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Topic: Council of Four Lands


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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  
  JewishGates.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The second, the Council of the Land of Lithuania, was the Jewish institution responsible for the Jews in Lithuania.
The Council of the Lands of the Polish Crown originated from the rabbinical court at the fairs held in Lublin.
The Council of the Lands of the Polish Crown comprised two distinct bodies: the assembly of the rashei ha-medinot, elders of the provinces, and the assembly of the dayyanei ha-aratzot ("the judges of the Lands" or "beit din of the Four Lands").
www.jewishgates.com /file.asp?File_ID=52   (2734 words)

  
 Council of Four Lands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Council of Four Lands (Va'ad Arba' Aratzot) in Lublin, Poland was the central body of Jewish authority in Poland from 1580 to 1764.
The "four lands" were Greater Poland, Little Poland, Podolia and Volhynia.
One source notes that one representative to the Council was elected from each Kahal, and that to these Kahal delegates were added the six leading rabbis of Poland.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Council_of_Four_Lands   (480 words)

  
 Council
Council of Ephesus The Council of Ephesus was held in Nestorianism.
Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the executive branc...
Countryside Council for Wales The Countryside Council for Wales (Welsh: Cyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru) is the Wales.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /topics/council.html   (6465 words)

  
 The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life
As a consequence, there emerged from within the provincial councils the Council of the Four Lands in the Kingdom of Poland and the Council of the Land of Lithuania in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the latter quickly detaching itself from the former and becoming independent.
The councils obliged the larger communities to underwrite education for the poor and to maintain yeshivas.
The Councils of the Lands continued to exist officially until they were dissolved by the Sejm (Parliament) and the king in 1764.
www.nyupress.org /jewishlife/intro.html   (3482 words)

  
 The Arenda: A Boon or Bane For Jews
Council of Four Lands: The Council of Four Lands was the central body of jewish autonomy for nearly two centuries, mid 16th to mid 18th century.
The Council was well suited to respond to the geographical spread and administrative position of Jews in the expanding use of the arenda in far-flung lands.
Lands could be lost or gained through sales or purchases, as the result of wars, inherited or given away, and as a result of royal leases.
www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org /Kolomea/arenda.htm   (4469 words)

  
 Council of Four Lands -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Council of Four Lands (Va'ad Arba' Aratzot) in (An industrial city of eastern Poland) Lublin, (A republic in central Europe; the invasion of Poland by Germany in 1939 started World War II) Poland was the central body of Jewish authority in Poland from 1580 to 1764.
Seventy delegates from local (additional info and facts about kehillot) kehillot met to discuss taxation and other issues important to the Jewish community.
The "four lands" were (additional info and facts about Greater Poland) Greater Poland, (additional info and facts about Little Poland) Little Poland, (additional info and facts about Ruthenia) Ruthenia and (A republic in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea) Lithuania.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/co/council_of_four_lands.htm   (517 words)

  
 Commentary Magazine - The Wineskin and the Wizard, by Michael Selzer; Zionism Reconsidered, edited by Michael Selzer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
...True, the Council of the Four Lands never sought to declare itself an independent state, and this Selzer seems to interpret as an "acceptance of utter powerlessness...
...Indeed, historians of EastEuropean Jewry have made it abundantly clear that the Council was ridden by continual struggles for power from the day it was born, as might be expected of any body that attempted to administer the daily lives of tens of thousands of people...
...the second, the Jewry of Poland and Western Russia as it was organized during much of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries into the Council of the Four Lands, a self-governing body that was granted extensive home rule by the Polish crown in matters social, religious, and economic...
www.commentarymagazine.com /Summaries/V51I1P104-1.htm   (1949 words)

  
 96-8083 -- Public Lands Council v. Babbitt -- 02/09/1999   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In response, Public Lands Council concedes that the statutory citation is incorrect but contends that we should cite a different statutory provision rather than remove the highlighted portion of the sentence.
Land use plans shall be developed for the public lands regardless of whether such lands previously have been classified, withdrawn, or set aside, or otherwise designated for one or more uses.
I also disagree with the majority's conclusion that section four of the TGA is ambiguous with respect to ownership of rangeland improvements constructed by a permittee on the public lands.
www.kscourts.org /ca10/cases/1999/02/96-8083.htm   (16032 words)

