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Topic: Cosmic Background Explorer


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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  
  PlanetPhysics: cosmic microwave background radiation
The cosmic microwave background was predicted by George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Herman in 1948.
The interpretation of the cosmic microwave background was a controversial issue in the 1960s with some proponents of the steady state theory arguing that the microwave background was the result of scattered starlight from distant galaxies.
The period after the emission of the cosmic microwave background and before the observation of the first stars is semi-humorously referred to by cosmologists as the dark age, and is a period which is under intense study by astronomers (See 21 centimeter radiation).
planetphysics.org /encyclopedia/CosmicMicrowaveBackgroundRadiation.html   (3304 words)

  
 Cosmic microwave background radiation Summary
Cosmic background radiation is a relic of one of these cosmological transitions, and it remains the best evidence to verify the big bang theory.
The cosmic microwave background is isotropic to roughly one part in 100,000: the root mean square variations are only 18 ┬ÁK. The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the NASA COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has carefully measured the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.
The cosmic microwave background was predicted by George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Hermann in 1948.
www.bookrags.com /Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation   (5849 words)

  
  Cosmic microwave background radiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation discovered in 1964 that radiates throughout the universe in the microwave range.
The period after the emission of the CMB and the observation of the first stars is semi-humorously referred to by cosmologists as the dark age, and is a period which is under intense study by astronomers.
Of these experiments, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite that was flown in 1989-1996 is probably the most famous and which made the first detection of the large scale anisotropies (other than the dipole).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background   (2088 words)

  
 PhysicsCentral: Catch a Cosmic Microwave: New Findings
A trio of findings about cosmic background radiation may help explain why matter is irregularly distributed throughout the universe with the observed “large-scale structure” of galactic super-clusters.
Today's cosmic background radiation is a faint "echo" of the much more intense radiation that filled the universe several hundred thousand years after the Big Bang/inflation event when it had cooled just enough to permit ordinary (electrically neutral) matter to form.
The tiny hot and cold patches observed in the cosmic background radiation are not only the fading echoes of that awesome music of creation, they also suggest why stars and galaxies are arrayed as they are across the cosmos.
www.physicscentral.com /action/2001/microwave-cosmic.html   (998 words)

  
 COBE -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was the first (Man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon) satellite built dedicated to (The branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe) cosmology.
The cosmic microwave background fluctuations are extremely faint, only one part in 100,000 compared to the 2.73 (British physicist who invented the Kelvin scale of temperature and pioneered undersea telegraphy (1824-1907)) kelvin average temperature of the radiation field.
The cosmic microwave background radiation is a remnant of the ((cosmology) the cosmic explosion that is hypothesized to have marked the origin of the universe) Big Bang and the fluctuations are the imprint of density contrast in the early universe.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/co/cobe3.htm   (2555 words)

  
 COBE Summary
Its goals were to investigate the cosmic background radiation of the universe and provide measurements that would help shape our understanding of the cosmos.
The cosmic microwave background fluctuations are extremely faint, only one part in 100,000 compared to the 2.73 kelvin average temperature of the radiation field.
The cosmic microwave background radiation is a remnant of the Big Bang and the fluctuations are the imprint of density contrast in the early universe.
www.bookrags.com /COBE   (2790 words)

  
 The Cosmic Background Radiation
The cosmic background radiation (sometimes called the CBR), is the afterglow of the big bang, cooled to a faint whisper in the microwave spectrum by the expansion of the Universe for 15 billion years (which causes the radiation originally produced in the big bang to redshift to longer wavelengths).
As shown in the adjacent intensity map of the background radiation in different directions taken by the Differential Microwave Radiometer on NASA's COBE satellite, it is not completely uniform, though it is very nearly so (Ref).
The highly isotropic nature of the cosmic background radiation indicates that the early stages of the Universe were almost completely uniform.
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr162/lect/cosmology/cbr.html   (660 words)

  
 Blackbody Radiation
A uniform background radiation in the microwave region of the spectrum is observed in all directions in the sky.
The discovery of the 3K microwave background radiation was one of the crucial steps leading to the calculation of the standard "Big Bang" model of cosmology, its role being that of providing estimates of relative populations of particles and photons.
The scale of the fluctuations is larger than the horizon at the time the background radiation was emitted, indicating that the fluctuations are primordial, dating from a time before the separation of radiation and matter, the transparency point.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/bkg3k.html   (947 words)

