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Topic: Courland


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  Courland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Courland's northeastern boundary was the river Daugava (Dvina), which separated it from the districts of Latgale (part of Vitebsk province in the times of Imperial Russia) and Livonia.
To the north, Courland's boundary was the Gulf of Riga.
Courland during World War II At the start of Operation Barbarossa in 1941, Courland, along with the rest of the Baltic area belonging to the Soviet Union, was overrun by Army Group North headed by Field Marshal Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Courland   (2507 words)

  
 COURLAND - LoveToKnow Article on COURLAND   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Courland is drained by nearly one hundred rivers, of which only three, the Dvina, the Aa and the Windau, are navigable.
Anciently Courland was inhabited by the Cours or Kurs, a Lettish tribe, who were subdued and converted to Christianity by the Brethren of the Sword, a German military order, in the first quarter of the I3th century.
During nearly the whole of the 18th century Courland, devastated by continual wars, was a shuttlecock between Russia and Poland; until eventually in 1795 the assembly of the nobles placed it under the Russian sceptre.
11.1911encyclopedia.org /C/CO/COURLAND.htm   (1210 words)

  
 Courland colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a short-lived colony in Tobago during the 1654–1659, and again 1660–1689.
Courland was established as a Duchy in 1561, a fief of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the modern Latvia.
The Duchy of Courland was a focus of interest for both Sweden and Poland.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Courland_colonization_of_the_Americas   (731 words)

  
 COURLAND (Jewish Encyclopedia) - BibleWiki
In the thirteenth century Courland was an independent territory, consisting of the two duchies of Courland and Semgall and of the bishopric of Pilten, and was under the domination of the Livonian Order of the Knights of the Sword.
The enactment of Dec. 9, 1804, and the resolutions passed thereupon by the Courland legislature (March 6, 1806; affirmed Dec. 1, 1806), practically secured the rights of citizenship for the Jews of that government, and by a ukase of Nov. 8, 1807, the double poll-and gild-taxes hitherto levied on the Jews were abolished.
The singular position of the Jews of Courland compared with that of Jews in other governments of Russia is apparent from the case of Jacob Thal, who in 1895 appealed against the decision of the Courland administration, which expelled him from the estate of Autzhoff on the ground of the May Laws of 1882.
bible.tmtm.com /wiki/COURLAND_(Jewish_Encyclopedia)   (5005 words)

  
 Courland. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Empress Anna, who was, by marriage, duchess of Courland before her accession in Russia, forced (1737), the nobles of Courland to elect her favorite, Ernst Johann von Biron, their duke.
Russian influence became paramount, and with the third partition of Poland (1795) the duchy passed to Russia.
In 1918, Courland was incorporated into Latvia, except for a strip of the southern coast that went to Lithuania.
www.bartleby.com /65/co/Courland.html   (194 words)

  
 Livonia
Courland was also involved into this war, but had no severe damage.
However, all this time the Duchy of Courland was a focus of interest for both Sweden and Poland.
In fact, the further faith of Courland was decided, when Russia with its allies began the 3rd division of Poland.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/li/Livonia.html   (1308 words)

  
 Courland - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Courland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Courland was a coastal region, bounded by the Gulf of Riga to the north, the Baltic Sea to the west, and Lithuania to the south.
From 1561 Courland became a duchy of Poland, and in the Third Partition of Poland in 1795 passed to Russia.
Courland again saw bitter fighting during World War II, when Hitler ordered a beleaguered German army to abandon plans to evacuate by sea and to continue to resist the Soviet advance on Germany.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Courland   (284 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Courland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Courland or Kurland formerly named a Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca.
The last Kettler, William, titular duke of Courland, died in 1737, and the empress Anne then bestowed the dignity on her favourite Biren, who held it from 1737 to 1740 and again from 1763 till his death in 1772.
During nearly the whole of the 18th century Courland, devastated by continual wars, served as a shuttlecock between Russia and Poland; In the course of the third Partition of Poland, Courland was annexed by Russia.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Courland   (2165 words)

