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# Topic: Coordinate system

###### In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

 Cartesian coordinate system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematics, the Cartesian coordinate system is used to uniquely determine each point in the plane through two numbers, usually called the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate of the point. Cartesian coordinate systems are also used in space (where three coordinates are used) and in higher dimensions. In analytic geometry the Cartesian coordinate system is the foundation for the algebraic manipulation of geometrical shapes. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cartesian_coordinate_system   (1711 words)

 Astronomical Leage - Astro Note 11: Celestial Coordinate Systems Although any arbitrary coordinate system could be used, these measurements are usually made in two specific systems by amateur astronomers. Coordinates are then specified by angular measure around the great circle from the reference point and by angular distance from the reference plane along another great circle perpendicular to that plane. Also called alt-azimuth or horizon coordinates, this system uses the plane of the local horizon as the plane of reference. www.astroleague.org /al/astrnote/astnot11.html   (607 words)

 CHAPTER 55. PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The "Delaware Coordinate System of 1927" is a transverse Mercator projection of the Clarke spheroid of 1866, having a central position meridian 75 25/' west of Greenwich, on which meridian the scale is set at 1 part in 200,000 too small. The origin of the coordinates is at the intersection of the meridian 75 25/' west of Greenwich and the parallel 38 20/' north latitude. The origin of coordinates is at the intersection of the meridian 75 25/' west of Greenwich and the parallel 38 00/' north latitude. www.delcode.state.de.us /title6/c055   (783 words)

 Coordinate Systems, Transformations and Units - SVG 1.1 - 20030114   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Both coordinates systems are established such that the origin matches the origin of the viewport (for the root viewport, the viewport origin is at the top/left corner), and one unit in the initial coordinate system equals one "pixel" in the viewport. Indicates that the user coordinate system for the contents of the 'mask' element are established using the bounding box of the element to which the mask is applied. Then, coordinate (0,0) in the new user coordinate system is mapped to the (minx,miny) corner of the tight bounding box within the user coordinate system of the applicable element and coordinate (1,1) in the new user coordinate system is mapped to the (maxx,maxy) corner of the tight bounding box of the applicable element. www.w3.org /TR/SVG/coords.html   (7070 words)

 Celestial Coordinate System It is useful to impose on the celestial sphere a coordinate system that is analogous to the latitude-longitude system employed for the surface of the Earth. This coordinate system is illustrated in the following figure (for which you should imagine the earth to be a point at the center of the sphere). In the celestial coordinate system the North and South Celestial Poles are determined by projecting the rotation axis of the Earth to intersect the celestial sphere, which in turn defines a Celestial Equator. csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr161/lect/time/coordinates.html   (700 words)

 IM AK-300-00-001 - GPS Datum and Coordinate System Settings   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) There are also many different coordinate systems using different units of measure (e.g., degrees, meters, feet, radians) and different points of origin on the globe. Coordinates recorded with the intent of returning at a later date are useless without this information, and may result in wasted time and money. When using your GPS receiver to navigate to previously determined coordinates, the datum and coordinate system on your receiver should be set to match that of the source. www.blm.gov /nhp/efoia/ak/2000fo-im/im00-001_300.html   (286 words)

 Maryland Geological Survey: A USER'S GUIDE TO THE MARYLAND COORDINATE SYSTEM The original Maryland Coordinate System was adopted by authority of Chapter 628 of the Acts of the Maryland General Assembly of 1939. During the 1987 session of the Maryland General Assembly, legislation was passed that established a new coordinate system for Maryland that is compatible with NAD83. Since the Maryland Coordinate System has its position and orientation defined in terms of latitude and longitude, it made sense to change the Maryland Coordinate System so that it retained, in principal, the same legal definition as the previous Maryland Coordinate System of 1939. www.mgs.md.gov /esic/fs/fs8.html   (1574 words)

 SPACE SHUTTLE COORDINATE SYSTEM The system is measured in inches and decimal places; Xo designates the longitudinal (forward and aft) axis, Yo the lateral (inboard and outboard) axis and Z o the vertical (up and down) axis. The shuttle system and shuttle element coordinate systems are related as follows: the external tank XT 0 point coincides with XS 0, the SRB XB 0 point is located 543 inches aft, and the Y o, Zo reference plane is 741 inches aft of X S 0. The purge, vent and drain system on the orbiter is designed to perform the following functions: provide unpressurized compartments with gas purge for thermal conditioning and prevent accumulation of hazardous gases, vent the unpressurized compartments during ascent and entry, drain trapped fluids (water and hydraulic fluid) and condition window cavities to maintain visibility. science.ksc.nasa.gov /shuttle/technology/sts-newsref/sts_coord.html   (12853 words)

