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Topic: Copper(I) chloride

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  COPPER - LoveToKnow Article on COPPER   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Ores.The principal ores of copper are the oxides cuprite and melaconite, the carbonates malachite and chessylite, the basic chloride atacamite, the silicate chrysocolla, the suiphides chalcocite, chalcopyrite, erubescite and tetrahedrite.
Ferrous chloride decomposes the copper oxide and carbonate with the formation of cuprous and cupric chlorides (which remain in solution), and the precipitation of ferrous oxide, carbon dioxide being simultaneously liberated from the carbonate.
Cupric chloride, CuCli, is obtained by burning copper in an excess of chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride, obtained by dissolving the metal or cupric oxide in an excess of hydrochloric acid, it is a brown deliquescent powder, which rapidly forms the green hydrated salt CuCli, 2H,O on exposure.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /C/CO/COPPER.htm   (11237 words)

 Copper(I) chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl.
Copper(I) chloride is a Lewis acid, classified as soft according to the Hard-Soft Acid-Base concept.
Copper(I) chloride is also an intermediate formed from copper(II) chloride in the Wacker process.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Copper(I)_chloride   (731 words)

 Copper(II) chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Copper(II) chloride is an ionic compound which dissociates in aqueous solution, but coordination of chloride to Cu does partially occur.
A major industrial application for copper(II) chloride is as a co-catalyst (along with palladium(II) chloride) in the Wacker process.
Copper(II) chloride is also used in pyrotechnics as a green colouring agent.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Copper(II)_chloride   (787 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
The concentration of the cobalt chloride solution used for colouring the indicator labels determines the sensitivity to the various moisture contents and thus the possibility of changing from blue to red in the way complying most with the ambient conditions in which the moisture indicator is required to work.
The importance of having the chloride ions introduced by means of the synergist, in the colour change of the silica depending on the moisture contained in the material, may thus be deduced.
kg of copper chloride, 0.5 kg of magnesium chloride.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=01/09601.010208&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (3691 words)

 Encyclopedia: Copper(II) chloride
However, in testing copper (I) chloride, made by electrolyzing hydrochloric acid with copper electrodes, a voltage was noticed when bright light preferentially illuminated one of two copper electrodes in a beaker.
Hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, copper (II) chloride, lithium bromide or ammonium bromide sufficed for this purpose.
The principle of operation of the copper chloride / ammonium chloride thermocell was deduced from observations made during the solution identification phase of the research, augmented by thermal and electrical analysis data, and by data found in the literature.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Copper(II)-chloride   (1477 words)

 JAIC 1990, Volume 29, Number 2, Article 7 (pp. 193 to 206)
The critical RH for the transformation of cuprous chloride is discussed and suggestions are made concerning both the storage conditions for bronzes and the variety of conditions under which cuprous chloride can occur in excavated bronze.
Lucy (1972) observed the growth of crystalline cuprous chloride in the pitting corrosion of copper.
Samples of polished copper sessile beads covered with crystals of cuprous chloride to which droplets of water are added periodically develop a waxy crust of cuprous chloride adjacent to the metal surface, with a covering principally composed of paratacamite.
aic.stanford.edu /jaic/articles/jaic29-02-007.html   (6135 words)

 Copper(II) chloride: Just the facts...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Copper(II) chloride is the higher chloride (Any compound containing a chlorine atom) of copper (A ductile malleable reddish-brown corrosion-resistant diamagnetic metallic element; occurs in various minerals but is the only metal that occurs abundantly in large masses; used as an electrical and thermal conductor), with the formula CuCl
A major industrial application for copper(II) chloride is as a co-catalyst (along with palladium(II) chloride) in the Wacker process (additional info and facts about Wacker process).
In this process, ethene (A flammable colorless gaseous alkene; obtained from petroleum and natural gas and used in manufacturing many other chemicals; sometimes used as an anesthetic) (ethylene) is converted to ethanal (A colorless volatile water-soluble liquid aldehyde used chiefly in manufacture of acetic acid and perfumes and drugs) (acetaldehyde) using water and air.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/co/copper(ii)_chloride2.htm   (1712 words)

 Copper Chloride in Nursery Diets   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
The data from this study indicate that pigs fed 100 to 120 ppm copper as copper chloride have similar performance as pigs fed diets containing 250 ppm copper from copper sulfate and that copper chloride tends to stimulate growth in nursery pigs.
Over the entire 28-day study, the addition of 100 or 120 ppm copper as copper chloride increased average daily gain and daily feed intake compared to the other copper chloride treatments and performance was similar to that of the pigs fed 250 ppm copper from copper sulfate.
The use of copper chloride as a growth-stimulating source of copper in weanling pigs appears to be a viable option to copper sulfate.
www.ads.uga.edu /annrpt/1995/95_268.htm   (869 words)

