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Topic: Cronquist system

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  Cronquist system:
A system of plant taxonomy, the Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or angiosperms).
This system was developed by Arthur Cronquist (1919-1992) in his texts An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) and The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988).
The scheme is still widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, but many botanists are adopting the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II.
en.pandapedia.com /wiki/Cronquist_system   (151 words)

  Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Cronquist system
The Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or angiosperms).
This system was developed by Arthur Cronquist[?] in his texts An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) and The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1988).
Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, monocots[?] and dicots.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/cr/Cronquist_system   (79 words)

 The Scientist : Arthur Cronquist
Cronquist died of a heart attack at the Brigham Young University Herbarium in Provo, Utah, while working on a compendium of flora of the intermountain United States.
Cronquist's classification method, known as the "Cronquist system," incorporates information on plant chemistry, the fossil record, and physical characteristics.
Cronquist received the Asa Gray Award from the American Society of Plant Taxonomists in 1985 and the Linnean Medal for Botany from the Linnean Society of London in 1986.
www.the-scientist.com /article/display/11330   (230 words)

 Mark Cronquist
Cronquist has been named the AE Clevite Engine Builder of the Year twice, and he and the engine department staff have built engines that produced 37 NEXTEL Cup victories.
Cronquist, a native of Eagle River, Alaska, got hooked on racing while his father was racing snowmobiles.
Cronquist spent two weeks of his vacation in North Carolina with Leibensperger and six months later moved to the area to begin working in stock-car racing.
www.interstatebatteries.com /www_2001/content/racing/mark_cronquist.asp   (267 words)

 Botany 3700 History of Plant Taxonomy
New systems of classification were needed to handle this increase.
His most significant contribution was the consistent use of the binomial system in which each species was referred to by only two names, the genus and specific epithet.
Natural systems - by late 1700's botanist began to ponder the purposes of taxonomy and to try to provide more information content in their classifications, i.e.
arnica.csustan.edu /boty3700/lectures/history.htm   (1881 words)

 Australian Systematic Botany Society
Conversely, Cronquist reveals an essentially phenetic approach to systematics on page 2: "taxonomy is a study aimed at producing a system of classification of organisms which best reflects the totality of their similarities and differences".
Cronquist makes a common error in suggesting that "taxa are properly established on the basis of multiple correlations of characters" (page 5; emphasis is mine).
Cronquist correctly rejects the hypothesis of an "Amentiferae" ancestor, in which the unisexual strobili of the Gnetales are homologised with those of hamamelid families with catkins (Wettstein 1907).
www.anbg.gov.au /asbs/newsletter/book-review-63a.html   (1882 words)

 FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA - Volume 1, Chapter 14
The general system of classification of angiosperms used in the Flora of North America is the "integrated system" of A. Cronquist (1981, slightly modified in 1988).
Among other modern systems, the integrated system is most similar to those of A. Takhtajan, as presented in progressively modified versions over several decades, most recently in 1986 and 1987.
The adventitious, fibrous root system of monocots is a consequence of the absence of cambium.
hua.huh.harvard.edu /FNA/Volume/V01/Chapter14.shtml   (9619 words)

 Flowering Plant Gateway - Cronquist Entry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The 'Cronquist System' of Flowering Plant (Magnoliophyta) classification (Arthur Cronquist.
The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants) groups flowering plants into two classes (monocots and dicots) with related Orders (groups of families) placed in Subclasses.
Internet information for a given family can be obtained by browsing its Subclass page (listed above) or, by using the family finder, which provides alphabetical selection of the family name and direct placement on the appropriate Cronquist Subclass page
www.csdl.tamu.edu /FLORA/newgate/cron1ang.htm   (74 words)

 Flora of North America, Chapter 7: Flowering plant families: An overview
Cronquist's Dilleniidae, with 77 families, are the second largest subclass of his Magnoliopsida, and one whose representatives in our flora tend to be highly specialized.
Cronquist, Takhtajan, and Thorne all recognize Rosaceae in a broad sense.
Cronquist and Takhtajan considered this to be Alismatidae; Dahlgren and Thorne began with the equivalent of Liliidae.
www.life.umd.edu /emeritus/reveal/pbio/usda/fnach15.html   (3123 words)

 [No title]
The basic method involved in compiling this paper involved studying in detail Cronquist's taxonomical system outlined in his 1981 work "An integrated system of classification of flowering plants", and finding out where the 12 genera of plants commonly regarded as being seagrasses are classified under that system.
The vascular system is quite reduced, and vessels are confined to the roots or absent altogether.
This is also not such a drastic departure from Cronquist, the basic difference being that Cronquist considers the characteristics of these 3 subfamilies to be strong enough to split them off from Potomogetonaceae and give them full family status.
www.fiu.edu /~seagrass/class/bot5647/maureen.htm   (3767 words)

