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Topic: Agricultural crops

  Agriculture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Agriculture (a term which encompasses farming) is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals.
Agriculture is also short for the study of the practice of agriculture—more formally known as agricultural science.
Agriculture is cited as a significant adverse impact to biodiversity in many nations' Biodiversity Action Plans, due to reduction of forests and other habitats when new lands are converted to farming.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Agriculture   (2503 words)

There is some evidence that where tree crops are planted with agricultural crops, a wider espacement of the tree crops reduces mortality, increases the rate of growth and, at the came time, the presence of suitable agricultural species effectively reduces soil exposure.
The agricultural crops which are grown in conjunction with the forest trees are generally chosen because of the agricultural and feeding habits of the cultivator.
Although mixed cropping may be contrary to the thought of many foresters, accustomed to the tidy and regular appearance of their plantations, this system is practiced not only for traditional reasons, but because it suite the environment, maintains soil fertility and combats erosion and leaching.
www.fao.org /docrep/t0692e/t0692e09.htm   (1081 words)

 Fertilizer use by crop in Egypt
In Egypt, the major field crops are cotton, rice and maize in the summer rotation and wheat, berseem clover, and faba bean in the winter rotation.
Forage crops, which represent 18 percent of the total value of field crops, are grown on about 1.11 million ha (catch or long season berseem clover on 0.71 million ha, catch or short season berseem clover on 0.26 million ha, and alfalfa on 0.11 million ha).
The main vegetable crops are potatoes, tomatoes, watermelons, beans, peas, onions, melons, garlic, peppers, cucumbers, sweet potatoes, cabbage, and leaf vegetable crops.
www.fao.org /docrep/008/y5863e/y5863e07.htm   (1806 words)

 Identity Preserve of Agricultural Crops
Identity Preserve is one of the fastest growing segments in agriculture and is being driven by new discoveries in biotechnology.
This crop input field data is archived in the GIS spatially using a polygon that begins the geoaccounting traceability functionality.
The crop, whether GMO or not, always has a location value—from the farm, through the transportation of the commodity, to the grocery store shelf.
www.esri.com /industries/agriculture/business/preserve.html   (547 words)

 Fuel Production Potential of Several Agricultural Crops
Since the individual crops were grown in separate experiments for evaluation of cultivars and fertilizer treatments, statistical comparisons among crops is not appropriate.
Crop yields and potential alcohol production of the highest-yielding cultivars of several carbohydrate producing crops are shown in Table 1.
Except for kenaf, the crops shown here could be produced as perennial sods or no-till planted, in the case of maize, and could be used to produce energy on erosion prone land.
www.hort.purdue.edu /newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-260.html   (1975 words)

 Priorities for Agricultural Research in Biotechnology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy of Sri Lanka.
Agriculture, livestock and fisheries contributed 19 % to GDP in 1997, declining from 23.4 % in 1991.
It involved a large array of crops and livestock, including rice, field crops, vegetables, spice crops, fruits, ornamentals, forest trees, medicinal plants, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, ornamental fish etc. It was not possible to prioritize within crops and animals as some species were of equal importance in various aspects of the national economy.
www.isnar.cgiar.org /ibs/Perera.htm   (3120 words)

 Monsanto.com: Learn About Agricultural Biotechnology
Over the last 30 years, the application of agricultural biotechnology has enabled scientists to develop a new generation of beneficial agricultural crops, delivered simply in the seed, for farmers throughout the world.
Agricultural biotechnology is just one set of scientific tools that Monsanto uses to help innovate the development of desirable traits in food, feed and fiber agricultural crops that increase value for farmers, processors and consumers.
These new crops were eagerly adopted by millions of farmers such that it is calculated that this tenth year witnessed the planting and harvesting of the billionth cumulative acre of biotech crops.
www.monsanto.com /monsanto/layout/feature02.asp   (712 words)

