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Topic: Cranial nerves


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In the News (Mon 19 Aug 19)

  
  Cranial Nerve > Anatomy
Cranial nerves 5, 6, 7, and 8 are located in the pons and give us a view of this level of the brainstem.
The axons for the descending tract of the 5th nerve (pain and temperature) descend to the level of the upper cervical spinal cord before they synapse with neurons of the nucleus of the descending tract of the 5th nerve.
This cranial nerve has a motor component for muscles of facial expression (and, don't forget, the strapedius muscle which is important for the acoustic reflex), parasympathetics for tear and salivary glands, and sensory for taste (anterior two-thirds of the tongue).
www-medlib.med.utah.edu /neurologicexam/html/cranialnerve_anatomy.html   (940 words)

  
 IX. Neurology. 5. The Cranial Nerves. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body.
The area of attachment of a cranial nerve to the surface of the brain is termed its superficial or apparent origin.
The sensory or afferent cranial nerves arise from groups of nerve cells outside the brain; these nerve cells may be grouped to form ganglia on the trunks of the nerves or may be situated in peripheral sensory organs such as the nose and eye.
The nuclei of origin of the motor nerves and the nuclei of termination of the sensory nerves are brought into relationship with the cerebral cortex, the former through the geniculate fibers of the internal capsule, the latter through the lemniscus.
www.bartleby.com /107/195.html   (344 words)

  
 The Precise Neurological Exam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Peripheral lesions are lesions of the cranial nerve nuclei, the cranial nerves or the neuromuscular junctions.
Central lesions are lesions in the brainstem (not involving a cranial nerve nucleus), cerebrum or cerebellum.
The ptosis from a III nerve palsy is of greater severity than the ptosis due to a lesion of the sympathetic pathway, due to the size of the muscles innervated.
endeavor.med.nyu.edu /neurosurgery/cranials.html   (3104 words)

  
 Congress of Neurological Surgeons - Patient Education Materials
The cranial nerves all exit from the bottom surface of the brain and brainstem and exit the skull through various holes (foramina) to reach their targets.
Since this nerve controls head turning and is a cranial nerve – as opposed to a spinal nerve, the motion of turning the head is typically preserved in patients who injure their spinal cords.
The hypoglossal nerve is responsible for the complex movements of the tongue.
www.neurosurgeon.org /public/pem/anatomy_cranialNerves.asp   (1004 words)

  
 BRAINSTEM NUCLEI
The cranial nerves (with the exception of I and II) originate in the brainstem, which includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla.
The purpose of this section is to lay down a conceptual framework of the cranial nerves.
Evidence of nerve damage could mean a peripheral lesion in the nerve, or a central lesion in the brainstem.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/brstem.html   (1859 words)

  
 The Cranial Nerves
Cranial nerves can be thought of as modified spinal nerves, since the “general” functional fiber types found in spinal nerves also are found in cranial nerves but are supplemented by “special” afferent or efferent fibers.
From its nucleus in the caudal pons, the abducens nerve exits the brain stem at the pons-medulla junction, pierces the dura, passes through the cavernous sinus close to the internal carotid artery, and exits the cranial vault via the superior orbital fissure.
Exiting with the facial nerve, they pass to the pterygopalatine ganglion via the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) and to the submandibular ganglion by way of the chorda tympani nerve (another branch of the facial nerve, which joins the lingual branch of the mandibular nerve).
www.becomehealthynow.com /article2/bodynervousbasic/812/4   (1248 words)

  
 Cranial_Nerves
The  second cranial  nerve  from the brain.Visual impulses from the retnia are sent along the optic nerve.
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial  nerve.
The eleventh cranial nerve is primarily responsible for movement of the muscles of the upper shoulders, head, neck, larynx  and pharynx.
www.polychondritis.com /Neurological/CranialNervesAnIntro.html   (384 words)

  
 Cranial Nerves and Autonomic Nervous System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The occulomotor nerve exits the brain at the midbrain in the middle of the cerebral peduncle.
Nerve impulses travel from the face to the trigeminal ganglion which is located at the base of the skull, to the nucleus in the medulla.
Paralysis of the facial nerve causes a facial droop.
pathology.mc.duke.edu /neuropath/nawr/cranial-nerves.html   (579 words)

