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Topic: Copernican principle

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  Copernican principle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Copernican principle is the philosophical statement that no "special" observers should be proposed.
Kant used the expression "Copernican revolution" to account for the changes in the conception of the subject of knowledge.
Copernican principle is the main principle of cosmology.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Copernican_principle   (225 words)

 Mediocrity principle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It is a Copernican principle, used either as a heuristic about Earth's position or a philosophical statement about the place of humanity.
In short, the Copernican Mediocrity is the series of astronomical findings that Earth is a relatively ordinary planet orbiting a relatively ordinary star in a relatively ordinary galaxy which is one of countless others in a giant universe, possibly within an infinite multiverse.
For instance, Carl Sagan used the principle to argue that "there might be one million civilizations in the Milky Way.” The failure to find such signals or evidence is taken by some as a disconfirmation of the mediocrity principle.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mediocrity_principle   (955 words)

 A Grim Reckoning
As a working hypothesis, the Copernican principle has been enormously successful because, out of all the places intelligent observers could be, there are only a few special places and many nonspecial places.
For, according to the Copernican principle, you are likely to be living in a century when the population is high because most people will be born during such periods.
Since you are still on your home planet, the Copernican principle tells you that a significant fraction of all intelligent observers must also still be on their home planets (otherwise you would be special).
www.pthbb.org /manual/services/grim   (2355 words)

 Cosmological Principle
The Copernican principle, when applied to cosmology and the structure of the Universe, basically asks the question of whether the Universe is isotropic and homogeneous.
The greatest consequence of the cosmological principle is that it implies that all parts of space are causally connected at some time in the past (although they may no longer be connected today).
Combined with the cosmological principle, the fact that the Universe is homogeneous at all points and all times, then the finite speed of light means that observation so distant galaxies are equivalent to lookback time.
abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/cosmo/lectures/lec05.html   (1675 words)

 MichaelACorey.com - Your Portal to an Exciting New Perspective on Science and Theology
The Anthropic Principle is a speculative hypothesis that attempts to relate the structure of the universe to the underlying conditions that are necessary for the existence of observers.
The Anthropic Principle is controversial because it implies a teleological linkage between the structure of the universe and the existence of human beings.
It is important to distinguish between the Anthropic Principle and a curious set of physical facts known as "anthropic coincidences." The Anthropic Principle proper is a speculative hypothesis regarding the possible role of humanity in the cosmos, whereas the various anthropic coincidences are empirical observations that relate the apparent "fine-tuning" of the universe life.
www.michaelacorey.com /article.html   (3697 words)

 DISF - Interdisciplinary Encyclopaedia of Religion and Science | Anthropic Principle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
From the Copernican revolution onwards, responsible for such a decentralization are in the first place the natural sciences, primarily physics, due to the development of modern and contemporary cosmology, and then biology, due to the discovery of the evolution of the species.
A perfect Cosmological principle would ask that the expansion of the universe were counter-balanced by the continual creation of new matter and energy, in a way that assures the constancy in time of the global parameters of the universe, such as its overall structure or the distribution of the matter it contains.
Regarding the adjective “anthropic”, in the strong formulation, the emphasis of the Principle puts into first place the observer since he or she is the “receptor of the information of the universe”, and only secondarily on the conditions of being human.
www.disf.org /en/Voci/31.asp   (11236 words)

 Copernicus, God, and Goldilocks
It will be argued that the Copernican Principle has been raised by philosophers of science to a level totally unwarranted by the scientific discoveries themselves; that it has been given the status of a fundamental feature of Reality—a philosophical `law' by which Nature confines humanity to a lowly place in the scheme of things.
It will further be demonstrated that the Copernican Principle (when given the status of a philosophical principle) makes certain predictions about the nature of the universe; predictions which, though at one time popular with scientists just because they flowed from the Copernican view of the universe, have been disproved by more recent research.
For a principle of science or philosophy, falsification is normally considered a fatal defect, but it seems that the Copernican Principle has become so much a part of our thought that these discoveries (though accepted by nearly everyone) are seldom even raised against it.
www2.xlibris.com /bookstore/book_excerpt.asp?bookid=10917   (832 words)

 Look to the centre and watch out for uck and gure
The Copernican principle works in physical environments characterised by randomness: the anthropic principle, on the other hand, says that where selection is at work - in the jungle or the marketplace - there is a unique relationship between what we observe and the environment in which we observe it.
In the uncertain world of business strategy, the anthropic principle tells us that those companies that have thrived are indeed uniquely suited to their environment - but the Copernican principle warns us that, among successful companies, no one company should believe its strategic vision is unique.
You might begin with the Copernican assumption that the appearance of the earth's crust below sea level is probably not very different from the appearance of the earth's crust above sea level.
www.johnkay.com /print/345.html   (763 words)

