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Topic: Copenhagen interpretation

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  Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Copenhagen interpretation -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Copenhagen interpretation is the mainstream interpretation of quantum mechanics; it was worked out by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927.
By contrast, the Copenhagen interpretation holds that in quantum mechanics, measurement outcomes are fundamentally indeterministic.
Many physicists and philosophers have objected to the Copenhagen interpretation, both on the grounds that it is non-deterministic and that it includes an undefined measurement process that converts probability functions into non-probabilistic measurements.
www.kidsseek.com /encyclopedia-wiki/co/Copenhagen_interpretation   (1004 words)

 Copenhagen interpretation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bohr and Heisenberg extended the probabilistic interpretation of the wavefunction, proposed by Max Born.
Their interpretation attempts to answer some perplexing questions which arise as a result of the wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics, such as the measurement problem.
The original formulation of the Copenhagen Interpretation has led to several variants; one of these is based on Consistent Histories and the concept of quantum decoherence that allows us to calculate the fuzzy boundary between the "microscopic" and the "macroscopic" world.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Copenhagen_interpretation   (1233 words)

 Bohm interpretation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Causal interpretation, the Ontological interpretation or the de Broglie-Bohm theory, is an interpretation postulated by David Bohm in which the existence of a non-local universal wavefunction allows distant particles to interact instantaneously.
The interpretation assumes a single, nonsplitting universe (unlike the Everett many-worlds interpretation) and is deterministic (unlike the Copenhagen interpretation).
The Bohmian interpretation also seems incompatible with modern insights about decoherence that allow one to calculate the "boundary" between the "quantum microworld" and the "classical macroworld"; according to decoherence, the observables that exhibit classical behavior are determined dynamically, not by an assumption.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bohm_interpretation   (2119 words)

 PROMETHEUS 02 - Quantum Reality by Manjit Kumar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The 'orthodox' interpretation, accepted by several generations of physicists, was formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg and came to be known as the 'Copenhagen interpretation', because Bohr was the director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics in the Danish city.
In the Copenhagen interpretation, momentum and the position of a particle are regarded as complementary.
Copenhagen, Causality and Schrödinger Opponents of the Copenhagen interpretation sought to show that quantum theory was incomplete by routes other than that sketched out by the EPR team.
www.prometheus.demon.co.uk /02/02kumar.htm   (5056 words)

 An Introduction to Michael Frayn's Copenhagen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This point is the first (and most obvious) interpretative issue the play raises—the relationship between the historical record and a fictional interpretation of historical events based upon a judicious selection of material from that record, some imaginative additions, and a creative patterning of the combination into what adds up to some significant totality as theatre.
The Copenhagen interpretation (as it came to be called) accepted both the wave and particle images of matter as complementary.
Copenhagen, I have been trying to argue, is about a good deal more than the particular individuals involved in the famous meeting (although it is about them, too), more than the pressure to reach some verdict about Heisenberg, about more even than the ethics of modern scientific research for weapons of destruction.
www.mala.bc.ca /~johnstoi/introser/frayn.htm   (4293 words)

This is the philosophical essence of the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum theory.
Positivists of the Copenhagen Interpretation quickly dismiss the concept of "hidden variables" on the basis that it is meaningless to consider the existence of the unseen.
By Einstein's statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics, however, an electron has a discrete position and momentum at all times during its flight, such that the wave function (and the Airy disk) is only meaningful as a statistical description of the behavior of a large number of particles -- not of an individual particle.
www.benbest.com /science/quantum.html   (5608 words)

 Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
The Copenhagen interpretation was the first general attempt to understand the world of atoms as this is represented by quantum mechanics.
Today the Copenhagen interpretation is mostly regarded as synonymous with indeterminism, Bohr's correspondence principle, Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function, and Bohr's complementarity interpretation of certain atomic phenomena.
The Copenhagen interpretation is first and foremost a semantic and epistemological reading of quantum mechanics that carries certain ontological implications.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/qm-copenhagen   (4423 words)

 The Reality Program: Introduction
The consensus interpretation is called the Copenhagen interpretation, because it was primarily developed by Niels Bohr and his colleagues at his institute in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Nevertheless, it was and remains the standard "orthodox" interpretation of quantum mechanics in the scientific community, and it has withstood challenge after challenge from those whose main objection to it is that it does not make much sense.
All I hope to do for most of this book is to accurately convey the gist of the Copenhagen interpretation, which is the most widely-held scientific theory of the nature of the universe, as it has been for the last seventy-five years.
www.bottomlayer.com /bottom/reality/Intro.html   (1204 words)