 Agricultural Biotechnology: New Statement by NCRLC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Gentically engineered crops include "Bt corn" which is a type of corn engineered with bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium that kills pests and is commonly used as a preventive spray by organic growers.
The National Catholic Rural Life Conference, witness to the past century of the industrialization of agricultural life, is compelled to safeguard the integrity of biological and social relationships that may be compromised by profit-driven industries of biotechnology.
Agricultural biotechnology brings humankind extraordinarily close to upsetting the intricate order of biological and ecological relationships upon which life and health depend.
www.ncrlc.com /NCRLC_GE_webstatement.html   (2049 words)

As a crop canopy develops, the ratio of T to ET increases until most of the ET comes from T and E is a minor component.
Therefore, crop coefficients for field and row crops generally increase until the canopy ground cover reaches about 75% and the light interception is near 80%.
Crop coefficients for field and row crops are calculated using a method similar to that described by Doorenbos and Pruitt (1977).
biomet.ucdavis.edu /evapotranspiration/CropCoef/crop_coefficients.htm   (1772 words)

 Characterization and Processing Research for Increased Industrial Applicability of New and Traditional Crops: A ...
As crops are currently grown almost entirely for food and feed applications, a basic element of the policy within the European Community (EC) is increasing the use of traditional crops, and developing new crops for industrial applications (Rexen 1991).
After the EC had been founded, the agricultural policy of the community was to increase agricultural productivity to provide a reasonable and stable income for farmers and to ensure a stable food supply to consumers at reasonable prices.
Crops such as fiber flax and fiber hemp are very interesting for diversifying agriculture as they require less pesticides and fertilizers than potato and sugar beet, which are the most important crops in The Netherlands.
www.hort.purdue.edu /newcrop/proceedings1993/v2-038.html   (3375 words)

 Waterfowl Hunting and Baiting
The presence of seed or grain in an agricultural area rules out waterfowl hunting unless the seed or grain is scattered solely as the result of a normal agricultural planting, normal agricultural harvesting, normal agricultural post-harvest manipulation, or normal soil stabilization practice.
A normal agricultural harvest is undertaken for the purpose of gathering a crop.
If, for whatever reason, an agricultural crop or a portion of an agricultural crop has not been harvested (i.e., equipment failure, weather, insect infestation, disease, etc.) and the crop or remaining portion of the crop has been manipulated, then the area is a baited area and cannot be legally hunted for waterfowl.
www.fws.gov /le/HuntFish/waterfowl_baiting.htm   (2781 words)

 ERS/USDA Briefing Room - Agricultural Biotechnology: Recommended Readings
Economic Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology—The emergence of agricultural biotechnology introduces new concerns about the supply of new technology and its impact on the marketplace New developments in marketing and contractual arrangements between farmers and grain and food processors will likely become critical issues as more genetically engineered (GE) crops enter the marketplace.
Agricultural Genetic Resources: Building Blocks for Future Crops—Agricultural genetic resources are living matter used by plant breeders to develop or enhance desirable traits in crops, such as high yields, resistance to disease, drought tolerance, and heightened nutritional value.
Agricultural Biotechnology: An Economic Perspective—This report describes the economic, scientific, and social factors that will influence the future of biotechnology in agriculture.
www.ers.usda.gov /briefing/Biotechnology/readings.htm   (2019 words)

 Agricultural Cooperatives and Marketing Bioenergy Crops: Case Studies of Emerging Cooperative Development for ...
The energy crops being established are alfalfa, switchgrass, willow, and hybrid poplar.
Agricultural marketing cooperatives are commonly organized by farm commodity or groups of commodities such as sugar, grains, corn, and poultry.
Agricultural cooperatives are formed by commodity producers, or manufacturers to take advantages of the benefits and economies of size and scale.
bioenergy.ornl.gov /papers/bioen98/downing1.html   (4219 words)

COVER CROP - A close growing crop, such as a grass or legume, grown primarily to protect and improve soil between periods of regular crops, or in orchards and vineyards.
CROP ACREAGE BASE - As defined in the Food Security Act of 1985, the crop acreage base is the average number of acres planted and considered planted to a program crop for harvest in the previous five years.
Where the program crop was not grown on the farm in each of the previous five years, the law provides for procedures to develop a crop acreage base for that farm.
www.worldbank.org /html/aftsr/sfi23.htm   (8108 words)