 The State Plane Coordinate System The history of the state plane coordinate system goes back to sometime around 1930, when an engineer from the North Carolina state government (there are conflicting stores about exactly who this engineer was, and what state agency he worked for) approached the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey office. In its modern form, the state plane coordinate system covers all 50 of the United States, but it does not extend beyond the borders of the U.S. The system is designed to have a maximum linear error of 1 in 10,000. UTM system, whose maximum linear error is 1 in 2,500, which, when you multiply both sides by four, translates into a maximum error of 4 in 10,000. www.cnr.colostate.edu /class_info/nr502/lg3/datums_coordinates/spcs.html   (909 words)

 Geographic Coordinate System Transformations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) However it is common practice in coordinate system transformations to apply the shift as an addition, with the sign of the shift parameter value having been suitably reversed to compensate for the practice. Because the coordinate differences are small and the coordinates in the source and target systems are very similar in magnitude, in reversible polynomial transformations it is possible to adopt the same coordinate values for the evaluation point in both source and target systems. Transformations between two coordinate systems where in either system either the scale along axes differ or the axes are not orthogonal should be defined as a general affine transformation in either the parametric or geometric form. www.posc.org /Epicentre.2_2/DataModel/ExamplesofUsage/eu_cs35.html   (5780 words)

 How to Define a Local Coordinate System Enter three sets of coordinates in the "Point A", "Point B" and "Point C" fields to define the local coordinate system per the diagram shown on the screen. The active local cylindrical coordinate system is shown in the "Coordinate System" field. Local coordinate systems can either be reused in the Superview IV Results environment or defined there to display results in an arbitrary orientation relative to them (see How to Display Results in a Local Coordinate System). www.algor.com /service_support/hints_tips/lcs_fea_editor.asp   (604 words)

 Earth Coordinate System The horizontal coordinate system (commonly referred to as the alt-az system) is the simplest coordinate system as it is based on the observer's horizon. A more convenient coordinate system for cataloging purposes is one based on the celestial equator and the celestial poles and defined in a similar manner to latitude and longitude on the surface of the Earth. In this system, known as the equatorial coordinate system, the analog of latitude is the declination, zebu.uoregon.edu /~js/ast121/lectures/lec03.html   (2904 words)

 Astronomical Coordinate Systems The coordinate systems considered here are all based at one reference point in space with respect to which the positions are measured, the origin of the reference frame (typically, the location of the observer, or the center of Earth, the Sun, or the Milky Way Galaxy). The second coordinate of a position in the horizon system is defined by the point where the verticle circle of the position cuts the horizon. For this purpose, two ecliptical systems are used: The heliocentric coordinate system with the Sun in its center, and the geocentric one with the Earth in its origin, which can be transferred into each other by a coordinate translation. www.seds.org /~spider/spider/ScholarX/coords.html   (3777 words)

 Background: Coordinate systems and transformations The need for the use of more than one coordinate system arises from the fact that many different physical phenomena are easier calculated or understood in a system that is appropriate for the phenomenon. For the definition of a coordinate system in threedimensional space, one has only to specify the direction of one of the axes, and the orientation of one of the other axes in the plane perpendicular to this direction. The Geocentric Solar Equatorial System (GSEQ) as with the www.spenvis.oma.be /spenvis/help/background/coortran/coortran.html   (1943 words)

 Coordinate Systems Overview This overview of coordinate systems for georeferencing provides a brief description of local and global systems for use in precise positioning, navigation, and geographic information systems for the location of points in space. The system is based on units of the square-root of one-tenth of a mile. Once the coordinates of switching sites are known, distances between sites can be simply found by calculating the square root of the sum of the squares of the differences in the vertical and horizontal coordinates divided by ten. www.colorado.edu /geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys.html   (2649 words)

 Spherical Coordinate System Lab This coordinate system is based upon the physical fact that we live on the earth and gravity pulls us to the earth establishing and up and a down locally. This coordinate system is based upon the physical fact that the earth revolves about the sun in a year. This coordinate system is based upon the physical fact that we live in a flattened disk of stars that the solar system revolves about in approximately 250 million years. www.mc.cc.md.us /Departments/planet/planet/Coordinate_Systems_Lab.htm   (1626 words)

