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Topic: Crown of the Polish Kingdom

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  Crown (headgear) Summary
Crowns, often in the form of wreaths, have been awarded to victors in war or contests where the honored hero is identified with a divine patron of the contest or with a warrior god.
A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment).
Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, people at costume parties, or ritual "monarchs" such as the king of a Carnival krewe, or the person who found the trinket in a king cake.
www.bookrags.com /Crown_(headgear)   (1733 words)

 Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or the Republic of the Two Nations; in Polish Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; in Lithuanian Žečpospolita or Abiejų tautų respublika; in Latin Regnum Serenissima Poloniae; in Belarusian Рэч Паспалі́тая) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569, lasting until 1795.
To be Polish, in the non-Polish lands of the Commonwealth, was then much less an index of ethnicity than of rank; it was a designation largely reserved for the landed noble class, which included members of Polish and non-Polish origin alike.
Courland (Polish: Kurlandia), a northern fief of the Commonwealth;
fact-archive.com /encyclopedia/Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (4206 words)

 PNAF - Polish Coats-of-Arms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The arms of the Polish nobility in their current illustrations arose during the course of the 14th century, which is somewhat later than the arms of the nobility of Western Europe.
Polish heraldic custom also differed from that of the West in that after the extinction of a clan its arms did not pass on to the persons inheriting the estates.
The typical Polish coat of arms consists of a shield, helmet, crown and crest and all four parts are essential and indispensable in the arms of the Polish nobility.
pnaf.us /arms.htm   (1616 words)

 Kingdom of Hungary at AllExperts
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság, Latin: Regnum Hungariae, German: Königreich Ungarn, Slovak: Uhorské kráľovstvo, Polish: Królestwo Węgier, Croatian and Serbian: Kraljevina Ugarska or Краљевина Угарска, Romanian: Regatul Ungariei) is the name of a kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918.
According to their point of view the Kingdom of Hungary was primarily a country of the Magyar people not denying the presence and importance of other nationalities.
In the 18th century, the Kingdom of Hungary had its own Diet (parliament) and constitution, but the members of the Governor's Council (Helytartótanács, the office of the palatine) were appointed by the Habsburg monarch, and the superior economic institution, the Hungarian Chamber, was directly subordinated to the Court Chamber in Vienna.
en.allexperts.com /e/k/ki/kingdom_of_hungary.htm   (1174 words)

 CalendarHome.com - - Calendar Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Papal Coronation is a ceremony in which a new pope is crowned as head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City (and before 1870, head of state of the Papal States).
In 1800 Pius VII was crowned in the crowded church of the Benedictine island monastery of San Giorgio, after his late predecessor had been forced into temporary exile during Napoleon Bonaparte's capture of Rome.
Pius XI was crowned at the dais in front of the High Altar in St. Peter's Basilica.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /cgi-bin/encyclopedia.pl?p=Papal_Coronation   (969 words)

 End of Europe's Middle Ages - Eastern Europe
The plan failed and, in 1384, Jadwiga was crowned Queen of Poland and she was married to Jagiello of Lithuania in 1386.
As a descendant of the Polish monarchy she was crowned queen of Poland in 1384, which put her on equal footing with her future husband, Jagiello, the grand-duke of Lithuania, the last pagan country in Europe.
Polish and Lithuanian concerns for equal representation within their union emerged after Wladyslaw II Jagiello's death in 1434, but when Kasimir IV (1477-1492) ascended to the throne in 1446, an uneasy peace was again established.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/eastern.html   (2050 words)

 Polish History - Part 3
Toward the end of the 13th century the division of the Polish lands into a number of petty duchies became a burden for the majority of social groups.
Those times were of the heyday of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Hungary, the Teutonic State, as well as of an accelerated growth of Poland and Lithuania in economy and politics.
Some one million people speaking Polish and belonging to Polish culture lived outside the Crown of the Polish Kingdom in the 14th century--in Silesia, Pomerania, Mazovia--and there were Germans, Ruthenians and Jews within the Polish state.
www.poloniatoday.com /history3.htm   (1396 words)