 Causal interpretation
The central idea of the Stochastic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics consists in treating a microscopic object exhibiting a dual wave-particle nature as composed of a particle in the proper sense of the word (a small region in space with a high concentration of energy), and of an associated wave that guides the particle's motion.
In Vigier's view, the Copenhagen interpretation is based on 'arbitrary philosophical assumptions', and its insistence on the absolute and final character of indeterminacy is dogmatic.
In the Copenhagen interpretation, a single particle supposedly passes in some indefinable sense through both slits and interferes with itself, whereas in the causal approach each particle passes through only one slit whereas the pilot wave passes through both.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/dp5/vigier.htm   (1773 words)

 Quantum Mechanics, 1925-1927: Triumph of the Copenhagen Interpretation
In later refinements of this interpretation the wave function of the unobserved object is a mixture of both the wave and particle pictures until the experimenter chooses what to observe in a given experiment.
Alternative interpretations have since been proposed and are now under serious consideration.
These bright students, nurtured by the Copenhagen doctrine and educated into the new quantum mechanics, formed a new and dominant generation of physicists.
www.aip.org /history/heisenberg/p09.htm   (922 words)

 [No title]
Central to the Copenhagen Interpretation is the principle known as complementarity.
The correct interpretation, proposed by Born in the 1920's, is that the waves are measures of probability.
The adoption of the Copenhagen Interpretation for quantum phenonmenon poses a sharp divide between classical or macroscopic physics and quantum or microscopic physics.
jersey.uoregon.edu /~js/21st_century_science/lectures/lec15.html   (3890 words)

 Quantum Reality
The Copenhagen Interpretation objects to statements such as "It is not possible to measure the momentum of an electron without disturbing it's position".
Copenhagen avoids the Measurement Problem by claiming the existence of a classical-quantum boundary, but the nature of measurement is still problematic.
The Copenhagen Interpretation is a strict positivist interpretation.
www.bowmain.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk /QM/Quantum_Reality.htm   (10262 words)

 Quantum mechanics the way I see it
In the Copenhagen interpretation values of quantum mechanical observables cannot be attributed to the microscopic object prior to, and independent of, measurement (compare).
The Copenhagen interpretation does not exclude the latter possibility, implying that future experimentation may require theories different from quantum mechanics (subquantum or hidden-variables theories), capable of analyzing the measurement procedure more fully than does quantum mechanics.
The Copenhagen view of what is a quantum mechanical measurement is alien to the common-sense view that measurement should yield information on the object as it was preceding the measurement, or, in an empiricist interpretation, information on the preparation procedure that prepared the object prior to the measurement.
www.phys.tue.nl /ktn/Wim/qm2.htm   (2611 words)

 Quantum Theory of Immortality Menu
The Everett 'Many Worlds Interpretation' of quantum physics postulates that that all systems evolve according to the Schrödinger equation, whereas the more conventional Copenhagen Interpretation says that this is true until the moment of observation, at which point the equation 'collapses'.
The 'Copenhagen Interpretation' of the phenomena and the equations which describe them, agreed at the 1927 Solvay conference, essentially says that the 'wave packet' somehow associated with a particle 'collapses' when it is observed - this necessitates a relationship between the observer's consciousness and the particle.
In interpretations where there is an explicit non-unitary collapse, she will be either dead or alive after the first trigger event, so she should expect to perceive perhaps a click or two (if she is moderately lucky), then "game over", nothing at all.
www.higgo.com /quantum/qti.htm   (1439 words)

 TIQM: 2.0 The Copenhagen Interpretation
The central problem of the interpretation of the QM formalism is to explain the physical significance of the SV.
The early semiclassical interpretations of de Broglie (1926, 1927a, 1927b) and of Schrödinger (1927c) attempted to make the obvious and straightforward analogy between the matter waves of quantum mechanics and the classical waves of Maxwellian electrodynamics.
One of the serious objections to Schrödinger's (1927c) early semi-classical interpretation of the SV, as recounted by Jammer (1974), is that the SV is a complex quantity.
mist.npl.washington.edu /npl/int_rep/tiqm/TI_20.html#2.0   (3062 words)

 Brainstorms: The Copenhagen Interpretation
The Copenhagen Interpretation was their attempt to answer some perplexing questions which arose as a result of the wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics and how the role of an observer in that process seemed to change what could, and could not be accurately measured considering particles and the waves they produce.
The Copenhagen Interpretation draws distinction between the observer and what is observed; when there is no observer in a system, the system seems to evolve deterministically according to wave equations, but when an observer is present, the wave-function in the system "collapses" to the observed state.
The Copenhagen Interpretation gives a very mystical answer to a physical phenomenon (I am not saying ID is mystical, but this interpretation is overestimating ID's range, and becomes very doubtful due to this).
www.iscid.org /boards/ubb-get_topic-f-6-t-000549.html   (10270 words)