 KY FAQ: What is the Carter coordinate system? The Carter coordinate system is a land grid, based on latitude and longitude, used to locate oil and gas well data in Kentucky. The system was developed by the Carter Oil Company to mimic the township and range location system in areas that had not been surveyed. The Carter coordinate is written by specifying a pair of footages from the one-minute section boundaries and the reference boundary (north, south, east, or west) for each, the one-minute section number, the five-minute quad letter, and the five-minute quad number. www.uky.edu /KGS/emsweb/kyogfaq/kyogfaq9.html   (613 words)

 WCSTools Sky World Coordinate Systems World Coordinate System (WCS) keywords in the header of a FITS or IRAF image file define the relationship between pixel coordinates in the image and sky coordinates. are the pixel coordinates of the reference point to which the projection and the rotation refer. The pixel to sky coordinate transformation is a third-order polynomial with cross-terms; it uses 13 coefficient keywords per axis and additional keywords as well. tdc-www.harvard.edu /software/wcstools/wcstools.wcs.html   (897 words)

 Coordinate System Attributes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) This attribute is used on a Coordinate Axis variable to specify that it is a space or time coordinate, such as lat, lon, altitude or time. A Reference Coordinate System is one that uses Latitude, Longitude for the horizontal axes, and Height or Pressure for the vertical axes. It is often convenient to define the Coordinate Transform Variable and have it point to the Coordinate Systems that use it. www.unidata.ucar.edu /software/netcdf-java/CoordinateAttributes.html   (1964 words)

 Cartesian Coordinate System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) This lesson is designed to familiarize students to the Cartesian Coordinate System and its many uses in the world of mathematics. The Cartesian coordinate system was developed by the mathematician Descartes during an illness. To show students that the coordinate plane is useful in more than just describing the location of objects lead a discussion on reading points off a graph. www.shodor.org /interactivate/lessons/cartesian.html   (682 words)

 How to Display Results in a Local Coordinate System When displaying a stress tensor relative to a Cartesian coordinate system, the actual hoop stress only occurs in those areas where the stress tensor vector is aligned with the direction of the hoop stress (Figure 1). As an alternative, a cylindrical coordinate system can be used so that the actual hoop stress is shown around the full circumference of the model. Local coordinate systems can also be defined in the FEA Editor environment to aid in the creation of loads and constraints (see How to Define a Local Coordinate System). www.algor.com /service_support/hints_tips/results_lcs.asp   (406 words)

 Cartesian Coordinate System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) A cartesian coordinate system is simple way of defining a location by its distance away from a known location horizontally, vertically and it's height. Most likely, your CNC machines use this same coordinate system although some machines use this coordinate system as if you were looking at the directions from the back of the machine. For the Z coordinate, just remember that when a positive Z is programmed, the tool moves away from the table and the part you are cutting. www.xmlcreate.com /NCGuide/Basics101/basics101.html   (279 words)

 Coordinate Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The most common coordinate system for representing positions in space is one based on three perpendicular spatial axes generally designated x, y, and z. Any point P may be represented by three signed numbers, usually written (x, y, z) where the coordinate is the perpendicular distance from the plane formed by the other two axes. Although the entire coordinate system can be rotated, the relationship between the axes is fixed in what is called a right-handed coordinate system. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/coord.html   (117 words)

 Unit 013 - Coordinate Systems Overview Reference systems and map projections extend the ideas of Cartesian and polar coordinate systems over all or part of the earth. The true origin of the system is at 49° north latitude and 2 degrees west longitude. State plane systems were developed in order to provide local reference systems that were tied to a national datum. www.ncgia.ucsb.edu /education/curricula/giscc/units/u013/u013.html   (3483 words)

 Creating a Mosaic World Coordinate System The data acquisition system then adds the WCS for the appropriate filter and telescope (this camera is used at two telescopes). This task is basically a fitting task that fits a transformation between pixel coordinates and celestial coordinates and records the result in both a database file and in the image header as a WCS. By determining the WCS and specifying the database WCS in physical coordinates, then when the WCS is applied to other exposures first the logical pixels of the exposure are transformed to the same physical system (unbinned CCD pixels) regardless of overscan/prescan regions, binning, and subraster readouts. iraf.noao.edu /projects/ccdmosaic/astrometry/astrom.html   (3590 words)

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