  
 Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement: Cranial Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition
Cranial Nerve III (Oculomotor Nerve): A palsy of this nerve can be caused by brain disorders (such as a head injury, an aneurysm in an artery supplying the brain, and a brain tumor) or by diabetes.
Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear Nerve): In most cases, the cause of a palsy of this nerve is a head injury.
Cranial Nerve VI (Abducens Nerve): The cause may be a head injury, a tumor, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, meningitis, blockage of an artery supplying the nerve, or increased pressure within the skull.
www.merck.com /mmhe/sec06/ch096/ch096c.html   (827 words)

  
 Spinal Cord and Cranial Nerves   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The dorsal nerve root is composed of afferent, or sensory, fibers and have their cell bodies in a spinal ganglion, or dorsal root ganglion, outside the cord.
The ventral nerve root is composed of efferent, or motor, fibers that arise from cell bodies located in the ventral and lateral columns of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
Cranial nerves I and II (olfactory and optic) are special cases; the afferent fibers of their primary sensory neurons enter the brain stem and terminate on the secondary sensory neurons.
nanonline.org /nandistance/nanneuro/modules/cranial/cranial.html   (4852 words)

  
 Nerve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers or axons, which includes the glia that ensheath the axons in myelin.
Cranial nerves are assigned numbers, usually expressed as Roman numerals from I to XII.
Nerve damage or pinched nerves are usually accompanied by pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nerves   (436 words)

  
 Cranial Nerve > Abnormal
There is a sensory deficit for both light touch and pain on the left side of the face for all divisions of the 5th nerve.
It is horizontal and torsional with the slow phase of the nystagmus toward the abnormal side in peripheral vestibular nerve disease.
Using a tongue blade, the left side of the patient's palate is touched which results in a gag reflex with the left side of the palate elevating more then the right and the uvula deviating to the left consistent with a right CN 9 & 10 deficit.
library.med.utah.edu /neurologicexam/html/cranialnerve_abnormal.html   (1363 words)

  
 Cranial Nerves   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The cranial nerves are twelve pairs of nerves which stem from various places on the underside of the brain.
Although most cranial nerves are mixed, some of them which are associated with special senses, such as smell and vision, contain only sensory fibers.
If a number is used, it refers to the order in which the nerves arise from the front or back areas of the brain; names signify their function or the distribution of the nerve fibers.
www.innerbody.com /text/nerv19.html   (231 words)

  
 Cranial Nerves   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the base of the brain.
Knowledge of the nerves and their functions is valuable in the diagnosis of neurological disorders.
It is important to recognize that the cranial nerves have associated cranial nerve nuclei in the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
mindsci-clinic.com /cranial_nerves.htm   (134 words)

  
 cranial nerve trial page
The cranial nerves mostly innervate structures in the head and neck.
Cranial nerves attach to or join the brainstem, whereas spinal nerves carry information to (afferents) or from (efferents) the spinal cord.
The listing is accurate for humans in terms of what tests are done to assess the integrity of the cranial nerves, but not rigorous in an absolute sense.
www.sci.uidaho.edu /med532/cranialnervebackgroundinfo.htm   (484 words)

  
 Cranial Nerves   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the brain.
The function of the cranial nerves is for the most part similar to the spinal nerves, the nerves that are associated with the spinal cord.
In general, sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves send out a branch that divides into two branches: a branch that enters the brain and one that is connected to a sensory organ.
www.meddean.luc.edu /lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cnintro.htm   (305 words)

  
 Radiology Links : Reviewed Links : Cranial Nerves
The cranial nerves are depicted graphically and comprehensively; for instance the section on vagus comprises of 24 handy pages of useful information.
A Cranial Nerve Summary is available from the Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland at http://rad.usuhs.mil/rad/anatomy/neuro/cranial_nerves.html.
Available within the tables is information on the bony opening in the cranial cavity through which it exits, its general course and branches, additional openings if any in bone, its status (whether it is somatic or visceral, motor or sensory, general or special, and if it carries pre- or post ganglionic parasympathetic fibers).
www.refindia.net /rlinks/reviewedlinks/cranial_nerves.htm   (739 words)