 Whence Our Penchant For Realism?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
3- The Copenhagen Interpretation rests on, basically, the claim that the human mind’s causal interaction with the world, in that it is a measurement device, creates properties in the world.
4- The Copenhagen Interpretation, thus, takes a particular view of what it is to be a real property of the world which is expressed by Bohr: “a quantity is not real just because it can be measured, it is also necessary that it is measured.
According to Fetzer, on the Copenhagen Interpretation, the cat is in some “superposition” of alive and dead until we open the box, which is seemingly just plain silly.
philosophy.wisc.edu /960/_disc1/00000019.htm   (654 words)

 Against the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics – in defence of Marxism
This is the “ Copenhagen interpretation” of quantum mechanics, developed in the late 1920’s by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.
The physicist Max Born [11] developed an alternative interpretation of wave-particle duality that avoided the idealism of the Copenhagen interpretation.
An interpretation of this image that is common among physicists is that the electron is somehow stretched over the region occupied by the cloud.
www.marxist.com /scienceandtech/quantum-mechanics-copenhagen150605.htm   (7192 words)

 Quantum Physics
It does not answer the question of how to interpret the wave function, but says it is actually wrong to try; the world cannot be understood and the sole function of physics is to make experimentally verifiable predictions.
It is easy to pick holes in the Copenhagen interpretation, and I do not believe that many first rank physicists find it convincing, though most try not to worry about it.
According to the usual interpretation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental building blocks of matter are neither wave nor particle, but some inexplicable combination of wave and particle.
www.kheper.net /cosmos/quantum_physics/quantum_physics.htm   (3060 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Physics: Quantum Mechanics: Interpretations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Indeterminism and the Bohm Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics - In this essay it is argued that it is possible to subscribe to the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics without giving up indeterminism in nature.
Interpretation and Philosophical Foundation of Quantum Mechanics - The epistemological paradigm on which we could build a foundation of quantum mechanics has not been found yet.
This FAQ does not seek to prove that the many-worlds interpretation is the "correct" quantum metatheory, merely to correct some of the common errors and misinformation on the subject.
dmoz.org /Science/Physics/Quantum_Mechanics/Interpretations   (694 words)

 Heisenberg's Physics and Philosophy
For a better understanding of this paradox it is useful to compare the procedure for the theoretical interpretation of an experiment in classical physics and in quantum theory.
In atomic physics this part is usually a very small object, an atomic particle or a group of such particles, sometimes much larger - the size does not matter; but it is important that a large part of the universe, including ourselves, does not belong to the object.
It has been said that we always start with a division of the world into an object, which we are going to study, and the rest of the world, and that this division is to some extent arbitrary.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/heisenb3.htm   (4254 words)

 Quantum Mechanics and the Copenhagen Interpretation
People began to speak of the "Copenhagen school", the "Copenhagen interpretation" of quantum mechanics, the "Spirit of Copenhagen", and more recently and sometimes unkindly of the "Copenhagen orthodoxy".
Purged of its extraneous baggage, the Copenhagen interpretation has moved our attention away from the particles that have certain properties to the properties themselves that are taken on by the particles.
This may seem to be a trivial and awkward shift from a straightforward active language to a more convoluted passive mode of expression, but in quantum mechanics it makes all the difference, especially when the theory is extended to systems of several identical particles and their quantum fields.
web.gc.cuny.edu /content/ashp/nml/copenhagen/Merzbacher.htm   (2676 words)

 Promulgation of Absurdities in Quantum Mechanics
It is an interpretation given to the formalism of modern physics in order to give a physical meaning of the terms used in the equations.
However, when one considers all the popularity of the Copenhagen interpretation, and the fact that it is the only accepted interpretation, somebody must mean it.
One of the most important and disastrous consequences of the Copenhagen interpretation is observed in the case of the dualist wave-particle interpretation of light.
www.newtonphysics.on.ca /HEISENBERG/Chapter1.html   (5470 words)

 Niels Bohr and the Copenhagen Interpretation
The Copenhagen Interpretation should really be called the Bohr Theory, since it is a proper theory and not just an interpretation.
One odd feature of the Copenhagen Interpretation is that it is impossible to find anyone who will sign their name to it, despite it being still the official interpretation.
The Copenhagen Interpretation is too severe, but Baugh's Conjecture draws the line where we may feel it should be drawn.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/anima/Bohr.htm   (855 words)

 Amazon.com: Copenhagen: Books: Michael Frayn   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
But in his Tony Award-winning play Copenhagen, Michael Frayn shows us that these men were passionate, philosophical, and all too human, even though one of the three historical figures in his drama, Werner Heisenberg, was the head of the Nazis' effort to develop a nuclear weapon.
Copenhagen 2000 Tony Award winner for best play, turns on a rather simple premise: Niels Bohr, his wife Margrethe, and Werner Heisenberg, who were all together at a brief meeting in 1941 which has confused historians ever since, are back together after death.
With the conflicting statements of the characters Frayn implies that the truth may be a matter of one's point of view, that is, it may be a question of relativity.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385720793?v=glance   (3046 words)

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