 Britain.tv Wikipedia - Monarchy
The economic structure of such monarchies is often of concentrated wealth, with the majority of the population living either as agricultural serfs, or, as in Gulf Monarchies, a paternalistic model showering benefits on the citizens (while politically they may remain subjects) and importing cheap foreign labor.
The hellenistic kings of Macedon and of Epirus were elected by the army (a body that was very close in composition to the ecclesia of democracies, the council of all free citizens; military service was often linked with citizenship) among the male member of the royal house.
Currently, there is some controversy over the succession laws of some monarchies in the European Union (EU), such as that of the United Kingdom (UK) or the Scandinavian monarchies, which require their Monarch to be of a certain faith (in the UK under the Act of Settlement 1701).
www.britain.tv /wikipedia.php?title=Monarchy   (2773 words)

 Polish-Lithuanian Empire - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia
Polish, Latin and Ebonics (the latter in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania)
The government was styled as a federal anachronistic republic that was formed in 1569 by the strong and noble Kingdom of Poland, though the Lithuania may have played some sort of minor role, such as allowed itself to be civilized.
Adding the Latvians as an ally, the Polish and Lithuanian forces were able to overun what little foolish oppositon remained in the Baltic region, liberating and freeing the key Estonian city of Riga from the Estonians.
uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (1507 words)

 History of Polish
For the Polish it forever turned their sphere of influence eastward, instead of the previous western orientation, for the Ukrainians this meant replacement of native rulers by foreigners and subordination of a nation to a foreign people of a different religion and culture.
The main concentration of the seizure was the Polish territories of Volhynia and Galitsia.
Initially the Polish monarchs were subtle about introducing any changes among their new acquired subjects and referred to Ukraine as the “kingdom of Rus’”[4].
www.bu.edu /econ/faculty/kyn/newweb/economic_systems/NatIdentity/FSU/Ukraine/polish_ukraine.htm   (893 words)

 Polish Crown Jewels - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The only surviving original piece of the Polish Crown Jewels from the time of the Piast dynasty is the ceremonial sword - Szczerbiec.
Several royal crowns were made for King August II, Elector of Saxony when he was elected King of Poland in 1697.
Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polish_Crown_Jewels   (154 words)

 AllEmpires - The Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth (Full)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A Polish garrison was installed in the Kremlin, but after the return of the King and Zólkiewski to Poland the situation for the garrison sharply deteriorated.
Polish claims for the Moldavia and auxiliary forces (15 000 "lisowski cossaks") sent to help Habsurgs against Betheln Gabor (prince of Trasylvania - Ottoman's vassal) provoked the conflict with Ottoman Empire.
Polish losses were also high and included Chodkiewicz who died in his chamber of old age just as the Turks began to retreat.
www.allempires.com /empires/polish_lit_full/polish_lit1.htm   (2253 words)

 Crown of the Polish Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However after the Union of Lublin, most of the present-day Ukraine (which had a negligible Polish population) and was until then controlled by Lithuania, passed under Polish administration, becoming the territory of the Polish Crown as well.
Depending on context, this term can also refer to The Crown, the term used to separate the government authority and property of the government from the personal influence and private assets held by the current monarch of the Commonwealth.
Crown was divided into two provinces: Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska) and Greater Poland (Polish: Wielkopolska) which were further divided into administrative units known as voivodeships.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Crown_of_the_Polish_Kingdom   (264 words)

Crowns, orbs and sceptres of King Augustus III and his consort Queen Maria Josepha together with his coronation mantle from 1733 are kept at the National Museum in Warsaw.
The Polish royal crown was therefore associated with the most fortunate period in Polish history, when Poland emerged united under Ladislaus the Short and soon made her way up as one of the major political powers in Europe.
A Polish chronicler of the time remarked that the gold crown was taken away from the king right after his coronation and quickly used to strike coins for the Swedish troops.
homepage.mac.com /crowns/pl/avreg.html   (3316 words)

