koopman/des_s99/control_theory   (3461 words)

 Control Theory | Faculty of Mathematics | University of Waterloo   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In general terms, control theory can be described as the process of influencing the behaviour of a physical system to achieve a desired goal, primarily through the use of feedback.
While most control systems are designed and implemented using linear techniques, there are increasingly many cases in which the nonlinearities of the system must be taken into account, for example in the design of autonomous robots or in the automatic control of spacecraft attitude.
The second is by drawing analogies between man-made and biological control systems, for example, by comparing signal transduction networks to electrical amplifiers, or by identifying control motifs in biological regulators - as was done when the regulation of bacterial chemotaxis was interpreted in terms of integral control.
www.math.uwaterloo.ca /AM_Dept/Control.Theory.shtml   (562 words)

 Control Theory
Control theory is a general name given to those approaches to crime that rather than seeking to explain why people commit crimes instead ask why it is that people do not commit crime.
These informal social controls are interesting because they are viewed as capable of preventing people committing crime despite the fact that it is possible for them to do so and probably get away with it.
The family connection became important in the history of control theory because it was suitable as a device to explain both personal and social forms of control.
www.homestead.com /rouncefield/files/a_soc_dev_15.htm   (1196 words)

 Control Theories in Criminology   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Control theorists generally argue that there is no problem explaining why people commit crime since all human beings suffer from innate human weaknesses which make them unable to resist temptation.
The most well-known figure in control theory is Travis Hirschi, who emerged around 1969 from his "hellfire and delinquency" studies (Hirschi and Stark 1969) on religion and crime as a pioneer in social control theory and the method of self-report studies.
The family connection became important in the history of control theory [see the section of this lecture on family factors] because it was suitable as a device to explain both personal and social forms of control.
faculty.ncwc.edu /toconnor/301/301lect11.htm   (4774 words)

 IMA: Systems and Control Theory Group
Control engineering is a well established discipline within engineering and systems and control theory is placed between engineering and mathematics.
The special relationship of systems and control theory to mathematics is that it is probably one of the few areas that uses almost every branch of mathematics; on the other hand, its development poses a multitude of new mathematical problems.
Systems and control theory is an active area within the Institute with many conferences and the publication of the IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information.
www.ima.org.uk /learned_soc/interestcontrol.htm   (345 words)

 Working Group on Control and Systems Theory
The aim of the ERCIM Working Group Control and System Theory is to promote the research cooperation and the research activities of the research groups in this area at ERCIM institutes.
To represent the interests of the ERCIM research groups in control and system theory with respect to the ERCIM management.
Control of hybrid systems and of discrete event systems.
www.ladseb.pd.cnr.it /control/ercim/control.html   (319 words)

 Modern Ideas: The Gate Control Theory of chronic pain
Due to the observations that raised questions, a new theory of pain was developed in the early 1960s to account for the clinically recognized importance of the mind and brain in pain perception.
Although the theory accounts for phenomena that are primarily mental in nature - that is, pain itself as well as some of the psychological factors influencing it - its scientific beauty is that it provides a physiological basis for the complex phenomenon of pain.
In the gate control theory, the experience of pain depends on a complex interplay of these two systems as they each process pain signals in their own way.
www.spine-health.com /topics/cd/pain/chronic_pain_theories/chronic_pain_theory02.html   (765 words)

 Egwald Mathematics - Optimal Control Theory with Applications
This solution to this optimal control theory problem shows the optimal firing sequence for the rockets mounted at the front and rear of a rocket car that will bring the rocket car to rest at a designated position in the minimum amount of time.
By applying Pontryagin's Maximum Principle to the nonlinear system of equations of motion of the scud missile and shoulder mounted rocket, I derive the optimal control theory minimum time solution to intercepting the scud missile.
Solve the famous linearized pendulum (harmonic oscillator) problem using optimal control theory.
www.egwald.com /optimalcontrol   (249 words)

 Control Theory 101
I find control theory and PID algorithms very fascinating (at least at a simple level) so I want to share a few basics.
The cruise control will manipulate the accelerator position (control output) to try to make the current speed (process value) equal to the target speed (reference point.) How the cruise control calculates what accelerator position is needed to hold the desired speed (even going up and down hills) is where the magic happens.
The real trick for creating a well behaved PID controller and a well behaved autopilot is tuning the relative weights of each of the P, I, and D components.
www.flightgear.org /Docs/XMLAutopilot/node2.html   (1021 words)

 Egwald Mathematics - Optimal Control Theory with Applications
This solution to this optimal control theory problem shows the optimal firing sequence for the rockets mounted at the front and rear of a rocket car that will bring the rocket car to rest at a designated position in the minimum amount of time.
By applying Pontryagin's Maximum Principle to the nonlinear system of equations of motion of the scud missile and shoulder mounted rocket, I derive the optimal control theory minimum time solution to intercepting the scud missile.
Solve the famous linearized pendulum (harmonic oscillator) problem using optimal control theory.
www.egwald.ca /optimalcontrol   (249 words)

 Research in Control and System Theory
Control is also the name for a research area in which the design of controllers is studied at the engineering level and in which synthesis of controllers is studied at a theoretical level.
Control and filtering of stochastic systems is expected to grow in hidden Markov models and for stochastic systems with exponential families of probability distributions.
Control of hybrid systems is expected to develop the interaction between the discrete and the continuous dynamics.
www.ercim.org /publication/Ercim_News/enw39/van_schuppen.html   (1536 words)

