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# Topic: Cryptography

 Cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cryptography or cryptology is a field of mathematics and computer science concerned with information security and related issues, particularly encryption and authentication. Cryptography is also considered a branch of engineering, but it is considered to be an unusual one as it deals with active, intelligent and malevolent opposition (see cryptographic engineering and security engineering). Cryptography exports from the US (and in much of the rest of the developed world) are less strictly regulated now than in the past, though encryption is still defined as a munition. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cryptography   (4089 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Secondly, cryptography has come to be in widespread use by many civilians who do not have extraordinary needs for secrecy, although typically it is transparently built into the infrastructure for computing and telecommunications, and users are not aware of it. When cryptography relies on hard mathematical problems, as is usually the case in asymmetric cryptography, algorithms for tasks such as factoring become potential tools for cryptanalysis. Asymmetric cryptography also provides mechanisms for digital signatures, which are a way to establish with high confidence (under the assumption that the relevant private key has not been compromised in any way) that the message received was sent by the claimed sender. www.deucaliontechnologies.com /projects/wikipedia/index.php/Cryptology   (2353 words)

 Cryptography With regards to confidentiality, cryptography is used to encrypt data residing on storage devices or traveling through communication channels to ensure that any illegal access is not successful. Currently, most cryptography used in practice is key based, that is a string of bits, that is used to encode the clear text into cipher text and back again to clear text when required. Both public and private key cryptography provide message integrity checks through checksums, but its not a reliable method since encryption of messages is done usually in small blocks of text, its possible to delete or duplicate a section of the message without causing any problems with the checksum. www.netsec.org.sa /cryptography.htm   (1045 words)

 Portal:Cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cryptography (from Greek kryptós, "hidden", and gráphein, "to write") is, traditionally, the study of means of converting information from its normal, comprehensible form into an incomprehensible format, rendering it unreadable without secret knowledge — the art of encryption. Cryptography is often used to replace or in combination with steganography. Cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generators are essential components in cryptography and they must ensure various security criteria such as resistance to corrupted sources or entropy loss. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wikipedia:Wikiportal/Cryptography   (645 words)

 [Chapter 6] Cryptography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Cryptography became even more important with the invention of radio, and its use in war. Without cryptography, messages transmitted to or from the front lines could easily be intercepted by the enemy. For this reason, cryptographers and organizations that use cryptography routinely conduct their own code-breaking efforts to make sure that their codes are resistant to attack. www.unix.org.ua /orelly/networking/puis/ch06_01.htm   (1610 words)

 Cryptology Much of the terminology of cryptography can be linked back to the time when only written messages were being encrypted and the same terminology is still used regardless of whether it is being applied to a written message or a stream of binary code between two computers. The first recorded use of cryptography for correspondence was by the Spartans who (as early as 400 BC) employed a cipher device called a "scytale" to send secret communications between military commanders. Although single-key cryptography has been in use for centuries, public key cryptography is a relatively new invention with the first discussion about the subject in open literature being in 1976. www.ridex.co.uk /cryptology   (10089 words)

 Define cryptography - a definition from Whatis.com Cryptography is closely related to the disciplines of cryptology and cryptanalysis. Cryptography includes techniques such as microdots, merging words with images, and other ways to hide information in storage or transit. However, in today's computer-centric world, cryptography is most often associated with scrambling plaintext (ordinary text, sometimes referred to as cleartext) into ciphertext (a process called encryption), then back again (known as decryption). searchsecurity.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci214431,00.html   (468 words)

 Roger Clarke's Crypto in Plain Text This choice of who generates key-pairs is one of the issues at the heart of the cryptography debates of the last few years (Clarke 1996). Cryptography in general, and the strategies adopted in relation to public key infrastructure in particular, are at the centre of these debates. Cryptography has broader implications, which may extend to consumers, corporations, the workplace, the courts, crime prevention, regulatory agencies, and the effectiveness of taxation. www.anu.edu.au /people/Roger.Clarke/II/CryptoSecy.html   (4812 words)

 Cryptography and the Open Source Security Debate :: osViews | osOpinion :: Tech Opinions for the People, by the People ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) I've been reading Bruce Schneier's Book on cryptography for the last couple of days, and one of the main concepts in the text struck me as interesting. Symmetric key cryptography is weakened, but not broken by quantum computing, but that's not much of a comfort. Some Linux distributions have made great strides in meeting the other concerns of users but it is more or less futile to try and sell these distributions on the basis of reliability and security until you can honestly sell them on the basis of the users main concerns, which clearly don't include the security agenda. www.osviews.com /modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=1792   (2524 words)

 Cryptography - Home Cryptography from the Greek: hidden writing - is the ancient science of encoding messages so that only the sender and receiver can understand them. Cryptography is now available to everyone thanks to the development of modern computers, which can perform more mathematical operations in a second than a human being could do in a lifetime. Cryptography is used to secure telephone, Internet, and email communication and to protect software and other digital property. research.microsoft.com /crypto   (877 words)

