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Topic: Crowding out (economics)

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  Crowding out (economics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Crowding out can, in principle, be avoided if the deficit is financed by simply printing money, but this carries concerns of accelerating inflation
Crowding out of another sort may occur due to the prevalence of floating exchange rates.
Crowding out is most serious when an economy is already at potential output or full employment.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Crowding_out_(economics)   (623 words)

 Crowding Out (economics)
Crowding out can, in principle, be avoided if the deficit is financed by simply printing money, but this quickly leads to hyperinflation as seen in Germany in the period between WWI and WWII, or in Brazil before the introduction of the real.
In the United States during the late 1990s, another kind of crowding out of exports occurred: large increases in private fixed investment and consumer spending encouraged high interest rates, a high dollar exchange rate, and hurt exports.
The negative effects on long-term economic growth that occur when private fixed investment are crowded out can be moderated if the government uses its deficit to finance productive investment in education, basic research, at the like.
www.seattleluxury.com /encyclopedia/entry/crowding_out_(economics)   (593 words)

 Hydroponic:Greenhouse Vegetable Production Economic Considerations, Marketing, and Financing
Growers claim that economic rewards are not as lucrative as they are in other related agricultural ventures such as the greenhouse foliage industry.
This study was conducted to analyze the economic situation of the greenhouse tomato industry int he south central portion of the U.S. from the individual producerís point of view.
Economic theory indicates that the long run price of any commodity produced in a competitive industry is equal to the average cost of production.
aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu /greenhouse/hydroponics/economics.html   (5956 words)

 Pecan Tree Crowding
For practical use, 30 square feet of trunk area per acre is the approximate equivalent of leaving 10-20 feet distance between the branch tips of adjoining trees.
The tree crowding is so gradual that it is not strikingly noticeable to a person that is in the orchard regularly.
When pecan trees are properly managed, crowding is occurring continuously and thus periodic removal of excess trees is an ongoing chore.
www.noble.org /Ag/Horticulture/TreeCrowding/index.html   (449 words)

 UMD College of Arts & Sciences/Economics/Course Description - Department of Economics - University of Massachusetts ...
Basic analysis of the problems of economic growth, job creation, and unemployment, structure of work and jobs will be explored, along with current issues surrounding the government's impact on inflation, taxation, and economic planning.
Economic analysis is employed to view the economic motives of the firms involved.
Economic issues associated with "growing older" as well as issues and policies related to "being older"; including the economic status of the elderly, economic implications of paid work or retirement, the economic impact of social security, health care needs, and costs.
www.umassd.edu /cas/economics/course.cfm   (2021 words)

 SparkNotes: Policy Debates: Budget Deficit
This is called crowding out because the government takes investment funds away from the private sector.
It is generally accepted that the crowding out effect of government spending increases is stronger than the crowding in effect.
It is important to remember that while crowding out is usually stronger than crowding in, it is not strong enough to completely cancel out all of the effects of increased government spending.
www.sparknotes.com /economics/macro/policydebates/section3.rhtml   (1262 words)

 UMass Amherst Dept. of Economics Faculty
Lee Badgett is an associate professor of economics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Her primary field is labor economics, with a focus on employment discrimination based on sexual orientation, race, and gender.
Ph.D.,California at Davis, 1997 Woojin Lee is an associate professor of economics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
www.umass.edu /economics/faculty.html   (3369 words)

 Economics Interactive
The absorption problem is a generalization of the crowding out hypothesis, and summarizes how crowding out may cross international borders.
The increase in economic activity in the U.S. economy during 1940-1943 as this country mobilized for war mirrored this movement from point
Economics instructors and students are hereby granted provisional permission to use these materials for educational purposes only.
www.unc.edu /depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Figures/Depression.htm   (359 words)

 crowding out   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
In economics, crowding out theoretically occurs when the government expands its borrowing more to finance increased expenditure or tax cuts in excess of revenue (i.e., is engaged in deficit spending) crowding out private sector investment by way of higher interest rates.
Since increased borrowing leads to higher interest rates by creating a greater demand for money and hence a higher "price" (ceteris paribus), the private sector, who is sensitive to interest rates will likely reduce investment due to a lower rate of return, this is the investment that is crowded out.
However, this crowding-out effect is moderated by the fact that government spending expands the market for private-sector products and thus stimulates – or "crowds in" – fixed investment (via the "accelerator effect").
www.pledgeco.com /finance/concepts/crowding-out.htm   (515 words)