 History of Ukraine - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
North of the Ostrogothic kingdom was the Kiev culture, flourishing from the 2nd to 5th centuries, when it was overrun by the Huns.
After the Union of Lublin in 1569 and the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Ukraine fell under Polish administration, becoming part of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom.
New schools spread the ideas of the Renaissance; Polish peasants who arrived in great numbers were quickly ruthenized; during this time, most of Ukrainian nobles became polonized.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/History_of_Ukraine   (4175 words)

 Poland - XIX century flags   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
All the references I checked state that the so-called Kingdom of Poland was suppressed in 1864 and the Russian-held Polish lands were officially incorporated into the Russian Empire.
Kingdom of Poland, so called "Congress Kingdom" with capital in Warsaw, was autonomous, with Russian Tzar as ruler.
As far I know the polish flag in the national uprising of 1830-1831: the nationalists used red and white flag dividsed diagonally, with hoist lower part red and fly upper part white.
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/pl-xix.html   (800 words)

 The Crown of St. Stephen.
Of all the possessions of the old kingdom of Hungary, none was more valued than what was called the Crown of St. Stephen, so called from one, which had, in the year 1000, been presented by Pope Sylvester II to Stephen, the second Christian Duke, and first King of Hungary.
The crown was in the vaults of the strong Castle of Plintenburg, also called Vissegrad, which stands upon a bend of the Danube, about twelve miles from the twin cities of Buda and Pesth.
Whether this secret robbery of the crown, and coronation by stealth, was wise or just on the mother's part is a question not easy of answer–though of course she deemed it her duty to do her utmost for her child's rights.
digital.library.upenn.edu /women/yonge/deeds/crown.html   (2039 words)

 Poland's History - Early Middle Ages (960 - 1400)
Beginnings of the Polish State - The Influence of the Roman Catholic Church; The Growth of the State ; The Relation of Poland to the German Empire; The Alliance with the Holy See; Polish Laws of Inheritance.
The Polish State Emerges - Conquest and consolidation of the land between the Odra and Bug Rivers by the Polanie; the Piast princes; relations to German Empire and Papacy; infighting; rebellions by magnates and pagans; fragmentation
Crown of the Polish Kingdom - Repeated unification attempts; from Przemyslaw II to Ladislaus the Short followed by his son, Casimir the Great an outstanding ruler; ascension to the Polish throne of Louis Angevin of Hungary: The granting of the Kosice Privileges.
info-poland.buffalo.edu /web/history/early/link.shtml   (731 words)

 PGSA - Polish Orders of Chivalry
The Polish system of nobility was based on the principles of equality amongst an exclusive caste of peers, who had earned their spurs in blood and bravery.
The ancient Polish code of chivalry forbade the bearing of titles, and the formulation of chivalric orders was looked upon with disdain; they were both regarded as a means of creating a division amongst a group of equals.
The design was later altered to a red, eight-pointed Polish cross with white eagles between the arms of the cross and the image of Saint Stanislaus depicted in a circular plaque in the centre of the cross.
www.pgsa.org /polechiv.htm   (2521 words)

 Polish History - Part 4
In 1384, Hedwig, an 11-year-old daughter of Louis the Hungarian, was called to Poland by the knights and representatives of towns and ascended the Polish throne.
That sealed the elective character of the throne in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom.
The Union was substantiated by economic and social reasons: the aspiration of merchants toward developing far-ranging trade; the Polish magnates sought expansion by settling the Ruthenian lands; Lithuanian princes and boyars sought to bring Polish political patterns to Lithuania.
www.poloniatoday.com /history4.htm   (1589 words)

However, because all Polish names ending in "-ski" should be affiliated with a clan (herb), and a name with a slightly different spelling, Kozniewski (slash over the z), originates in the same narrow region of Mazovia, it is somewhat likely that they may be variations of each other.
The Polish order of the Virtuti Militari was established 200 years ago by King Stanislaw August Poniatowski as the highest military decoration for gallantry the Polish nation bestows upon it's soldiers for acts of heroism above and beyond the call of duty.
In addition, the Encyclopedia of the Polish Nobility (Polska Encyklopedja Szlachecka) confirms that there was a Kuzniewski who served as an officer in the Polish Army in the Insurrection of 1831, a very important cause in Polish history.
www.fiu.edu /~kneskij/K.Jurn2.html   (1919 words)

