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Topic: Cryogenics


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In the News (Fri 19 Apr 19)

  
  Cryogenics - MSN Encarta
Cryogenic temperatures are achieved either by the rapid evaporation of volatile liquids or by the expansion of gases confined initially at pressures of 150 to 200 atmospheres.
The expansion may be simple, that is, through a valve to a region of lower pressure, or it may occur in the cylinder of a reciprocating engine, with the gas driving the piston of the engine.
The inversion temperatures of hydrogen and helium, two primary cryogenic gases, are extremely low, and to achieve a temperature reduction through expansion, these gases must first be precooled below their inversion temperatures, the hydrogen by liquid air and the helium by liquid hydrogen.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761563758/Cryogenics.html   (1129 words)

  
 Applied Superconductivity Center: UW-Madison
Cryogenics is the science of making and maintaining low temperatures, studying the properties of materials and systems at low temperatures, and safely utilizing low temperatures for applications such as superconductivity, electronics, and medicine.
The Cryogenics group at the University of Wisconsin - Madison houses cutting-edge expertise in the development of Pulse-Tube, Reverse-Brayton, Joule-Thomson, and various hybrid cryocoolers.
We are exploring the use of shape-memory-alloys at cryogenic temperatures to improve the reliability of Joule-Thomson cryocoolers, and to reduce vibrations in a variety of cryocooler applications.
www.asc.wisc.edu /cryogenics/cryogenics.htm   (317 words)

  
 Cryogenics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cryogenics is often used incorrectly to refer to cryonics, cryopreserving humans or animals.
Cryogenic transfer pumps are the pumps used on LNG piers to transfer Liquefied Natural Gas from LNG Carriers to LNG storage tanks.
Cryogens, like liquid nitrogen, are further used for specialty chilling and freezing applications.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cryogenics   (760 words)

  
 Sword Forum Magazine - From the Forge - Cryogenics
The concept behind cryogenics is to achieve a variety of qualities in treated metal, such as improved durability, stress relief, reduced wear and extended life through a process of "cold treating".
Cryogenics International, cyrogenics can cause the residual stresses and distortions of firearm barrels that form as a result of the heating and cooling of shooting to be alleviated, thus allowing the barrels to dissipate heat quickly and efficiently.
In conclusion, cryogenic experiments on blades are an interesting fad, but in light of what it achieves on a molecular basis, there is really no value in cryogenically treating sword blades and thus should not be viewed as a "magical" or miracle-producing process, because it will not yield such results accordingly.
swordforum.com /forge/cryogenics.html   (773 words)

  
 Cryogenics
Cryogenics has successfully been used to relieve the stress in castings and forged metals; even freezing cutting tools has resulted in increased wear characteristics.
Cryogenic freezing is a process whereby the stresses incorporated in an instrument during assembly are relieved.
Cryogenics is a process that cools the metal down to a very low temperature, below - 200 degrees F. At these low temperatures, the metal becomes closer to a liquid so that the stresses are relieved.
www.hornplayer.net /archive/a57.html   (2041 words)

  
 Cryogenics
Cryogenics is the study of low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation.
Likewise, cryonics is the nascent study of the cryopreservation of the human body, is not an established science like cryogenics and is generally viewed with skepticism by most scientists and doctors today.
Liquid gases, such as liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, are used in many cryogenic applications.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/c/cr/cryogenics.html   (218 words)

  
 Cryogenic Society of America - Cryo Central - Cryogenics in Space   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Astronomy missions often use cryogenic telescopes to reduce the thermal emissions of the telescope, permitting very faint objects to be seen.
The disadvantage of using a stored cryogen is that it is converted to vapor by heat dissipated in the instrument or that comes in through the supports and insulation.
There is interest in extending the storage time of cryogenic propellants from a few hours to many years and in being able to resupply rockets with these propellants from depots in space.
www.cryogenicsociety.org /cryo_central/cryogenics_in_space.php   (622 words)