 Alpie.net - Blog: Economics
Actually, it looks to me like the the region is doing just that, with a government agency for development that was created by a Republican governor but looks to be pretty darn supportive of smart growth, and operates under what looks to me like a surprisingly nice set of principles.
However, the station agents won't get out of their booth and intercede in the event of a problem, so closed circuit TV and a better police presence in stations or just in the surorunding neighborhoods would solve the problem much better.
I don't know enough about economics be sure to whether this is solid (and perhaps nobody really does), but follow me through this line of reasoning and post in comments where you think it might be wrong.
alpie.net /blog/html/category/Economics.html   (3039 words)

 SSRN-Motivation Crowding Theory: A Survey of Empirical Evidence by Bruno Frey, Reto Jegen
The motivation crowding effect suggests that an external intervention via monetary incentives or punishments may undermine (and under different indentifiable conditions strengthen) intrinsic motivation.
This survey shows that such scepticism is unwarranted and that there exists indeed compelling empirical evidence for the existence of crowding out and crowding in.
Crowding effects thus are an empirically relevant phenomenon, which can, in specific cases, even dominate the traditional relative price effect.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=203330   (399 words)

 Economist's View: Crowding Out
Greg Mankiw and Brad DeLong are discussing crowding out.
It might be worth pointing out to your readers that the example I was discussing, raised by the question from Bryan Caplan, was the WWII fiscal expansion.
That means that the degree of crowding out that the Fed requires depends on the size and sign of the output gap.
economistsview.typepad.com /economistsview/2006/06/crowding_out.html   (3465 words)

 [No title]
Expenditures are increased to fight a recession and are reduced, at least in theory, to combat demand-pull inflation.
To the extent that crowding out occurs, fiscal policy will be less effective in stimulating aggregate demand.
However, the election of George W. Bush in 2000 and the economic slowdown of 2001 brought renewed attention to fiscal policy.
www.swlearning.com /economics/askinstructor/transcripts/clip_066.doc   (282 words)

 Brad DeLong's Semi-Daily Journal: Crowding Out During the Industrial Revolution
Winslow, I think the most basic take-away lesson is that massive government borrowing -- whether for war or other purposes -- crowds out private borrowers trying to finance entrepeneurial ventures, and thus presumably slows the growth of the economy.
It seems to be assumed that it is "obvious" how crowding out works, but it is not really.
For this reason, crowding out is another term I'd prefer to see less used by economists.
delong.typepad.com /sdj/2005/05/crowding_out_du.html   (1160 words)

 Photo Matt » Crowding Out
People complain that Republicans are greedy, or heartless and cut spending for this and that, but what they’re really doing is trying to decrease our nations massive debt and lower taxes, which means less of a burden on your pocket and on future generations.
Republicans believe that the ultimate economic cost of the crowding out effect negates (to varying degrees, depending on who you ask) whatever benefits you may have gotten from the government spending.
Now you may ask why people like George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan spend money out the wazoo, and so do I, but the reason is that strong defense is a prerequisite for sustained economic growth.
photomatt.net /2002/8/7/crowding-out   (747 words)

 Jiskha Homework Help - Social Studies: Psychology: Crowding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Since crowding leads to arousal, and men act more aggressively when aroused, this may be a reason.
This gender difference in the reaction to crowding may be due to any one (or more) of these factors.
After the game, we tend to get upset by being jostled by others while getting out of the stadium and being delayed by others whiule trying to drive out of the parking lot.
www.jiskha.com /social_studies/psychology/crowding.html   (709 words)

  Origin of the Idea   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
For my part, I think that Capitalism, wisely managed, can probably be made more efficient for attaining economic ends than any alternative system yet in sight, but that in itself it is in many ways extremely objectionable.
Hansen’s greatest contribution to economics was his work on the IS-LM model, also known as the Hicks-Hansen synthesis.
Milton Friedman, a critic of Keynesianism, popularized the idea, arguing that crowding out was substantial, perhaps dollar for dollar.
www.mhhe.com /economics/mcconnell15e/student/olc/chap12origin.mhtml   (442 words)

 CROWDING   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
crowding out in a steeper range of the aggregate supply curve.
The rationale of crowding out is essentially in terms of the usual investment
This reduction is caused by the crowding out since
members.aol.com /jkgrope/econ_hlp/crowding.htm   (437 words)

 ECON 107 - ECONOMICS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Students will be able to define economics and understand how a market economy operates using the fundamental principles of supply and demand.
In addition, students will be able to evaluate the measures used to determine the nation's economic policies, comprehend the nature of our monetary system, and evaluate how monetary and fiscal policy interact.
Unit I: Introduction to Basic Economics - Students will demonstrate an understanding of basic graphing techniques, basic economic principles, scarcity, the production possibilities curve, supply and demand, and elasticity.
www.brookdalecc.edu /fac/economics/econ107.html   (1518 words)