 United States Patent Application: 0040143141
The method of claim 1, wherein the copper salt is copper(I) chloride.
Copper(I) chloride is most preferable among them, since its catalytic ability is recovered by oxygen during the reaction and accordingly the amount of the copper salt used in the reaction can be reduced.
[0053] Then, an acid chloride of thus obtained 2-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-di- carboxylic acid may be prepared by reacting with thionyl chloride or the like in a solvent such as xylene, tetrahydrofuran and sulfolane in a conventional manner, and then, may be treated with an amine to give the amide compound.
appft1.uspto.gov /netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1="20040143141".PGNR.&OS=DN/20040143141&RS=DN/20040143141   (2433 words)

 Copper and copper salts (PIM G002)
The acetate, chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts are soluble in water, whereas the oxide, carbonate and cyanide salts are insoluble (Weast, 1976-77).
Copper metal is coloured reddish brown and reacts with strong acids, strong oxidising agents, acid chlorides and halogens, and may discolour on exposure to air and moisture.
Copper(I) compounds are incompatible with oxidising agents and alkali metals and in some cases air, light and moisture.
www.inchem.org /documents/pims/chemical/pimg002.htm   (7293 words)

 [No title]
The copper surface concentration is plotted against the chloride concentration in darkness and under illumination.
Small concentrations of chloride ions increase the copper deposition owing to the catalyzing effect of the chloride ions on the Cu /Cu reaction by a chloride-bridged electron transfer pathway and the formation of copper (I) chloride.
The addition of large amounts of chloride suppress the copper deposition owing to the formation of soluble higher copper (I) chloride complexes.
www.reed-electronics.com /SEMICONDUCTOR/index.asp?layout=articlePrint&articleID=CA164109   (468 words)

 Allyl/Alkyl-Benzenes from PhMgBr, CuI and Allyl/Alkyl Halides - [www.rhodium.ws]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Copper(I) iodide (0.02 mol) was added to a cooled (-8°C) solution of phenylmagnesium bromide (prepared from 0.04 g-atom of magnesium and 0.04 mol of bromobenzene in 100 ml of diethyl ether), and the mixture was stirred at that temperature until Gilman colour test I
The cooled mixture was treated with aqueous ammonia/ammonium chloride solution (1:1, v/v), the organic matter was extracted with diethyl ether (3×30 ml), and the ether extract was washed three times with aqueous NH Cl solution or until the blue colour of the copper complex disappeared.
Equimolar amounts of copper(II) chloride and iodobenzene were stirred in THF at -8°C for 1 h, then at room temperature for 30 min and finally at the reflux temperature for 30 min.
www.erowid.org /archive/rhodium/chemistry/cu-grignard.coupling.html   (2208 words)

 CWSF Project Summary - Energy Solution
A comparative test of solutions of copper (II) chloride, copper (I) chloride and a mixture of these, showed much higher thermoelectric voltage across 25 * when the mixed copper (I) chloride / copper (II) chloride solution was used.
The action of the thermocell results from the temperature dependence of the equilibrium: The potential of this reaction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode is +0.153 V at 25°C, with a temperature coefficient of +0.776 mV/°C (complexing of the Cu ions can change this value significantly).
For the copper chloride / ammonium chloride thermocell, the efficiency is just under 0.1% when operating at a 100°C temperature differential.
www.cdli.ca /sciencefairs/cwsf2001/summary6.html   (2318 words)

 Copper Chemistry
Copper(I) compounds are expected to be diamagnetic in nature and are usually colourless, except where colour results from charge transfer or from the anion.
The copper(I) chloride and bromide salts are produced by boiling an acidic solution of copper(II) ions in an excess of copper.
Cupric chlorides and bromides are readily soluble in water and in donor solvents such as acetone, alcohol and pyridine.
wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm:1104 /courses/copper.html   (2499 words)