  
 Search Results for "Cryogenics"
cryogenics (kreye-uh-JEN-iks) The branch of technology concerned with the behavior of materials at very low temperatures, particularly temperatures near absolute...
This provides another good argument for the emerging theory that the best use of cryogenics is to freeze all human beings when they are between the ages...
Low-temperature physics is also known as cryogenics, from the Greek meaning "producing cold." Low temperatures...
bartleby.com /cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?query=Cryogenics&...   (212 words)

  
 cryogenics a brief history of cryogenic tempering process
The origin of cryogenic processing as practiced today almost certainly can be traced back 50 years to the occasional use of low-temperature treatments in the hardening of steel.
Furthermore, the cost of cryogenic treatment is said to be less than the cost of coating, which is currently a popular method for improving tool life.
Although no surveys have been conducted among users of cryogenic processing in the United States or the United Kingdom, where thermal shock is avoided and where cryogenic exposure times are longer, a mixture of results similar to those found in the Soviet Union would be expected.
www.onecryo.com /onecryo/templates-history2.htm   (2367 words)

  
 Cryogenics - MSN Encarta
Cryogenics has also made possible the commercial transportation of liquefied natural gas.
Without cryogenics, nuclear research would lack liquid hydrogen and helium for use in particle detectors and for the powerful electromagnets needed in large particle accelerators.
Cryogenic surgery, or cryosurgery, is being used for the treatment of Parkinson disease, the technique being based on the selective destruction of tissue by freezing it with a small cryogenic probe.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761563758_2/Cryogenics.html   (225 words)

  
 Cryogenics of Indiana
Cryogenics of Indiana is committed to providing high quality equipment that has been treated cryogenically for maximum performance, durability, and life.
Cylinders that have been Cryogenic treated will normally be out of round only a 1/4 to a 1/2 of a thousandths, a big decrease in wear from a non treated cylinder.
BRAKE ROTORS and DRUMS: Cryogenic treatment closes the grain structure of the rotors and drums resulting in an increased contact area for the pad to touch against and also reduces the abrasiveness of the rotor against the pad therefore increasing pad, rotor and drum life.
www.cryogenicsofindiana.com   (381 words)

  
 NASA's Cryogenics Test Lab Offers World-Class Capabilities NASA Tech Briefs - Find Articles
Cryogenics is defined as the science and art of low-temperature phenomena, but if you ask James Fesmire, lead engineer of the Cryogenics Tested and co-founder of the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, you'll get a much more comprehensive definition of the technologies being de- veloped there.
Cryogenics, for fluid management or low-temperature application, is required for rocket propulsion, high-pressure gas supply, breathing air, life-support equipment, electricity, water, food preservation and packaging, medicine, imaging devices, and electronics.
William Notardonato, cryogenic engineer at KSC, is performing the tests, which originated with the idea that when NASA sends a mission to Mars, an oxidizer and fuel would have to be made from the atmosphere.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3957/is_200401/ai_n9382324   (854 words)

  
 WowEssays.com - Cryogenics And The Future
Cryogenics is a study that is of great importance to the human race and has been a major project for engineers for the last 100 years.
Cryogenics, which is derived from the Greek word kryos meaning Icy Cold, is the study of matter at low temperatures.
As you can see cryogenics is still a very young science, but in the last ten years it has catapulted to being the backbone of almost every other form of science.
www.wowessays.com /dbase/ad4/vrk64.shtml   (1223 words)

  
 Find Of Cryogenics Experts and Of Cryogenics Expert Witnesses at www.expertwitness.com.
Available to be Of Cryogenics expert witnesses and provide Of Cryogenics forensic consulting in Of Cryogenics litigation, in addition prepare Of Cryogenics expert witness reports for use in deposition and/or in-court trial testimony.
Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below −150°C, −238°F or 123K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures.
Unlike cryogenics and cryobiology, cryonics is not an established science and is viewed with skepticism by most scientists and doctors today (although there are many scientists involved in cryonics[1]).
www.expertwitness.com /srch/of+cryogenics.htm   (991 words)