 CalendarHome.com - - Calendar Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Its political structure — that of a semi-federal, semi-confederal aristocratic republic — was formed in 1569 by the Union of Lublin, which united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and lasted in this form until the adoption of the Constitution of May 3, 1791.
The other blow to the Commonwealth was the Swedish invasion in 1655 (supported by troops of Transylvanian duke George II Rakoczy and Friedrich Wilhelm I, Elector of Brandenburg), known as The Deluge, provoked by the policies of Commonwealth kings from the Swedish royal House of Vasa.
Estimated grain consumption in the Polish Crown (Poland proper) and Prussia in 1560–70 was some 113,000 tons of wheat (or 226,000 łaszt (a łaszt, or "last," being a large bulk measure; in the case of grain, about half a ton).
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /cgi-bin/encyclopedia.pl?p=Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (4232 words)

 NIE Online Lesson - Poland's Next Step
However, Polish forces won't actually be in command on the ground until about September 21, due to security concerns in the city after the recent car bombing of a mosque that killed a prominent Shiite Muslim cleric and more than 125 others.
Polish history began in the early 9th century when the Polians ("dwellers in the field") obtained dominance over the other Slavic tribes that occupied the country.
Read further, about the Division into Provinces during the 12th century and the Crown of the Polish Kingdom in the 13th and 14th centuries.
www.learnersonline.com /weekly/lessons03/week33/index.htm   (793 words)

The Union of Both Nations was renewed at Lublin in 1569, and endured until its three-stage partitions at the hands of Prussia, Austria, and Russia: 1772, 1793, and 1795.
Jozef Szymanski, Herbarz Sredniowiecznego Rycerstwa Polskiego [Armorial of the Medieval Polish Knighthood], Warsaw, 1993.
Jahrhundert [The Polish Petty Gentry in the 16
www.heraldica.org /topics/national/polish-bibliography.htm   (2661 words)

 Poland - Historical XX century flags   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In 1990 (or 1991?), the crowns have been added to both ensigns, and the bicolor with the shield has extended its usage also to land, as a state (and probably also war) flag.
After the collapse of communism, the crowns were restored, but not all at once: the arms in 1989, the civil ensign in 1990, but he war flag only in 1993.
The polish crown is once again present on the coat of arms to symbolise the re-emergence of polish self-rule...
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/pl-xx.html   (643 words)

 Osmanlı Tarihi Kültürü Medeniyeti Edebiyatı Sanatı
The region of Podolia (Polish: Podole, Ukrainian: Podillya) lies in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine that correspond to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast.
After the death of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas the Great (Vitovt) in 1430, Podolia became part of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, with the exception of its eastern part, the province of Bratslav, which remained in Lithuania until its union with Poland in the Union of Lublin of 1569.
Poland disappeared as a state in a third partition in 1795 but the Polish gentry continued to maintain local control in both Eastern and Western Podolia over a peasant [serf] population which was primarily ethnically Ukrainian.
www.osmanlimedeniyeti.com /wiki/Podolia_.html   (797 words)

 [No title]
It was covered with silver and golden face around 1671 and on July 2, 1927 cardinal Aleksander Kakowski crowned the effigy with a double crown, as a symbol that Holy Mary is the queen both of Heaven and of Poland.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Commonwealth of the Two Nations, Rzeczpospolita Oboja Narodów in Polish) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, between 1569 and 1795, which was governed by an elected monarch.
The Mother of Mercy is a powerful symbol in the struggle for Polish and Lithuanian independence and prayers asking Her intercession as well as pilgrimages to Her shrine continue to be popular.
members.tripod.com /oboofcom/churchphoto.html   (1108 words)

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