  
 NEJS 168a History and Culture of the Jews in East-Central Europe to 1914
In the late eighteenth century, these lands saw the emergence and development of hasidism, an innovative revivalist movement, which was eventually to gain the allegiance of a large proportion of the Jewish population here and which remains very much alive in the Jewish world today.
Four distinct communities emerged in Prussian Poland, in Austrian Galicia, in the Kingdom of Poland, which was granted restricted autonomy and linked dynastically with the Tsarist Empire and in the lands directly incorporated into that empire.
On these lands, the Western and Cental European pattern, which had seen the transformation of the Jews from a community, linked by a common religious tradition and way of life and transcending national boundaries, into citizens of their respective countries, Englishman, Frenchman and even Germans 'of the Hebrew faith' was not replicated.
www.h-net.org /~judaic/syllabi/syllabi/eeto1914.htm   (3331 words)

  
 JewishGates.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Thus the conflict between the Church and the magnates and nobles was ongoing and bitter when it came to the issue of the Jews.
The foundations of the legal status of the Jews in the grand duchy of Lithuania were laid by Grand Duke Vitold in writs of law granted to the Jews of Brest-Litovsk in 1388 and to the Jews of Grodno in 1389.
Councils of the Lands and community ordinances show in great detail if not the reality at least the ideal of widespread Torah study supported by the people in general.
www.jewishgates.com /file.asp?File_ID=107   (2550 words)

  
 Jewish History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
1520 COUNCIL OF THE (FOUR) LANDS (Vaad/ Kahal) (Poland)
The "Council of the Four Lands" generally consisted of: the provinces of Great Poland (capital: Poznan) and Little (Lesser) Poland (capital: Cracow); "the Lvov Land"; and the province of Volhynia.
The council was abolished by the Polish Sejm in 1764.
www.jewishhistory.org.il /1520.htm   (1372 words)

  
 The Lands Council Homepage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
On Dec. 6th, 2002, The Lands Council and 13 local and national conservation groups petitioned the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act and the Administrative Procedures Act to designate critical habitat for the species the highly endangered mountain caribou of the Selkirk Mountains.
The four principle concerns for woodland caribou populations as identified by leading caribou biologist is the fragmentation of usable habitat areas; loss of winter food supply (arboreal lichens); human access and associated disturbance or mortality; and the alteration of predator-prey relationship.
This year the BC Ministry of Land, Air and Water Protection failed once again to consult with the Ulkatcho Tribe of Chilcoltin First Nations in BC on a timely manner inorder to receive 20 caribou from their source population for augmentation.
www.landscouncil.org /selkirks/caribou.htm   (2615 words)

  
 Four Encarta encyclopedia articles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Landing men on the moon, a far greater challenge, required a rocket capable of putting into orbit much more payload than the R-7 could manage.
Korolev's justification was that "development of a flyby ship separately from the main problem [moon landing] is irrational." The L1 would leave Earth orbit on an upper stage based on the Block D from the N1-L3 program.
The lander and landing stage docked in lunar orbit, then the stage fired its engine to lower the lander to the surface.
members.aol.com /dsfportree/sovmoon.htm   (6046 words)

  
 Tradition
Shor was marrried to Voytel, the daughter of Moshe Mordechai Leibush of Zolkiew, president of the Council of Four Lands.
It was due to the influence of Rashi and his school that France became the classical land of 'Bible and Talmud' study, while Spain remained the center of Jewish poetry and philosophy.
Four of his halakic questions addressed to Rabbenu Tam are preserved in the 'Sefer HaYashar' (p 71a), while excerpts from others are quoted by earlier authorities.
www.geocities.com /heartland/trail/8095/legend.html   (5463 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Jewish leadership
With the demise of ancient Israel and Judah and coinciding with the later wars against ancient Greece and Rome, the sages of the Mishnah and subsequently the Talmud, referred to as the Oral Law in Judaism, took on a growing and central leadership roles.
After the destruction of the Second Temple and the subsequent exile for over two thousand years, the Jews turned to their most learned rabbis for leadership and council as they found themselves scattered throughout the world.
Great parts of central Europe accepted the leadership of the rabbinical Council of Four Lands from the 1500s to the late 1700s.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Jewish-leadership   (5192 words)