 Prosol: Agricultural
When making a stock solution, you must consider the area to be covered, the crop to be fertilized, the nutrients required, the accuracy of the injector and total amount of water to be applied (click here for charts of injection ratios for constant feeding).
Many greenhouse crops are highly susceptible to damage by certain types of nitrogen.
Better than overhead for vegetable crops that are packaged in the field because it keeps the crop dirt free.
www.4prosol.com /agricultural.html   (1098 words)

 Environmental Impacts of Converting Cropland to Short-Rotation Woody Crops
Comparing non-woody crops to woody crops was the major focus, but also evaluating an entire rotation of short rotation woody crops to quantify sediment production, nutrient runoff, wildlife impact, groundwater impact, and soil quality impact was also an important concern.
Cover crop strips of 4 feet in width were effective on sweetgum in controlling erosion and they do not compete for moisture and nutrients the first two years.
Nitrate runoff was higher under the agricultural crops and ammonium runoff was higher under the trees.
www.woodycrops.org /paducah/joslin.html   (652 words)

 Round bales of agricultural blade crops - Patent 4569439
The invention concerns a round bale of agricultural blade crops with an encircling wrapping to hold its the shape.
It is known to provide round bales of agricultural blade crops with a wrapping to hold their shape, the wrapping being from a flexible plastic foil or film (DE-OS 22 19 976).
The clinging is reinforced by the blade crop which penetrates radially towards the outside through the openings in the netting.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4569439.html   (1046 words)

 Articles: Farmers
The study, "Coexistence in North American agriculture: Can GM crops be grown with conventional and organic crops?" by Graham Brookes and Peter Barfoot, found that biotech, conventional and organic canola, corn and soybean crops flourished side-by-side in the second half of the 1990s and early 2000s.
As the EU Commission defines it, coexistence involves "the economic consequences of adventitious presence of material from one crop in another and the principle that farmers should be able to cultivate freely the agricultural crops they choose, be it GM crops, conventional or organic crops."
In 2003, biotech crops accounted for 60 percent of the total plantings of soybeans, corn and canola in the United States and Canada; conventional varieties of these three crops had a 39.78 percent share, and the organic share was about 0.22 percent.
www.whybiotech.com /index.asp?id=4505   (1215 words)

 UNEP Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1994 Assessment
The present chapter provides an overview with interpretation of the results for both agriculture and other ecosystems such as forests, grasslands, etc. It also includes a brief consideration of the potential effects of the breakdown products of new man-made chemicals being brought into use which are less offending to the ozone layer.
In that study, the increase in growth and seed yield resulting from a CO enrichment was eliminated by UV-B radiation in rice, reduced in wheat and unaffected in soybean.
Effects of enhanced UV-B on terrestrial ecosystems are anticipated, both in agriculture, and in nonagricultural areas such as forests, tundra, etc., but prediction of exact consequences, and sometimes even the direction of these changes, is not currently possible.
sedac.ciesin.org /ozone/UNEP/chap3.html   (5880 words)

 EPA - Agriculture Sector: Crops
Feed crops (corn, sorghum, oats, and barley) were the highest value commodity, with receipts totaling $28.1 billion.
Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture will be reflected most directly through the response of crops, livestock, soils, weeds, and insects, and diseases to the elements of climate to which they are most sensitive.
Erosion control practices are necessary for agricultural operations to control runoff and reduce the amount of soil erosion caused by that runoff.
www.epa.gov /agriculture/crops.html   (956 words)