  
 WHKMLA : History of Courland, 1641-1795
In 1641, JACOB KETTLER inherited the Duchy of Courland.
Courland's disadvantage was that their communication with the colonies easily could be disconnected by a blockade of the Øresound, which was controlled by Denmark.
Courland, which at that time had a population of an estimated 200,000, could not hold on to it's colonies; the colony on Tobago was taken by the Dutch in 1658, Fort Jakob on the Gambia river in 1663 by the English.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/eceurope/courland16411795.html   (841 words)

  
 Tobago History, Ocean Point Hotels
The tiny Duchy of Courland was a fief of the United Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania.
Courland possessed one of the largest maritime fleets in the world, with 61, men-of-war armed with a total of 1416 cannons.
The Courlander sailors followed in the wake of the Spanish, English, Dutch and French seamen and colonists in West Africa and in the West Indies.
www.oceanpoint.com /courland.htm   (1028 words)

  
 The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Latvia
Under the duchy, Piltene became a sort of island within the province of Courland, leading to numerous military conflicts with Poland, until it was purchased by Poland in 1585.
Courland Jewish culture differs significantly from that of the rest of Latvia, due to the province’s proximity to Germany, though it was slightly influenced by the neighboring Lithuanian Jewish community.
Courland was not included in the Pale of Settlement created by the Russians in 1804.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/vjw/Latvia.html   (3056 words)

  
 JewishEncyclopedia.com - MITAU:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Notwithstanding the influence of prominent Jews at court, and in spite of the liberal views introduced from Berlin into German Courland, the Jews of Mitau did not enjoy the rights accorded to the Christians, and often suffered from official abuses and from the enmity of the German merchants.
Notwithstanding, however, their higher culture, they were never held in favor by the Germans of Courland, who in the last quarter of the nineteenth century were strongly influenced by the anti-Semitic movement of Germany.
The nationalistic movement of the Lets, the native population of Courland, and their growing activity in commercial and social affairs, have unfavorably affected the prosperity of the Jewish community in Mitau.
www.jewishencyclopedia.com /view.jsp?artid=664&letter=M   (1293 words)

  
 Courland, by Herman Rosenthal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The greatest number of Courland Jews lived in Hasenpot, where they carried on a considerable export trade; but at the last division of Poland toward the end of the 18th century only 896 males among the Jewish inhabitants were registered as citizens.
The enactment of Dec. 9, 1804 and the resolutions passed thereupon by the Courland legislature (March 6, 1806; affirmed Dec. 1, 1806) practically secured the rights of citizenship for the Jews of that government and by a ukase of Nov. 8, 1807, the double poll and guild taxes hitherto levied on the Jews were abolished.
The singular position position of the Jews of Courland compared with that of Jews in other governments of Russia is apparent from the case of Jacob Thal, who in 1895 appealed against the decision of the Courland administration, which expelled him from the estate of Autzhoff on the ground of the May Laws of 1882.
www.jewishgen.org /Courland/rosenthal.htm   (5308 words)

  
 WHKMLA : History of Courland, 1561-1641
Courland was Lutheran (as opposed to Catholic Poland); in Courland the German minority dominated political and cultural life; German and Latin were the languages used by administration, jurisdiction and education.
The Courland cities were excluded from participating in the diet; Courland was a nobles' republic.
In 1621 Courland's capital MITAU was occupied by the Swedes.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/eceurope/courland15611641.html   (488 words)

  
 CEP Technical Report No. 29 1994
As only the northern mouth of the Courland River was flowing into the Bay over the duration of the study period, it is apparent that sewage is entering the marine environment of the Bay at this point and is subsequently transported southwards, parallel to shore, by predominant southwesterly longshore currents.
The northern area of Great Courland Bay is used as a base by some thirty fishing boats, while further south along the coast, approximately ten boats are moored close to the fishing facility on the beach adjacent to which is an abandoned fuelling facility.
The ecological importance of Great Courland Bay as a nursery area for commercial species of fish, nesting site for turtles and feeding area for sea birds would be threatened by a range of pollutants which may result from activities associated with marina development in the bay.
www.cep.unep.org /pubs/Techreports/tr29en/content.html   (7735 words)

  
 The Duchy of Courland, 1561-1795
Another district, the Bishopric of Piltene, named also the Bishopric of Courland (at Venta River in western Courland), belonged to Magnus, the king of Denmark.
In addition to that Poland, the higher superior of Duchy of Courland, was supporting these landowners.
However, all this time Duchy of Courland was the point of interest for both Sweden and Poland.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Olympus/5539/courland/courland.html   (1268 words)