  
 The Jews of Poland
The only way of filling up the gaps in the population of the ravaged land was to invite immigrants with skills, of peaceful disposition but capable of building and defending strong cities.
The central institution of Jewish self-government in Poland from the mid-sixteenth century until 1764 was the council of the Four Lands (Greater Poland, Little Poland, Galician and Volhynia).
The Council for the Four Lands administered the collection of the Jewish tax from the Jews of Poland, and in the formal view of the Polish authorities its powers did not extend beyond that.
www.dangoor.com /72page02.html   (1838 words)

  
 "The Maggid of Mezritch" Chapter 4 - A Stronghold in Mezritch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In further erosion of rabbinic power in Poland and Lithuania, the Council of the Four Lands, which had worked on Jewry's behalf since the 1500s, was dissolved in 1762.
Confronting the breakdown of the authority of the Torah and its Sages, the Maggid's emissaries restored the discipline that was lost with the dissolution of the Council of the Four Lands, harnessing the unifying power of Chassidus.
As long as the Council of the Four Lands was capable of materially aiding the masses through its public service, its spiritual leadership was effective.
www.nishmas.org /maggid/chapt4.htm   (1384 words)

  
 Pidyon Shvuyim
Tzvi, the oldest of their four children, is named for Avraham's father who was murdered by the Nazis.
Many of the regulations of the Council of Lithuania (see Councils of the Lands) concern the ransom of captives, for the Tatar raids from the Crimea during the 16th and 17th centuries made the ransoming of the captives thus seized a frequent phenomenon in Jewish life, particularly in the Ukraine and Volhynia.
Throughout the Russian-Polish war (1654–67) the Council conducted a campaign in all the synagogues for ransoming the captives, and appointed special officers to go from house to house to collect contributions.
www.uscj.org /israelaffairs/caa.htm   (4514 words)

  
 [No title]
The former refers to the Polish king Jan Sobieski; the latter to Bohdan Chmelnitski of the Chmeltnitski Massacres.
As I had recalled (incorrectly, alas), he had brought this as testimony to the fact that Jewish natives of Lite and of Raysn have distinct regional identities, while non-litvishe and non-vaysrusishe lump these people together and call them all _litvakes_.
Berger.] To end on a purimdik note: surely you'll agree, Michael, that it's historically accurate to say that the Bund and the Council of Four Lands were one and the same thing.
shakti.trincoll.edu /~mendele/vol04/vol04.262   (766 words)

  
 History of Keidan, from Berel Kagan's "Jewish Towns of Lithuania" Part 3
The judgement issued by a tribunal of the Council of the Four Lands' was: All the Katzenelenbogens who were not descended from Shaul Wahl's family should sign their names with a "p" instead of a "b", thus: Katzenelenpoygen.
The attendant refused to let R. Avraham in, because it was a custom that only the presiding religious judge of the Council of Four Lands was permitted to wear Sabbath clothes during the week.
His brother was R. Yakov Katzenelenbogen, a leader of the "Council", and father of R. Yoel Katzenelenbogen of Keidan, father of R. Moshe Mordechai Katzenelenbogen (Rabbi here in 1782), father of R. Avraham Kiles (Keyles?) of Keidan, father of R. Shaul Katzenelenbogen, who died in 1868 in Vilna.
mywebpages.comcast.net /acassel/keidan/history/kagan3.html   (2343 words)

  
 Judaism 101 - Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer Edels - A Glossary of Basic Jewish Terms and Concepts - OU.ORG
From the 16th to the 18th century Jewish autonomy reached its zenith in the Council of the Four Lands, through which the Jewish provinces were administered.
The Council met twice a year at the Lublin and Yaroslav fairs.
One of the greatest authorities of his day, the MaHarSha was an outstanding figure at the meetings of the Council.
www.ou.org /about/judaism/rabbis/maharsha.htm   (488 words)