 GILC Crypto Policy Page The 1999 Cryptography and Liberty report reveals that few countries worldwide now restrict encryption technologies and that there has been more relaxation of restrictions on encryption by major industrialized countries in the previous year. The law was amended in December 1997 to allow for free use of cryptography. Presidential Decree 334 on Restriction of cryptography, April 3,1995. www.gilc.org /crypto   (723 words)

 A Cryptography Tutorial and Introduction. Encryption, Decryption and Key Management Cryptography is often seen as a 'fl art': something OTHERS understand but YOU need. This web site is designed to help you understand the basics of cryptography, presenting the main ideas in simple language. This section of Cryptography World holds a range of informational resources and is also a repository for papers and articles on this and related topics. www.cryptographyworld.com   (259 words)

 Netsurfer Focus on Cryptography and Privacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Cryptography in the computer age typically involves the translation of the original message into a new and incomprehensible one by a mathematical algorithm using a specific "key". The RSA algorithm, used in public key cryptography and patented in the US, is based on the fact that it's easy to multiply two large prime numbers together, but hard to factor them out of the product. Public key cryptography enables digital signatures that verify the authenticity of a document, confirms the authorization of the sender, and non-repudiation of the transaction - all critical components to financial transactions. www.netsurf.com /nsf/v01/03/nsf.01.03.html   (4210 words)

 What is cryptography? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. Cryptography systems can be broadly classified into symmetric-key systems that use a single key that both the sender and recipient have, and public-key systems that use two keys, a public key known to everyone and a private key that only the recipient of messages uses. Contains links to information on cryptography, a tutorial on public key encryption for secrecy and a discussion of the debate regarding government control of cryptography. www.webopedia.com /TERM/C/cryptography.html   (590 words)

 Cryptography Unfortunately, they seem to abandoning some key features of any cryptography program, and that is the ability of the user to ensure that the program does what it claims to do and does not insert any foreign security weakening material. Cryptography is bought precisely because of a lack of trust of others by the purchaser, and this lack of trust should also extend to the manufacturer of the cryptographic engines. However the whole of the regulations controling the export of cryptography in the USA has been thrown into confusion by the Bernstein case. axion.physics.ubc.ca /crypt.html   (4841 words)

 Cryptography News Cryptography News continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. Encryption is the most important part in computer security mechanisms and protocols: he who can bypass cryptographic protection, gains total control over the security. Devices based on quantum cryptography and diamonds could be helping IT managers detect network snooping and prevent information theft as anti-eavesdropping... www.topix.net /science/cryptography   (560 words)

 SSH : Support : Cryptography A-Z : Introduction to Cryptography Indeed, cryptography used to be almost exclusively a tool for the military. However, in moving into an information society, the value of cryptography in everyday life in such areas as privacy, trust, electronic payments, and access control has become evident. In this way, the field of cryptography has broadened from classical encryption techniques into areas such as authentication, data integrity, and non-repudiation of data transfer. www.ssh.com /support/cryptography/introduction   (175 words)

 Cryptography Using Matrices for Cryptography - by Douglas Jones; Discussion and step-by-step examples of using matrics for polyalphabetic cipher encryption and decryption. Cryptography Overview - A nice tutorial on what cryptography is from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Cryptography For the Masses by Gary Anthes; May 27, 2002; This article discusses how cryptography is seen as being too complicated and so sometimes it is not used. csc.colstate.edu /summers/e-library/crypto.html   (5573 words)

 Cryptography Cryptography, the encoding of messages to render them unreadable by anyone other than their intended recipient(s), is centuries old. Modern cryptography, essential to the security of computer networks, is done with complex algorithms implemented on high speed computer systems. RSA Laboratory's Cryptography FAQ is an excellent reference source on cryptography. www.freesoft.org /CIE/Topics/135.htm   (613 words)

 Cryptography: The Ancient Art of Secret Messages Cryptography is the study of hidden writing, or the science of encrypting and decrypting text. The Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) framework in the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.2 provides a full range of cryptographic services and algorithms to keep messages sent over the network secure. Not only can you add cryptographic service implementations by different vendors to the framework, but, for example, the signature service implementation by one vendor will work seamlessly with the signature service implementation by another vendor as long as both vendors' implementations use the same signature algorithm. java.sun.com /developer/technicalArticles/Security/Crypto   (1629 words)

 CryptoDox - CryptoDox - The Cryptography & Information Security Encyclopedia The main goals of modern cryptography can be seen as: user authentication, data authentication, non-repudiation of origin, and data confidentiality. In today's society, cryptography is one of tools for privacy and trust. The History of Cryptography page provides a nice timeline of the events in history that have contributed to the progress in the field of cryptography. www.cryptodox.com   (402 words)

 McGraw-Hill Education Europe   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Nigel Smart's Cryptography provides the rigorous detail required for advanced cryptographic studies, yet approaches the subject matter in an accessible style in order to gently guide new students through difficult mathematical topics. Covering the latest developments in computer cryptography, including the Rijndael algorithm chosen for the new Advanced Encryption Standard, the OAEP padding system for RSA and modern stream ciphers, this book is a complete introduction to cryptography. Cryptography incorporates practical examples and real-world case studies to examine strategies for security in multiple languages and various contexts. www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk /html/0077099877.html   (443 words)

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