 Wiley-VCH - Basar, Tamer (ed.) - Control Theory
"Control theory, developed in the twentieth century, is the subject of this compilation of 25 annotated reprints of seminal papers representing the evolution of the control field.
Control Theory: Twenty-Five Seminal Papers (1932-1981) begins with an introduction describing the major developments in control, linking each to a selected paper.
The earliest paper is the famous "Regeneration Theory" by Harry Nyquist, which laid the foundation for a frequency-domain approach to stability analysis of linear control systems and introduced the Nyquist criterion.
www.wiley-vch.de /publish/en/books/bySubjectEE00/bySubSubjectEE30/0-7803-6021-4/?sID=8f45dfbac147fadf5a590a787e952e11   (604 words)

 Dynamic Systems and Control Group, UCSD   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The former focuses on the development of new methods for the control, estimation, forecasting, and optimization of both laminar and turbulent flow systems, whereas the latter is developing a new class of highly agile mobile robots, focusing on both component-level and systems-level design issues as well as the necessary coordination and control strategies.
The UCSD Flow Control Lab specializes in the development of new approaches to the control, forecasting, and optimization of laminar and turbulent flows.
The logo of the Dynamic Systems and Control group at UCSD was conceived as follows: the control, indicated by the large red C, takes measurements from a dynamic system, S, and applies feedback back to that system, thereby modifying the system behavior (and thus the C overlaps onto the S).
control.ucsd.edu /index.html   (1356 words)

 Health Locus of Control Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Health Locus of Control scale was developed as a unidimensional measure of people's beliefs that their health is or is not determined by their own behavior.
Using health locus of control scales to measure health related locus of control is used to evaluate health education program success.
Health Locus of Control (HLC) is the degree to which individuals believe that their health is controlled by internal or external Factors.
hsc.usf.edu /~kmbrown/Locus_of_Control_Overview.htm   (1215 words)

 Robust Control System Design via Minimax LQG Control Theory
Linear Quadratic Gaussian optimal control theory (LQG) is one of the major achievements of the modern control era.
This controller design methodology enables a controller to be synthesized which is optimal with respect to a specified quadratic performance index.
The main aim of this project is to develop the theory of minimax LQG control to provide a practical control system design methodology which includes the previous modern control milestones of LQG control and H-infinity control.
www.ee.adfa.edu.au /School/research/LQG_control.htm   (748 words)

 Perceptual Control Theory
At the heart of perceptual control theory is the idea that human beings are essentially intricate control mechanisms that function to keep certain intrinsic (or essential, see Ashby, 1952) variables within survivable limits.
However, the control hierarchy must be constructed so as to allow all systems to maintain reasonable control over their own perceptual signals.
This proposal amounts to a theory of physical development of the nervous system which says that the control hierarchy is self-organizing through a Darwinian process of variation and selective retention, as opposed to being genetically specified in detail.
users.ipfw.edu /abbott/pct/pct.html   (2297 words)

 Brandt Publishing: Discipline...Book Two (Revised & Expanded): Chapter 19
PCT is a mathematical theory of behavior, and it is radically different from any major traditional theory in the behavioral, social, or cognitive sciences, or in the brain sciences and life sciences.
To understand what motivation actually is, it is necessary first to understand that control theory contends that all human beings are born with five basic needs built into their genetic structure: survival, love, power, fun, and freedom.
Control theory is a descriptive term because we try to control our own behavior so that what we choose to do is the most need-satisfying thing we can do at the time.
brandtpublishing.com /books/revised2-ch19.html   (15199 words)

 Basic Control Theory : International site for Spirax Sarco
Control theory is discussed from fundamental proportional action to PID control.
The dynamic of the simple control loop is discussed, alongside practical issues of choosing the best system for the application, and installation and commissioning issues.
An explanation of each component of a control system, including valves, actuators, sensors and controllers; together with an introduction to methods of control and system dynamics, including simple control loops and feedback systems.
www.spiraxsarco.com /learn/block.asp?id=5   (232 words)

 Christianity and Control Theory
A control system that is designed to perform well in the presence of noise is like a Christian who acknowledges the presence of sin in the world but does not allow it to ruin him.
Yet a control system that responds equally to all input signals will be “tossed back and forth by the waves, and blown here and there by every wind of input signal.” The control system needs to strike a healthy balance between acceptance of desired inputs and rejection of extraneous inputs.
These learning control algorithms are never satisfied with their present performance, but continually adjust their parameters in order to obtain incremental improvements over time.
academic.csuohio.edu /simond/xianctrl.html   (1528 words)

 CSG - Overview: What is Perceptual Control Theory
What it Is Perceptual control theory (PCT) is a theory of behavior with wide applications in fields ranging from psychology and sociology to robotics, biology, and engineering.
Perceptual control theory is "a model of how a human being must be internally organized to accomplish this process called controlling.
It is a technical theory that involves neurology and physiology and mathematical theories of control systems developed some 60 years ago by engineers" (from
www.perceptualcontroltheory.org /overview.html   (410 words)

 Amazon.com: A Course in Robust Control Theory: Books: Geir E. Dullerud,Fernando Paganini   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This research effort has produced a rather extensive set of approaches using a wide variety of mathematical techniques, and applications of robust control theory are spreading to areas as diverse as control of fluids, power networks, and the investigation of feddback mechanisms in biology.
The goal of this book is to give a graduate-level course on robust control theory that emphasizes these new developments, but at the same time conveys the main principles and ubiquitous tools at the heart of the subject.
Its pedagogical objectives are to introduce a coherent and unified framework for studying robust control theory, to provide students with the control-theoretic background required to read and contribute to the research literature, and to present the main ideas and demonstrations of the major results of robust control theory.
www.amazon.com /Course-Robust-Control-Theory/dp/0387989455   (1161 words)

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