  
 The Cranial Nerves
Once in the cranial cavity, the fibers terminate in a small oval structure resting on the cribriform plate called the olfactory bulb.
Injury or disease of the olfactory nerve may result in anosmia, an inability to detect odours; this may also dull the sense of taste.
Since the subarachnoid space around the brain is continuous with that around the optic nerve, increases in intracranial pressure can result in papilledema, or damage to the optic nerve, as it exits the bulb of the eye.
www.becomehealthynow.com /article/bodynervousadvanced/812   (632 words)

  
 cranial nerves - multiple sclerosis encyclopaedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The twelve pairs of Cranial Nerves are nerves that exit from the bottom surface of the brain.
The Cranial Nerves serve the sense organs, muscles and internal organs.
The Cranial Nerves are represented with both Roman and Arabic numerals or a name, for example Cranial Nerve VI, CN VI, the 6th Cranial Nerve and Abducens Nerve all refer to the same nerve.
www.mult-sclerosis.org /cranialnerves.html   (159 words)

  
 eMedicine - Perineural Spread of Tumor Along the Fifth and Seventh Cranial Nerves : Article by Charles Lee, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
From the walls of the cavernous sinus, the ophthalmic nerve exits through the superior orbital fissure along the roof of the orbit as the supraorbital nerve to exit from a notch along the superior orbital rim to supply sensation to the skin of the forehead.
The Vidian nerve origin is from the greater superficial petrosal nerve branch of the facial nerve, and the maxillary nerve is the second division of the trigeminal nerve.
Again, the 2 most important connections between the trigeminal and facial nerves are the Vidian nerve joining the second division of the trigeminal nerve to the greater superficial petrosal nerve of the facial nerve and the parotid gland joining the third division of the trigeminal nerve to the facial nerve.
www.emedicine.com /ent/topic705.htm   (6272 words)

  
 Cranial Nerves
The olfactory nerve is composed of axons from the olfactory receptors in the nasal sensory epithelium.
This cranial nerve originates at the trochlear nucleus located in the tegmentum of the midbrain at the inferior colliculus level and exits the posterior side of the brainstem.
This cranial branch is accessory to CN X, originating in the caudal nucleus ambiguous, with the fibers of the cranial root traveling the same extracranial path as the branchial motor component of the vagus nerve.
www.pitt.edu /~anat/Neuro/CranialNerves/CN.htm   (962 words)

  
 PATTS - Nervous System
All functions of the brain stem are associated with cranial nerves III-XII.
Each nerve has two roots connecting to the spinal cord: The posterior (dorsal) is the sensory root; the anterior (ventral) is the motor root.
The cell bodies for these nerve fibers are located in the dorsal root ganglion and enter the spinal cord through the dorsal/posterior root.
webschoolsolutions.com /patts/systems/nervous.htm   (1867 words)

  
 Cranial Nerves - A Head Case
The cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain.
cranial nerves are a communication link all parts of the body.
Read the information on the cranial nerves and complete the quizzes for practice.
can-do.com /uci/ssi2001/cranial.html   (367 words)

  
 Handout for Cranial Nerve Lecture
The task of discussing the functional anatomy of the 12 cranial nerves (10 of which have associated nuclei within the brainstem) and their central connections is daunting.
The cranial nerves are numbered from I-XII from rostral to caudal.
Damage to the cranial nerves may lead to a wide variety of clinical symptoms ranging from sensory to motor to autonomic.
www2.umdnj.edu /~neuro/neuro04/handouts/CranialNervesHandout.htm   (988 words)

  
 cranial nerve start page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Cranial nerves are similar in some ways to spinal nerves, which are probably more familiar to you.
Cranial nerves attach to the forebrain and brain stem; spinal nerves attach to the spinal cord.
The lower picture is a basal view of another brain on which cranial nerves have been whitened.
www.sci.uidaho.edu /med532/cranialnervestartpage.htm   (115 words)

  
 Neuroscience for Kids - Cranial Nerves
Some of these nerves bring information from the sense organs to the brain; other cranial nerves control muscles; other cranial nerves are connected to glands or internal organs such as the heart and lungs.
Note: the olfactory "nerve" is composed of the rootlets of olfactory hair cells in the nasal mucosa and is not visible on the ventral surface of the brain.
To test the motor part of the nerve, tell your partner to close his or her jaws as if he or she was biting down on a piece of gum.
faculty.washington.edu /chudler/cranial.html   (785 words)

  
 Head and Neck Anatomy on CD-ROM, Unit Two: Cranial Nerves - Continuing Dental Education
Three-dimensional colored illustrations and photographs are used to teach the characteristics of all twelve cranial nerves, including their places of origin, their pathways and their anatomical functions.
Emphasis is placed on the trigeminal and facial nerves, both of special interest to the dental professional.
When you click on bolded terms in the text, the cranial nerve is highlighted on the skull and an audible pronunciation is given.
www.dentalce.umn.edu /is/cranial_nerves.html   (310 words)

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