To adopt the rearrangements of flowering plant families into one or the other orders and subclasses by cladisticians might compound errors, which may be inherent to Hennigian methods and assumptions.
Cronquist (1981) defines the flowering plant subclass Hamamelidae as consisting of 11 orders, 24 families, and 3,400 species.
Cronquist (1981) defines the flowering plant subclass Rosidae as consisting of 18 orders, 114 families, and 58,000 species.
www.gigantopteroid.org /html/systematics.htm   (5612 words)

 Dicotyledon Summary
Following the origin of this group, it diversified rapidly, and by 90 to 80 million years ago many of today's prominent families of angiosperms were established and are clearly recognizable in the fossil record.
If treated as a class, as in the Cronquist system, they may be called the Magnoliopsida after the type genus Magnolia.
The following lists are of the orders formerly placed in the dicots, giving their new placement in the APG-system and that under the older Cronquist system, which is still in wide use.
www.bookrags.com /Dicotyledon   (1285 words)

 MBG Research: Venezuelan Guayana Appendix A
Cronquist also recognizes certain segregate families that may not be recognized in other systems, such as the Hugoniaceae and the Ixonanthaceae (often placed in the Linaceae) and the Costaceae (sometimes included in the Zingiberaceae).
On the other hand, certain traditionally recognized families are subsumed into others, such as the Cochlospermaceae into the Bixaceae, and the Martyniaceae into the Pedaliaceae, and the Liliaceae are treated in an inclusive sense to include segregate families such as the Amaryllidaceae.
Changes in family circumscriptions since the publication of Cronquist's system are reflected here, such as the publication of the Euphroniaceae and the placement of the genus Pakaraimaea in the Monotaceae instead of the Dipterocarpaceae.
www.mobot.org /MOBOT/research/ven-guayana/appndx.html   (220 words)

An example of a classification system produced by a traditional taxonomist can be seen in the work of Cronquist (1988) whose classification of flowering plants is given in Appendix 1.
The unique 4+2 arrangement of stamens in the mustard family is another example of a synapomorphy; this derived characteristic occurred in the ancestor of all the mustards and is shared by, and only by, members of that family.
Further, in several recent articles (e.g., Brummitt 1997; Sosef 1997) the argument has been made that in a hierarchical system of classification such as that used by plant taxonomists, paraphyletic taxa are inevitable and that a completely cladistic system of classification would be impractical to the point of being nonsensical.
artemis.austincollege.edu /acad/bio/gdiggs/taxonomy.html   (3476 words)

 Liliales Information
The Cronquist system, of 1981, placed the order in subclass Liliidae in class Liliopsida [=monocotyledons] of division Magnoliophyta [=angiosperms].
The Engler system in its update of 1964, a similar order was named Liliiflorae placed in the class Monocotyledoneae of the subdivision Angiospermae.
The Wettstein system, last revised in 1935, used names similar to those in the Engler system: the order was named Liliiflorae placed in the class Monocotyledones of the subdivision Angiospermae.
www.bookrags.com /wiki/Liliales   (492 words)

 Classification of Malvaceae: Overview
The Cronquist System (1968, revised 1981 and 1988) has been influential, and is still used in some works.
In the Uppsala System the Elaeocarpaceae are transferred to the Oxalidales, in the Eurosid I subgroup of the Rosids, and the Lecythidaceae to the Ericales, in the Asterids.
In the Dahlgren System the Malvales consists of the families Bixaceae, Bombacaceae, Cistaceae, Cochlospermaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Huaceae, Malvaceae, Plagiopteraceae, Sterculiaceae, Sphaerosepalaceae, Sarcolaenaceae and Tiliaceae.
www.malvaceae.info /Classification/overview.html   (2360 words)

 Class Magnoliopsida   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The diagram to the left represents one of the various systems that is used to classify the dicots (often referred to as the Cronquist system).
This is meant to suggest that the Magnoliidae is the most ancestral of the dicot subclasses and that the other subclasses are derived from it (except for the Asteridae, which would be viewed as having been derived from the Rosidae).
However potentially inaccurate, the Cronquist system does provide a convenient means of classification of the less inclusive dicot taxa such as families, genera, and species.
people.uvawise.edu /swvaflora/Magnoliopsida.html   (199 words)

 Book Review: Intermountain Flora, Volume 3A
Volume 3A is authored by Noel Holmgren and Patricia Holmgren of the New York Botanical Garden, and Arthur Cronquist, who completed many of the family treatments before his death in 1992.
The northwestern boundary follows “in general the eastern limits of the forested land that stretches out from the main Cascade Range.” Thus the Intermountain Flora is an essential resource for botanists and plant enthusiasts interested in the flora of the southeastern quarter of our state.
The Intermountain Flora follows Cronquist’s classification of the angiosperms which recognizes 5 subclasses of monocots and 6 subclasses of dicots.
www.oregonflora.org /ofn/v3n3/review.htm   (881 words)