  
 Research News: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Team Wins Gruber Prize
BERKELEY, CA — John Mather, Project Scientist of NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite mission, and eighteen members of COBE's Science Working Group, including George Smoot of the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have jointly received the 2006 Gruber Cosmology Prize for their ground-breaking studies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
After years of data analysis, COBE's results confirmed that the cosmic microwave background had indeed originated in the big bang and, from the DMR data, revealed tiny but regular temperature fluctuations, or "wrinkles" in its structure.
All subsequent CMB studies owe much to COBE, which revealed that the universe is filled with diffuse infrared radiation from previously unknown galaxies and proved that the universe indeed began in a hot big bang, from which evolved a dense, almost uniform soup containing weak fluctuations that grew into today's galaxies and stars.
www.lbl.gov /Science-Articles/Archive/Phys-Gruber-Prize-2006.html   (684 words)

  
 HubbleSite - NewsCenter - Astronomers Discover an Infrared Background Glow in the Universe (01/09/1998) - Release Text
Data from two other instruments on the Cosmic Background Explorer have already yielded the precise spectrum and a detailed map of another cosmological fossil (first discovered in the 1960s), the microwave background radiation from the Big Bang.
Unlike the cosmic microwave background, which at millimeter wavelengths outshines everything else in the universe, the infrared background is masked by infrared light from nearby dust in our solar system, stars and interstellar dust in the Milky Way Galaxy, and, for ground-based instruments, emission from the Earth's atmosphere and from the instrument itself.
When infrared light from these sources was subtracted from the all-sky maps, the astronomers found a smooth background of residual infrared light in the 240 and 140 micrometer wavelength bands in "windows" near the north and south poles of the Milky Way, which provided a relatively clear view across billions of light-years.
www.hubblesite.org /newscenter/archive/releases/1998/01/text   (762 words)

  
 COBE - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Differential microwave radiometer (DMR) that would map the CMB to detect the intrinsic anisotropy in the microwave background, with George Smoot as Principal Investigator (PI).
The cosmic microwave background radiation is a remnant of the Big Bang and the fluctuations are the imprint of density contrast in the early universe.
The density ripples are believed to have produced structure formation as observed in the universe today : clusters of galaxies and vast regions devoid of galaxies (NASA).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cosmic_Background_Explorer   (2261 words)

  
 Smoot Cosmology Group
NASA's COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) satellite was developed to measure the diffuse infrared and cosmic microwave background radiation from the early Universe to the limits set by our astrophysical environment.
These anisotropies are interpreted as imprints of the seeds that eventually grew under the influence of gravity to galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and clusters of clusters of galaxies.
FIRAS has shown that the cosmic microwave background spectrum matches that of a flbody of temperature 2.726K with a precision of 0.03% of the peak intensity over a wavelength range 0.1 to 5 mm.
cosmos.lbl.gov /cobehome.html   (500 words)

  
 Cosmic Background Explorer - Slackerpedia Galactica
The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite was a NASA project to study the cosmic microwave background in greater detail than was previously possible.
It had three instruments aboard to do two things: take the temperature of the microwave background to determine its temperature, and see how uniform this temperature was across the sky.
Although it was suspected since the late 1960s that the microwave background spectrum was a flbody, COBE proved it and pretty much closed, locked, and welded shut the door on the possibility of it being anything else.
www.slackerastronomy.org /slackerpedia/index.php/COBE   (238 words)

  
 Explorer Spacecraft Series
This was so because even the early Explorers performed a large variety of scientific missions ranging from energy particle exploration through atmospheric and ionospheric studies to investigations of micrometeroids, air density, radio astronomy, geodesy, and gamma ray astronomy--not to mention interplanetary and solar monitoring.
The one constant amidst this diversity was that the early "Explorers" were smaller, simpler, and less costly than the orbiting observatories also used in scientific exploration of physical and astronomical phenomena.
There have also been a few larger spacecraft of the observatory class that have borne the name "Explorer" (for example, the Cosmic Background Explorer launched in 1989), further underlining the complexity of the issue regarding which spacecraft fit into what category.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/explorer.html   (390 words)

  
 Cosmic microwave background radiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the whole of the universe.
In addition, the Sachs-Wolfe effect causes photons from the Cosmic microwave background to be gravitationally redshifted.
Some supporters of non-standard cosmology argue that the primodorial background radiation is uniform (which is inconsistent with the big bang) and that the variations in the CBR are due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mentioned above (among other effects).
www.indexuslist.de /keyword/Cosmic_microwave_background.php   (1046 words)