 Environmental Economics: Crowding out in the hazards insurance market
The Environmental Economics blog is dedicated to the dissemination of economists’ views on current environmental and natural resource issues.
I'm not an economist nor am I a genius, but what you state is so glaringly obvious I don't understand why the vast majority of Americans don't get it.
I try and read the blog everyday and have pointed it out to other faculty who have their students read it for class.
www.env-econ.net /2006/06/envecon_contrib.html   (706 words)

 Crowding Out
Consequently, the better-qualified teachers often get "crowded out" of the inner-city, low-income, heavily minority, heavily immigrant schools where they are needed most.
Not only did the districts start out with different space needs, but several districts have succeeded in getting their own local school construction bonds approved by voters.
First, the state economy had gone from recession to boom by 1996, and a fixed percentage of the new surplus had to be spent on education, thanks to the voter-approved Proposition 98.
www.rand.org /publications/randreview/issues/rr.fall.99/crowd.html   (2145 words)

 UWS - Economics Department: EC-100
To build on existing knowledge to provide a rigorous understanding of basic economic principles by combining theory and application to contemporary issues, such that students have a sound basis for progression to study economics at Level 2.
Macroeconomics: Keynesian macroeconomics; demand management; a brief economic history; national income accounting; economic welfare; the IS-LM model; comparative statics; special cases; crowding out; flexible prices; the AD-AS model; demand and supply shocks; supply-side economics; labour market flexibility; inflation; the Phillips curve; the open economy.
This is a core module on all single honours and joint honours schemes in Economics.
www.swan.ac.uk /economics/modules/ec-100.htm   (324 words)

 Out of Control
The choices are out there, and the ideas are here.
As historian David Beito points out, America used to have all sorts of mutual aid societies.
But with our turn to the welfare state many of those organizations have been crowded out.
www.reason.org /outofcontrol/archives/2006/12/crowding_out_co.html   (188 words)

 Crowding Out
When a government borrows heavily, interest rates may be forced to rise, thereby curbing individual consumption.
B M Friedman, 'Crowding out or Crowding in?
Economic Consequences of Financing Government Deficits', Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol.
www.economyprofessor.com /economictheories/crowding-out.php   (87 words)

 SSRN-Incentives, Decision Frames, and Motivation Crowding Out - An Experimental Investigation by Bernd Irlenbusch, Dirk ...
Furthermore, switching in the same treatment from a setting where piece rates are available to one where only fixed wages can be paid tends to lead to even lower effort levels.
Based on our findings we suggest a new explanation for motivation crowding out by arguing that the use of piece rates considerably alters the principals' and agents' perception of the situation.
Irlenbusch, Bernd and Sliwka, Dirk, "Incentives, Decision Frames, and Motivation Crowding Out - An Experimental Investigation" (September 2005).
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=822866   (351 words)

 EconPapers: Motivation Crowding Theory: A Survey of Empirical Evidence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Abstract: The motivation crowding effect suggests that an external intervention via monetary incentives or punishments may undermine (and under different indentifiable conditions strengthen) intrinsic motivation.
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-exp, nep-ind and nep-lab
Econpapers is hosted by the Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics at Örebro University.
econpapers.repec.org /paper/zuriewwpx/026.htm   (313 words)

 MIT OpenCourseWare | Economics | 14.472 Public Economics II, Spring 2004 | Readings
"The Economic Impact of Widowhood in the United States in the 1990s: The Role of Social Insurance and Private Pensions." University of Wisconsin, Mimeo (June 1997).
Atkinson, A. The Economic Consequences of Rolling Back the Welfare State.
Your use of the MIT OpenCourseWare site and course materials is subject to the conditions and terms of use in our Legal Notices section.
ocw.mit.edu /OcwWeb/Economics/14-472Spring-2004/Readings/index.htm   (4722 words)

 EconPapers: Crowding In or Crowding Out? A Classical-Harrodian Perspective   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Economics Working Paper Archive from Levy Economics Institute, The
If raising the warranted path is desired, appropriate policies that would raise the social saaving rate would have to be implemented.
As in Harrod, whether crowding out is harmful depends on the rate of warranted growth relative to the natural growth rate.
econpapers.repec.org /paper/levwrkpap/315.htm   (222 words)

 The Crowding-out of Work Ethics
This paper analyses optimal contracts in a principal-agent model where the agent is intrinsically motivated at the outset and there is an endogenous relationship between the structure of incentive payments and intrinsic motivation (crowding effects).
The analysis shows that crowding effects have implications for the optimal contract and that under some conditions the principal can do better without implementing any economic incentives.
Furthermore, it is shown that when high-powered incentives diminish intrinsic motivation (crowding-out) the first-best solution in a principal-agent framework is unattainable.
ideas.repec.org /p/ukc/ukcedp/0102.html   (407 words)

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