  
 Lublin
In the 12th century a fortified settlement was established, to protect Polish lands from eastern invasions.
It continued to be a vital part of the city's life until the community ceased to exist during the Nazi Holocaust.
Between 1580 and 1764 the Jewish Council of Four Lands Arba Aracot (Sejm of 4 countries) was held in Lublin.
www.apawn.com /search.php?title=Lublin   (1655 words)

  
 Foreign Affairs - Poles and Jews - Abraham Brumberg   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
By the mid-sixteenth century they were allowed to organize a central body, called the "Council of the Four Lands." Its members, elected by local Jewish communities, oversaw the religious, social, and legal institutions of the entire Jewish population in Poland.
This council represented the highest form of Jewish autonomy in the history of European Jewry.
Poles often invoke the spirit of tolerance that existed at that time as the quintessential characteristic of Polish rule throughout the centuries, and thus as the ultimate refutation of the often-heard charge of "traditional Polish antisemitism." Poland was indeed an exceptional haven for the Jews who lived during this golden age.
www.foreignaffairs.org /20020901faessay9740/abraham-brumberg/poles-and-jews.html   (689 words)

  
 Jewish History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Horowitz strongly believed that he was privileged to be able to observe the commandments tied to the land of Israel.
The less then total union resulted in Lithuania retaining its own independent Jewish council that was not connected to the Council of the (four) Lands in Poland.
The union of the kingdoms of Poland and Lithuania opened the door for Jewish settlement in the Ukraine, which became one of the main centers of Lithuanian Jewry.
www.jewishhistory.org.il /1560.htm   (746 words)

  
 The Case of Ladino
The case of Ladino is simpler, or at least, better documented, for we know exactly when its speakers emigrated from Spain to the Ottoman Empire and a great deal about them both before and after their arrival.
Although the early history of Yiddish speakers in the Slavic and Baltic lands of Eastern Europe is far murkier than that of Spanish Jews in the eastern Mediterranean, all four of these factors are commonly assumed to have been operative with them, too.
The largely independent Va'ad Arba ha Aratsot, the Council of the Four Lands of Great Poland, Little Poland, Podolia and Volhynia, ran the Jewish affairs of most of Eastern Europe with minimal interference from non-Jewish authorities and enabled the average Jew to get along perfectly well in an entirely Yiddish-speaking environment.
www.users.cloud9.net /~recross/israel-watch/Khazars/Philologos6.html   (503 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Grades will be determined from two 5-to 7-page analytical essays that situate individual accounts within the larger thematic concerns (land dispossession, urbanization, segregation, apartheid, the resilience of anti-apartheid activity, the “negotiated revolution” etc.) of the course.
This course is a comprehensive survey of the history – political, social, religious, and cultural – of Polish Jews from the creation of The Council of Four Lands in 1580 until the attenuated post-communist revival of the Polish Jewish community.
In particular, we shall concentrate on such issues as collaboration, accommodation, and resistance on the one hand, and the occupation policies on the other as well as their mutual interaction.
www.virginia.edu /history/courses/spring02/SP02UNDEGRADBOOK.htm   (6721 words)

  
 [No title]
From the middle of the sixteenth to the middle of the eighteenth century, the Waad or Council of Four Lands legislated almost autonomously in those Central European regions where the mass of the Jews of the world was then con- gregated.
Moreover, while as already pointed out the Jewish upper classes are, if anything, inferior to the classes into which they are absorbed, the marked superiority of the Jewish masses to their environment, especially in Russia, would render their absorption a tragic degeneration.
But if dissolution would bring degeneracy and emancipation dissolution, the only issue from this dilemma is the creation of a Jewish State or at least a Jewish land of refuge upon a basis of local autonomy to which in the course of the centuries all that was truly Jewish would drift.
dbs.ohiohistory.org /africanam/images/serial/aa_se01/Vol28/Num02/01/txt/2326.txt   (4034 words)

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