  
 Courland Research Group   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Courland (Kurzeme in Latvian, Kurland in German) is the historically distinct area of modern day Latvia bounded by the Baltic Sea to the west, Lithuania to the south and the Dvina River (now Daugava) to the North.
Courland was a separate Gubernia [Province] of the Russian Empire from 1797-1918.
The Jewish population of Courland played a vital part in creation of the wealth of Courland and in the rich cultural life of the area.
www.jewishgen.org /Courland   (1370 words)

  
 Paradox Interactive Forums - Courland
Having conquered Memel, the Courland army moves to defend the home province against impending assault, but it is outnumbered by the Teutonic recruits.
Although the remnants of the English army were soon compelled to surrender, England refused to accept peace and in early 1534 landed another army of 15,000 on the shores of the eastern Baltic.
Courland in 1536, after having taken Memel from the Knights and conquered Eastern Prussia.
www.europa-universalis.com /forum/showthread.php?t=240   (2107 words)

  
 Courland --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!
Courland's prosperity declined, however, after 1658, when Sweden, engaged in a war against Poland, seized Jelgava (Mitau, the capital of Courland), and captured the duke.
Under Russian administration the Latvian serfs in Courland were freed (1817), but they received no land, and the German nobility remained the favoured class until the end of the 19th century, when repressive Russification measures were imposed upon both groups.
In the Middle Ages Latvia was conquered and ruled by the Germans as the provinces of Courland and Livonia.
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9026597   (824 words)

  
 Courland Lagoon - Britannica Concise
Courland Lagoon - gulf of the Baltic Sea at the mouth of the Neman River, in Lithuania and Russia.
Where the crystalline rocks of the ancient rock mass of the Baltic Shield outcrop along the northern coasts, partly obscured by glacial drift and marine deposits, they are often fringed by the low, rocky islands known as a skerry guard.
Courland - region on the Baltic seacoast, located south of the Western Dvina River and named after its inhabitants, the Latvian tribe of Curonians (Kurs, Cori, Cours; Latvian: Kursi).
concise.britannica.com /ebc/article-9369516   (422 words)

  
 JewishEncyclopedia.com - BALTIC PROVINCES:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The three Russian governments bordering the Baltic sea—Courland, Livonia, and Esthonia; belonging formerly to Sweden, with the exception of Courland, which was a dependency of Poland and came into possession of Russia, in part at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and the remainder in 1809.
In Courland as well as in Shlock, only those have the right of permanent settlement who were registered in the census of April 25, 1835.
From the Church statutes of the archbishop Henning of Riga for the year 1428, it is evident that Jews lived at that time in the Baltic Provinces as occasional traders.
www.jewishencyclopedia.com /view.jsp?artid=185&letter=B&search=Livonia   (534 words)

  
 HISTORY OF THE PRINCES BIRON, SOVEREIGN DUKES OF COURLAND   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The family of Biron, originally Biren Büren or Bühren, descends from Carol Büren, living in Klanzeen 13 Sep 1573 who was resident in Courland from 20 Jan 1630.
(Courland, or Kurland, included much of modern Latvia and Estonia, became a Duchy in 1561 for Gotthard Kettler, last Grand Master of the Knights of the Sword whose territory it had been, and passed to his descendants).
Peter Biron, Duke of Courland (b 15 Feb 1724; d 13 Jan 1800), abdicated in favor of Emperor Paul I of Russia, 28 Mar 1795, when the Duchy was incorporated into the Russian Empire.
www.chivalricorders.org /royalty/gotha/bironcld.htm   (151 words)

  
 ninemsn Encarta - Search Results - Courland
Courland, or Kurland (in Latvian, Kurzeme), historical region, north-eastern Europe.
Courland Lagoon, inlet of the Baltic Sea, along the coast of the Lithuania and the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia.
Biron, Ernst Johann, Duke of Courland, also Bühren (1690-1772), Russian statesman, born in Courland (now in Latvia).
au.encarta.msn.com /Courland.html   (90 words)

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