  
 Cryogenics, Deep Cryogenic Treatment of Castings: Cryogenics International
Through advances in cryogenics, it has been discovered, researched, and proven that when these castings are treated in a cryogenic chamber at temperatures of 88°K (-300°F) at a controlled time/temperature cycle, all internal stresses are relieved, thanks to the alignment of the molecular structure that had been distorted during the casting process.
When these cryogenically treated castings are machined, there is no distortion on the machined surface; any distortion which may occur is caused by improper machining, dull cutting tools, too slow speeds/and feeds for the aluminum alloy, or insufficient material removed by the first cut.
In the case of steel and its alloys, cryogenic treatment removes the built-in kinetic energy of atoms, which is the energy of motion.
www.cryogenicsinternational.com /informat.htm   (778 words)

  
 cryogenics
Cryogenics is the study of how to get to low temperatures and of how materials behave when they get there.
We are involved in a continuous programme of training and redevelopment to ensure that the commercial and technical advances, inherit in our chosen discipline, are fully absorbed and utilised.
Our instrumentation strategy is designed to achieve our aim by satisfying our clients in such industries as the cryogenics industry in terms of quality, value, innovation and service.
www.cryogenics-serviceproductuk.co.uk   (366 words)

  
 Artemis Project: Storing Cryogenics in Zero-G
By design, the temperature of the cryogenic tanks will be right at the boiling point of the liquid fuel or oxydizer.
Cryogenics also becomes a problem if we want to swap out empty tanks for full ones in Earth orbit, or store tanks of cryogenic fuels at a space station.
So, handling cryogenics in orbit is going to be a complex operation where we have to be constantly mindful of the orientation of the fuel tanks, the acceleration vectors, and where the tank vents are located.
www.asi.org /adb/04/03/09/storing-cryogenics-0g.html   (1203 words)

  
 Cryogenics—Putting the Freeze on Wear Answering Some Commonly Asked Questions
Cryogenics is a branch of physics dealing with subzero, or deep-cold, treatment.
The cryogenic process produces considerably longer wear life for most heat-treated tools or parts that are subject to wear and abrasion.
Although carbides are not heat-treated ferrous metals, cryogenics affects their bonding materials, causing a tighter grip on the carbides and thus preventing premature carbide losses, called fluffing off.
www.thefabricator.com /ToolandDie/ToolandDie_Article.cfm?ID=277   (1008 words)

  
 Alibris: Cryogenics
The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties.
The utilization of refrigeration and cryogenics contributes to high-quality preservation and processing of foods, in environmental protection, and in case of emergencies.
Refrigerating and cryogenic engineering enhance progress in machine-building and automation of manufacturing processes, while refrigeration and cryogenics are increasingly used in...
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Cryogenics   (538 words)

  
 1 Cryogenics, Cryogenic Treatment, Tempering, and Cryo Processing: Cryogenics International
Cryogenics International manufactures Deep Cryogenic Treatment Systems and provides processing for metals, plastics and other materials to improve their metallurgical and structural properties.
Deep cryogenics is the ultra low temperature processing of materials to enhance their desired metallurgical and structural properties.
Cryogenics International's patented, controlled deep cryogenic treatment system and process is capable of treating a wide variety of materials, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metals, metallic alloys, carbides, plastics (including nylon and Teflon) and ceramics.
www.cryogenicsinternational.com   (482 words)

  
 Cryogenics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Cryogenic brake parts are an excellent and easy way to save time and money by increasing longevity and reliability while reducing downtime and maintenance cost.
Deep cryogenic processing involves lowering the temperature of an object to -320º F. An object is placed into a sealed chamber at room temperature.
The cryogenic cycle is an extension of standard heat treatment and creates outstanding increases in durability.
www.canammarketing.com /Cryogenics/cryogenics.html   (363 words)

  
 Cryogenic Society of America - Cryo Central - History of Cryogenics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The development of the cryogenic wind tunnel is one of many significant breakthroughs in both cryogenics and wind-tunnel technology made during the past millennium.
The use of cryogenics in wind tunnels may be unique among the various uses of cryogenics.
However, a cryogenic tunnel works by taking advantage of the different properties of the nitrogen gas itself at cryogenic temperatures as compared to the properties at normal ambient conditions (speed of sound, density and viscosity).
www.cryogenicsociety.org /cryo_central/history_of_cryogenics.php   (4131 words)

  
 Cryogenic Tempering - How Cryogenics Improves Metal Durability from One Cryo
Researchers have found that the effects of shallow cryogenic tempering (-110°F) is minimal unless it is performed as part of the initial heat treat cycle.
The beneficial changes that occur as a result of the heat treat process do not actually take place during the heating, but, rather from the cooling or "quenching" from the high temperature.
Cryogenic stabilizing is recommended by the 1995 ASM Intl.
www.onecryo.com /how.htm   (199 words)

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