 Xlibris.Com Bookstore
Typically, the so-called ´Copernican Principle´ which, in essence, is simply an empirical statement about our physical non-centrality, is raised to the level of a fundamental principle of nature decreeing that there be no special significance in either our location or in anything else associated with our existence.
If the Copernican Principle is truly fundamental, it must be capable of being generalized such that no place in either space or time is given any special significance.
The author terms this the ´Goldilocks Principle´ - the principle stating that for complex life to exist, conditions must be ´just right´; must be confined to a very narrow zone and that this zone be maintained by a highly improbable convergence of a variety of factors.
www2.xlibris.com /bookstore/bookdisplay.asp?bookid=10917   (870 words)

The smoothness or uniformity of the universe are terms that the priesthood has developed somewhat redundantly several other ways that convey the same meaning.
The Copernican Principle states that we all occupy no special place in the universe.
The Cosmological Principle states that in addition that it is also true for any other observers that may be elsewhere in the universe.
www.homestead.com /freeinfohwy/astro4.html   (868 words)

 Anthropic principle - CreationWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The anthropic principle is used to develop scientific explanations in cosmology.
The Anthropic Principle was first defined in 1973, during a synopsia commemorating Copernicus’s 500th birthday.
For example, the Anthropic Principle is a concept that some respected cosmologists use to explain some of the "fine tuned" features of our observable universe.
www.nwcreation.net /wiki/index.php?title=Anthropic_Principle   (648 words)

 The Impertinent Anthropic Principle
The Weak Anthropic Principle (WAP) states simply, "If conditions weren't right for us to be here, we wouldn't very well be here to remark on the fact." Of course this is no answer to the presumed improbability of a universe which happens to contain us, or even intelligence at all (much less life!).
The SAP rests on the so-called Copernican Principle (6), which says that we must not presume to inhabit aught but the most unexceptional of places.
The Copernican Principle is used to predict the impending extinction of the human race by J.R. Gott, "Implications of the Copernican principle for our future prospects," Nature 363, 315-319 (1993).
www.bluffton.edu /~bergerd/essays/impert.html   (1662 words)

 The End of the World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction
[Thesis] In the beginning of modern science was the Copernican Principle, which counsels that observers should be skeptical of claims that they are observing from a privileged position.
The Principle states that an observer (such as the human race collectively) should not be surprised to be living in an improbable situation, if that is the sort of situation in which the observer was most likely to have existed.
The reason is the Anthropic Principle: all observers, yourself included, could expect to have been born into one of the later, larger generations rather than in one of the smaller, earlier ones.
pages.prodigy.net /aesir/teotw.htm   (2251 words)

 JCA: Education: Cosmological Principles
The Copernican Cosmological Principle (or often simply the "Cosmological Principle") is a logical extension of the the Copernican theory that the Earth is not the center of the universe.
This principle is a fundamental assumption of the Steady-State Cosmological Theory.
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle also assumes that the (on a large scale) the universe is both homogeneous and isotropic in 3-D space.
jca.umbc.edu /~george/html/courses/glossary/cosmo_principle_copern.html   (647 words)

 AIP-QLD 1999 Seminars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Gott contends that his rule is based on a form of the venerable Copernican principle, which holds that there is nothing special about our place in the Universe.
Specifically, he obtains his rule from a temporal form of the Copernican principle, which posits that there is nothing special about the time when you observe a phenomenon's present age.
In this talk I will show, using the essence of a recent critical analysis of Gott's work [2], that though the Copernican principle does lead to a form of Gott's rule, it does not authorize his predictions for the future longevity of particular phenomena such as the human species.
www.physics.uq.edu.au /AIPqld/history/2000/aug2000.html   (267 words)

 Catholic World News : The Privilege of Life on Earth
Adherents of this view have called the principle that Earth-like planets were easily formed the "Copernican Principle," or the "Principle of Mediocrity." Implicit in their adherence to the "Copernican Principle" was an anti-Christian bias, built upon their desire to demote the special status of Earth as revealed in Sacred Scripture.
But the Copernican Principle, sometimes called the "Principle of Mediocrity," takes the comparatively trivial physical statement--that the Earth is not the physical center of the universe or any sub-cluster of matter--and moves into the realm of philosophy and theology.
The claims by many Copernican Principle advocates over the centuries, that life is commonplace on other celestial bodies, has been a spectacular failure.
www.cwnews.com /news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=21124   (4322 words)

 Amazon.com: The Accelerating Universe : Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos: ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Livio associates such beauty with the 'Copernican principle' that humans do not occupy a privileged place in the universe (much as Copernicus discerned that Earth is not at the center of the solar system).
He suggests that 3 key criteria be used to evaluate the quality of a new cosmological theory-- symmetry, simplicity, and the Copernican principle (the "principle of mediocrity" or, generally, the idea that earth is nothing special in the universe).
Accurate theories in cosmology may turn out not to have simplicity to be comprehensive, and the Copernican principle may not be appropriate, at least in certain respects; we have to be open to that possibility, which suggests that Livio's Cosmological Aesthetic Principle might be a questionable set of criteria.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0471399760?v=glance   (3260 words)