 The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
The system of taxonomy of flowering plants that has been in use since 1981, and which goes by the name of the Cronquist System, is now obsolescent, thanks to the appearance in 1998 of the APG System.
In the Cronquist System, Plantae, or the Plant Kingdom, was divided into a dozen divisions, one of which was Magnoliophyta or Angiospermae, flowering plants.
Anyway, under Cronquist, a particular plant belonged to: 1) a kingdom (Plantae); 2) a division; 3) a class; 4) an order; 5) a family; 6) a genus; and 7) a species.
www.useless-knowledge.com /1234/06nov/article068.html   (624 words)

 ipedia.com: Flowering plant Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Cronquist system, proposed by Arthur Cronquist in 1981, is still widely used but is no longer believed to reflect phylogeny.
A general consensus about how the flowering plants should be arranged has only recently begun to emerge, through the work of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, who published an influential reclassification of the angiosperms in 1998.
Since newer systems tend to avoid paraphyletic groups, these may be treated as a separate class Rosopsida, or split into several different classes.
www.ipedia.com /flowering_plant.html   (795 words)

 Threatened species of Liliopsida -- World Problems - Issues Online   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Background The 'Cronquist System' of flowering plant classification groups flowering plants (Magnoliophyta) into two classes (monocots and dicots) with related orders (groups of families) placed in subclasses.
The 'Takhtajan System' of flowering plant classification treats flowering plants as a division or phylum (Magnoliophyta) with two classes (monocots and dicots) which are organized into subclasses.
Higher level organization is similar to the Cronquist System, but a bit more complex.
www.diversitas.org /db/x.php?dbcode=pr&id=13041990&sbmt=1&go=e   (341 words)

 The Order Beds
Plants from the same botanical group (Family) are grown together to display the characters they share, and to demonstrate currently accepted theories about evolution in flowering plants.
The beds follow the Cronquist taxonomic system which is based on on the grouping of families according to evolutionary principles.
Within each area families are placed in the correct juxtaposition in harmony with the evolutionary trends so that at the extremities of this site, the recently evolved families can be found.
www.st-andrews.ac.uk /~gdk/stabotanic/orderbeds.htm   (134 words)

 [No title]
Century, several other systems were published, based on revised ideas of primitive and advanced morphological characteristics, and new information on many additional characters.
These three systems were published at about the same time as other systematists began using cladistic analyses of molecular data.
A synopsis of the Engler system (Engler and Diels, 1936) will be provided; a discussion of this system can be found in Lawrence (1951).
ag.arizona.edu /~spmcl/ECOL572/Syllabus06.htm   (1011 words)

 Bebb Herbarium, University of Oklahoma
was appointed as Goodman's curatorial successor in 1975; he reorganized the herbarium according to the Cronquist system of classification.
After Dr. Gentry resigned, James R. Estes was appointed Curator in 1979 and served in that capacity for 18 years until his retirement in 1997.
Specimens are grouped by family and organized according to the Cronquist system of classification.
www.biosurvey.ou.edu /bebb/bebbabout.html   (1036 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A key to the families in each order is given, along with an account of their diagnostic characters.
Two appendices detailing the plants according to the Cronquist system of classification are included for completeness.
Monocotyledoneae); Appendices: Outline of Classification of Angiosperms or Magnoliophyta, Based on A. Cronquist, 1988; Key to the Families.
www.worldscibooks.com /lifesci/2099.txt   (404 words)

 Amazon.com: Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach: Books: Christopher S. Campbell,Elizabeth A. Kellogg,Peter F. ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The limitations of a patchy fossil record render phylogenetic approaches, however tempting their confection may be for a plant scientist in his search of a broader understanding, a kind of Nirvana that can never be completely conquered.
On the practical purpose of classification, I cannot but paraphrase CRONQUIST (1988:12), one of the traditional taxonomists excommunicated in this book: "In taxonomy, consistency must always be secondary to the primary objective of recognizing natural groups on the basis of all available information".
Despite some hardships such as dichotomic keys starting with presence or absence of betalains, Cronquist's system remains the most recent comprehensive reference guide to the diversity of flowering plant families, simple enough to be used at the undergraduate level.
www.amazon.com /Plant-Systematics-Phylogenetic-Christopher-Campbell/dp/0878934030   (2402 words)

 Flowering Plant Gateway vers. 2.00
This system is used by our course text and the lab herbarium.
Informal elements of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, with family listings in ordinal sequence where possible and full linkage to family placements of the other systems.
This system, designed for use by Botany 301 students and developed with funding form the Advanced Research Program of the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, is a product of the Texas AandM Bioinformatics Working Group.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/library/tamu/gateopen.htm   (267 words)

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