 Department of Entomology | Research | Focus Areas | Agricultural Pest Management | University of Maryland
Agricultural crops are of considerable importance to the Maryland economy and also vital to other industries, such as poultry, the leading agricultural enterprise, which relies upon certain field crops for feed and a place for waste management.
For example, with the introduction of transgenic insecticidal crops, Entomology faculty have taken a leadership role in evaluating benefits and potential uses of this new technology, assessing its potential impacts on nontarget invertebrates, and developing resistance management strategies.
Basic research toward long term solutions is underway in the areas of host plant resistance, plant/insect interactions, biology of new pest species, plant-mediated resistance, ecology and behavior of natural enemies, isolation of bioactive substances from microbial symbionts of insects, and the identification and incorporation of genes from entomopathogenic fungi into plants.
www.entm.umd.edu /Research/ag_pest_mgmt.html   (315 words)

 Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide
Crop Genetic Engineering: http://croptechnology.unl.edu/ The University of Nebraska at Lincoln provides information on many aspects of agricultural biotechnology, organized in lesson format.
Of special note is the database of released transgenic crop varieties, with details on the genetic modifications and extensive information on food and environmental safety evaluations of each variety.
Agriculture in the Classroom: http://www.agclassroom.org/ This education-oriented site has resources for teachers including lesson plans, discussion boards, and links to other resources.
cls.casa.colostate.edu /TransgenicCrops/links.html   (2036 words)

 The Role of Short-Rotation Woody Crops in Sustainable Development
Conversion of agricultural land to short-rotation woody crops can provide the most environmental quality enhancement by reducing erosion, improving soil quality, decreasing runoff, improving groundwater quality, and providing better wildlife habitat.
At the global scale, use of short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy is part of the solution to reduce greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels.
Environmental enhancement using short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses as alternatives to traditional agricultural crops.
www.woodycrops.org /paducah/shepard.html   (3158 words)

 ERS/USDA Briefing Room - Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS)
USDA's Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) is an integrated data collection system that enables the development of farm business and household accounts for the same unit of observation.
The data also provide insights on several facets of the agricultural sector, including its contribution to the national economy, the organization and performance of farms, the income and well-being of farm households, and the economics of production practices used across commodity enterprises.
Agricultural Income and Finance Outlook Report—In 2005, net farm income is forecast to be $71.5 billion, down $11 billion from the record $82.5 billion estimated for 2004.
www.ers.usda.gov /Briefing/ARMS   (923 words)

 Steenbock Memorial Library Subject Guide
The Crop Protection Compendium is an encyclopaedic, mixed media tool that brings together a wide range of different types of science-based information on all aspects of crop protection.
U.S. Crop Acreage and Yield Maps: maps and charts of harvests and yield from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service.
Steenbock Memorial Library is the primary resource library for the University of Wisconsin-Madison's College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, School of Human Ecology, School of Veterinary Medicine and UW Extension, Cooperative Extension.
steenbock.library.wisc.edu /subjectguide/crops.htm   (1061 words)

 Cypher International Ltd: Road building, soil stabilization, low cost housing, dust control.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Traffic on roads in and around agricultural crops and farmland stirs up fines from the road that combine to form huge clouds of dust.
This dust is extremely detrimental to the health and nourishment of the crops themselves, producing lower yields and a large economic loss suffered by the farmer or agricultural company.
All of these sources of dust combine to form a layer of dust over the entire crop, clogging the pores of plants and inhibiting its ability to accept its essential nourishment in the form of sunlight, water and oxygen.
www.cypherltd.com /ds-agricultural.php   (583 words)

 Controlling pocket gopher dmage to agricultural crops, EC 1117
Although pocket gophers also are a serious problem to homeowners and gardeners, damage to hay, grain, and orchards usually occurs over larger acreages, calling for control methods that differ from those used by the homeowner and gardener.
The advent of sprinkler irrigation increased acreages where irrigated crops could be grown, such as on hillsides and uneven lands, but pocket gophers aren't flooded out under sprinkler irrigation, so this form of cheap control isn't generally available.
Removing existing crops (such as alfalfa), followed by deep tilling, disrupts burrow systems, removes food, and results in a significant reduction in pocket gopher numbers in fields so treated.
extension.oregonstate.edu /catalog/html/ec/ec1117   (2567 words)

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