 - Nanodot   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Holt defends this "Copernican principle" as if it were a law of physics, fretting over whether McKibben has "offended" the principle.
But this is just the weak anthropic principle, with a statistical tendency to be mostly true most of the time, but no promise to be specifically true at any specific time.
Actually, the Copernican principle, when applied to your likelihood of uniqueness in terms of your being the nth human ever born, predicts the end of humanity soon.
nanodot.org /article.pl?sid=03/05/19/2235249   (990 words)

 May 13: anthropic principle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Weak Anthropic Principle: The observed values of all physical and cosmological quantities are not equally probable but they take on values restricted by the requirement that there exist sites where carbon-based life can evolve and by the requirements that the Universe be old enough for it to have already done so.
With respect to the anthropic principle, we simply exist in one of the many universes where intelligent life is possible and did evolve.
The strong form of the anthropic principle would then imply that Universe must be such as it is to admit the creation of observers within it at some stage.
blueox.uoregon.edu /~karen/astro123/lectures/lec18.html   (1201 words)

 JCA: Education: Anthropic Cosmological Principle
The Strong Anthropic Principle takes this one step further to state that there could be many different universes (or regions in a single universe) where the laws of physics are different.
As for the the Copernican Cosmological Principle, the Anthropic Cosmological Principle is essentially a metaphysical statement and, it is still unclear (perhaps never knowable) whether it is true
However, as an extension to the Copernican Cosmological Principle, the sentient being reasons that out of all the possible loaves (ingredients, proportions, open temperatures, baking times etc), they exist in the loaf they do since the conditions were just right, to bake such a loaf.
jca.umbc.edu /~george/html/courses/glossary/cosmo_principle_anthro.html   (782 words)

 2.1 The cosmological principle
In fact, the cosmological principle was first adopted when observational cosmology was in its infancy; it was then little more than a conjecture, embodying ’Occam’s razor’ for the simplest possible model.
The perfect cosmological principle led to the steady state model, which although more symmetric than the (generalized) cosmological principle, was rejected on observational grounds.
The anthropic principle is becoming popular again, e.g., in ‘explaining’ the non-zero value of the cosmological constant.
www.univie.ac.at /EMIS/journals/LRG/Articles/lrr-2004-8/articlesu1.html   (920 words)

 White hole cosmology - CreationWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
While popular literature implies a universe that has a boundary and center, according to the Copernican Principle there is no boundary or center.
The Copernican Principle is an arbitrary, evolutionary assumption.
The Bible implies that the universe has a boundary and that the Earth is near the center, thus contradicting the Copernican Principle.
www.nwcreation.net /wiki/index.php?title=White_hole_cosmology   (1159 words)

 bc_bennett_liu_1|Distant Abodes for Life|Problems & Projects|Discussion Questions
The Copernican revolution taught us that our planet was not the center of the universe, as had been generally believed before that time.
Taking this lesson to heart, since that time we have generally assumed that our planet is not "central" or "special" in any way but rather that we are on a fairly typical planet in a fairly typical place in the universe.
This principle, often called the Copernican Principle or the Principle of Mediocrity, has been borne out many times since.
wps.aw.com /bc_bennett_liu_1/0,4838,268167-,00.utf8.html   (356 words)

 anthropic principle
The anthropic principle does demonstrate that all of our cosmological models are constructed by augmenting the results of observations by a philosophical principle.
For example, the Copernican principle (now known as the cosmological principle) states that the portion of the Universe we observe is not special or privileged, but is representative of the whole.
Almost all scientists and philosophers accept the general principle that the prediction of unobservable entities is an acceptable scientific hypothesis if those entities stem from a theory that has other testable consequences.
abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/ast123/lectures/lec19.html   (2692 words)

 Touchstone Archives: No Other Eden
The Copernican Principle had its origin in the simple hypothesis put forth by Nicholas Copernicus that the structure of the solar system is heliocentric as opposed to geocentric.
True, the physical form of the Copernican Principle has been proven true, as we have been moved into an average-looking place in the universe, but at the same time, Earth has been shown to be quite special in its ability to support living things.
This is the central theme of the Anthropic Principle, and it goes directly against the philosophical form of the Copernican Principle.
www.touchstonemag.com /archives/article.php?id=13-05-036-b   (1577 words)

 The Cosmological Principles by Konrad Rudnicki
Cosmological principles are the assumptions which allow us to deduce the whole of nature on the basis of the observable to the unobservable.
Three models based on the Copernican Principle were developed: Copernicus’ own, Kepler’s and the lesser known model by Tycho Brahe, according to which the central place is occupied by the Earth (the Cosmological Principle of the Ancients), but the universe observed from any planet looks much alike (Copernican Principle).
The first scholarly antecedents to the Anthropic Principle were, according to Barrow and Tipler (1987), around 500 B.C. However, as far as modern science is concerned, we only have to go back as far as 1974, when Igor Karachentsev and Brandon Carter opined that, although the Copernican Principle was acceptable, it needed an “ecological correction”.
www.southerncrossreview.org /22/rudnicki.htm   (3207 words)

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