 Disease Prevention Control
When soluble copper salts are added to water, the salts dissociate into positively charged cations (the ionic copper) and negatively charged anions (sulfate, chloride, acetate, etc.), and these ions become hydrated, or complexed, with water molecules.
The chloride anion forms a four-membered complex with copper (Figure 2) and virtually inhibits any interaction of copper with carbonate.
Negative copper complexes result from coordinate bonding with negatively charged ions, such as chloride, while positive complexes result from coordinate bonding with neutral but polar, molecules or groups, such as ammonia or amine compounds.
www.seachem.com /support/Articles/DiseasePrvntnCntrl.html   (1448 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
The cuprous chloride is obtained as a white powder that darkens on exposure to air.
Also cupric chloride was prepared by reacting a solution of CuCO3 with an slightly excess of HCl, then evaporating water and finally, when product starts to turn brown, air dried to give a hydrate form.
The copper(I) chloride solution is produced, for example, by mixing a copper(II) chloride solution with metallic copper in the presence of hydrochloric acid or sodium chloride.
www.erowid.org /archive/rhodium/chemistry/cucl.txt   (1013 words)

 Oxychlorination catalysts comprising copper chloride supported on rare-earth-modified alumina, process for making such ...
The desirable ratio of copper chloride to the sum of potassium chloride plus magnesium chloride in the catalytic salt mixture is within the range of 0.5:1 to 2.0:1, most preferably between 0.5:1 and 1.5:1, the specific, optimum ratio being dependent on whether trichloroethylene production is desired or is to be kept to a minimum.
The catalyst according to this embodiment of the invention is composed of copper(II) chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride on supports consisting essentially of at least 90% alumina and at least 0.25 percent, and preferably 0.5 to 10 percent, of a Lanthanide Oxide.
As described earlier herein, the weight ratio of potassium chloride to magnesium chloride is in the range from 0.5:1 to 3.0:1 in its preferred embodiment and is most preferably within the range of to 0.5:1 to 2.0:1.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5192733.html   (7690 words)

 [No title]
The first used 2.00 g of copper (II) chloride in 25 mL of 0.2M hydrochloric acid The second used a solution of 4.00 g of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate in 25 mL of 0.1M sulfuric acid..
The disadvantage is that copper (II) chloride is not as safe to use.
Student Procedures for using the reduction of copper as a stand-alone lab exercise The following are two procedures for using the last phase of the copper cycle lab as a stand-alone lab exercise for high school students.
www.users.csbsju.edu /~amckenna/WEBPAGE/ProDocuments/reducingagents.txt   (1334 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Copper chloride is a yellow to brown microcrystalline powder.
It is also used in the petroleum industry as a purifying agent; in the manufacture of indelible, invisible, and laundry marking inks; in metallurgy to recover mercury from ores; in refining copper, silver and gold; in tinting baths for iron and tin; in photography; in pyrotechnics; and to remove lead compounds from gasoline and oils.
Copper acetate and copper chloride are designated as hazardous substances and are regulated under the Clean Water Act.
www.e11th-hour.org /resources/backgrounders/chemical.ind/cupric_a.txt   (1477 words)

 Copper (EHC 200, 1998)
Any copper(I) present is quickly oxidized by any oxidizing reagent present, or in a disproportionation reaction, unless it is stabilized by complex formation.
The copper(I) ion is unstable in aqueous solution, tending to disproportionate to copper(II) and copper metal unless a stabilizing ligand is present (Callahan et al., 1979).
Ammonia and chloride ions are examples of species that form stable ligands with copper.
www.inchem.org /documents/ehc/ehc/ehc200.htm   (15010 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
In applying the definition to your situation, I agree with you that when etchants are used/reused as raw materials in the manufacture of various copper salts (and where reclamation does not occur), these materials would not be defined as solid wastes, and therefore, not be subject to the hazardous waste rules.
Since the spent copper chloride and copper ammonium chloride solutions are hazardous solely because they exhibit the characteristic of corrosivity, they are currently exempt from regulation.
In addition to the copper chloride and copper ammonium chloride, we have been offered for sale various other copper by-products which can be used in the manufacture of other copper chemicals.
yosemite.epa.gov /OSW/rcra.nsf/Documents/9891AAC1224A66FA85256611005E846A   (1090 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
When 16.2 g of copper was reacted in an excess of chlorine, _____ g of copper(I) chloride would be produced.
When 35 g of copper was reacted in an excess of chlorine, _____ mole(s) of copper(I) chloride would be produced.
The percent yield of copper(I) chloride would be _____ when 16.2 g of copper was reacted in an excess of chlorine and 20.
college.hmco.com /cgi-bin/SaCGI.cgi/ace1app.cgi?FNC=AcePresent__Apresent_html___chemistry_general_zumdahl_world_of_chem_1e_ace09-02   (365 words)

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