  
 Cosmic background radiation - CreationWiki
Sky map of cosmic microwave background radiation based on the first two years of data from NASA's COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite.
Cosmic Background Radiation is a steady microwave radiation from space.
This shows that cosmic background radiation does not necessarily come from the big bang because the White hole cosmology and Robert Gentry's New Redshift Interpretation provide a source as well.
creationwiki.org /Cosmic_background_radiation   (231 words)

  
 COBE Sky Map   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This map of the ancient sky shows the minute variations in the microwave background discovered by the team led by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory astrophysicist George Smoot.
The map was derived from one year of data taken by the Differential Microwave Radiometers onboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite.
The amplitudes of the observed fluctuations are consistent with theories that explain the birth and growth of galaxies using large amounts of an enigmatic material called "dark matter." According to these theories, most of the universe is composed of material that we not only know very little about, but that has never been seen directly.
www.lbl.gov /LBL-PID/George-Smoot.html   (368 words)

  
 Cosmic Microwave Background Activity
This is the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background as measured with the FIRAS instrument on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in the early 1990s.
By carefully measuring the peak of the intensity spectrum as a function of frequency and applying Wien's displacement law, the temperature of the CMB today is T = 2.725 +/- 0.001 K. Use this law to calculate the peak wavelength (in cm) and the peak frequency (in GHz) of the CMB.
Today, 14 billion years after recombination, the surface of last scattering is 14 billion light years away, the intervening space is transparent and nearly empty, and the cosmic background has been redshifted into the microwave (radio) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
geology.wcupa.edu /mgagne/ess355/cmb-lab1.html   (1179 words)

  
 Lecture 38: The Cosmic Microwave Background
The Cosmic Microwave Background is flbody radiation at a temperature of 2.725 Kelvin.
(1) The Cosmic Microwave Background is flbody radiation at a temperature of 2.725 Kelvin
Thus, the photons in the Cosmic Microwave Background are relics of the early, hot, dense, ionized, opaque universe.
www-astronomy.mps.ohio-state.edu /~ryden/ast162_9/notes39.html   (1106 words)

  
 The Cosmic Microwave Background
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected a background "noise" in the microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Until the observation of the cosmic microwave background by Penzias and Wilson, the only observational evidence of a big bang was the red shift (See The Doppler Effect) observed by Edwin Hubble.
In 1989, NASA launched a satellite called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) to explore the background radiation's anisotropy throughout the universe.
library.thinkquest.org /27930/cosmic_background.htm   (863 words)

  
 Cosmic microwave background radiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sir Arthur Eddington estimates the thermal background radiation temperature as 3.2K.
Robert Dicke re-estimates a MBR (microwave background radiation) temperature of 40K (ref: Helge Kragh)
COsmic Background Explorer : NASA's COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) satellite.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation   (2018 words)

  
 WMAP Cosmology 101: Cosmic Microwaves Fluctuations
Finally, in 1992, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite made the first detection analogous to seeing "mountains on the surface of the Earth": it detected cosmological fluctuations in the microwave background temperature.
The "yin-yang" pattern is the dipole anisotropy that results from the motion of the Sun relative to the rest frame of the cosmic microwave background.
These cosmic microwave temperature fluctuations are believed to trace fluctuations in the density of matter in the early universe, as they were imprinted shortly after the Big Bang.
map.gsfc.nasa.gov /m_uni/uni_101Flucts.html   (570 words)

  
 Telescopes: Cosmic Background Explorer
The Cosmic Background Explorer, COBE, was launched in 1989 to study the faint infrared and microwave radiation from the early universe called cosmic background radiation.
It had three instruments on board: one to observe infrared radiation, one to map microwave radiation, and one to measure the cosmic background radiation’s spectrum.
COBE used solar panels to collect light from the Sun for energy, and a funnel-shaped sunshade to keep the light from shining on and heating the cold parts of the satellite.
amazing-space.stsci.edu /resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/cobe/index.php   (209 words)

  
 Footprints of Creation
In 1989, an instrument aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite measured the cosmic background radiation with unprecedented accuracy.
COBE measured a cosmic background radiation spectrum that fits perfectly with the predicted flbody spectrum at 2.735 degrees Kelvin.
Until 1992, the cosmic background radiation was thought to vary by no more than one part in 10,000.
archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu /Cyberia/Cosmos/Footprints.html   (791 words)

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