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Topic: Cultural evolution

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  Cultural evolution - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The ideas of cultural evolution and of the evolution of societies provide a set of theories that anthropologists (see anthropology and cultural anthropology) have both promoted and criticized throughout its long history.
Contemporary application of cultural evolution is often informed by dual inheritance theory which posits that humans are products of both biological evolution and cultural evolution, each subject to their own selective mechanisms and forms of transmission (i.e.
Cultural anthropologists such as Franz Boas used sophisticated ethnography and more rigorous empirical methods to argue that Spencer and Tylor's theories of evolution were speculative and systematically misrepresented ethnographic data.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /cultural_evolution.htm   (2242 words)

 Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Cultural evolution -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cultural evolution refers to a set of theories that have been promoted and criticized by anthropologists (see anthropology and cultural anthropology).
The notion of unilinear cultural evolution has its origins in the Enlightenment notion of progress, and was developed in the mid-late 1800s by such people as Sir E.
By the early 1900s, as cultural anthropology shifted to ethnography and more rigorous empirical methods, most anthropologists rejected the theory of unilineal cultural evolution.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/cu/Cultural_evolution   (614 words)

 Cultural evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The ideas of cultural evolution and of the evolution of societies provide a set of theories that anthropologists (see anthropology and cultural anthropology) have both promoted and criticized.
Cultural evolution is the progress of a society through successively better stages.
By the early 20th century, as cultural anthropology shifted to ethnography and more rigorous empirical methods, most anthropologists rejected the theory of unilinear cultural evolution.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/cultural_evolution   (1818 words)

 MSN Encarta - Human Evolution
Human cultural behavior depends on the social transfer of information from one generation to the next, which itself depends on a sophisticated system of communication, such as language.
Scientists have traced the evolution of human cultural behavior through the study of archaeological artifacts, such as tools, and related evidence, such as the charred remains of cooked food.
These have included the evolution of (1) social life; (2) subsistence (the acquisition and production of food); (3) the making and using of tools; (4) environmental adaptation; (5) symbolic thought and its expression through language, art, and religion; and (6) the development of agriculture and the rise of civilizations.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761566394_11/Human_Evolution.html   (1502 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cultural evolution refers to the progress of a society through succesively better stages.
Observing and observed cultures may lack sufficient cultural similarities to be able to communicate their respective priorities easily.
The notion of unilinear cultural evolution has its origins in the Enlightenment notion of progress, and was developed in the mid-late 19th century by such people as Sir E.
www.informationgenius.com /encyclopedia/c/cu/cultural_evolution.html   (1628 words)

 Evolution of Culture: Discussion on Importance of Truth for Human Cultural Evolution, Quotes
The emergence of culture in the course of evolution is to be viewed therefore as 'a new niche that arose from the experimentation of animals with multiple choice behaviour,' and it is to this evolutionary innovation that the rise of cultural adaptations in the human species is traced.
All the genes do in influencing cultural evolution is to constrain the repertoire of behaviours possible to an animal, and to affect the flexibilty of its behaviour.
Cultural animals can survive environmental upheavals because so much of their environment is of their own making- they live in partly 'cultural' surroundings.
www.spaceandmotion.com /Evolution-Culture.htm   (6158 words)

 CULTURAL MATERIALISM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cultural Materialism is a scientific research strategy that prioritizes material, behavior and etic processes in the explanation of the evolution of human socio-cultural systems.
Cultural materialists are concerned with the causality in socio-cultural systems and hold that, to find it out, we have to study material constraints that human existence is subjected to.
Cultural materialism does not think all cultural changes result from dialectical contradictions but think that cultural evolution results from the gradual accumulation of useful traits through a process of trial and error.
www.indiana.edu /~wanthro/mater.htm   (1256 words)

 Niche Construction, Biological Evolution and Cultural Change   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cultural traits, such as the use of tools, weapons, fire, cooking, symbols, language and trade, may also have played powerful roles in driving hominid evolution in general, and the evolution of the human brain in particular (Holloway, 1981; Byrne and Whiten, 1988; Dunbar, 1993; Aiello and Wheeler, 1995).
Human culture may allow humans to modify and construct their niches, with spectacular ecological and evolutionary consequences, but niche construction is both general and pervasive, and probably influences the ecology and evolution of many species.
Culturally modified selection pressures are now regarded, not as unique, but as just a part of a more general legacy of modified natural selection pressures which are bequeathed by human ancestors to their descendants.
bbsonline.org /documents/a/00/00/05/28/bbs00000528-00/bbs.laland.html   (13385 words)

 cultural evolution --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The subject may be viewed unilinearly, tracing the evolution of humankind as a whole; or it may be viewed multilinearly, treating the evolution of each culture or society (or of given parts of a culture or society) individually.
Cultural evolution was an important concept in the...
The main stages of hominid evolution are represented by the australopithecines, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens.
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=9028163   (908 words)

 Cultural Software
It is the first book to apply theories of cultural evolution to the problem of ideology and justice.
Because cultural understanding is the product of evolution, it is always a patchwork quilt of older imperfect tools of understanding continually readapted to solve new problems.
The book's explanation of how shared understandings arise, how cultures grow and spread, and how people of different cultures can understand and critique each other's views should be relevant to work in many different areas of the human sciences.
www.yale.edu /lawweb/jbalkin/cs.htm   (701 words)

 Childhood and Cultural Evolution
The most important unsolved question in cultural evolution is therefore to explain the rate of innovation and adoption of new techniques of exploiting what resources exist-factors that depend crucially upon the local rate of evolution of childrearing.
The evolution of childhood, as will be extensively documented, mainly consists of parents slowly giving up killing, abandoning, mutilating, battering, terrorizing, sexually abusing and using their children for their own emotional needs and instead creating loving conditions for growth of the self.
The evolution of the psyche is first of all accomplished by removing terrible abuses of children and their resulting developmental distortions, allowing the psyche to produce historical novelty and achieve its own inherent human growth path.
www.psychohistory.com /htm/eln07_evolution.html   (18534 words)

 List of publictions on cultural selection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The gap between cultural selection theory and sociology.
The supposed and the real role of mass media in modern democracy.
Cultural r/k selection in Journal of Memetics 1997.
www.agner.org /cultsel   (58 words)

 Recent Cultural Evolution Publications
Cultural Evolution in Laboratory Micro-Societies Including Traditions of Rule-Giving and Rule-Following with William M. Baum, Charles M. Efferson, and Brian M. Paciotti.
Cultural Evolution of Human Cooperation, with Robert Boyd and Joe Henrich.
Evolution: The Darwinian Theory of Social Change: An Homage to Donald T. Campbell, with Robert Boyd.
www.des.ucdavis.edu /faculty/Richerson/RecentCultural.htm   (749 words)

 The KLI Theory Lab - Cultural Evolution
However, since cultural inheritance differs from genetic inheritance in fundamental ways — including non-parental transmission and multiple transmission events over a lifetime — they tend to view the evolutionary dynamics of culture as different from biological evolution.
The primary focus of the journal is on explanations of cultural phenomena in terms of acquisition, representation and transmission involving common cognitive capacities without excluding the study of cultural differences.
We seek to discuss issues concerning memetics such as mechanisms involved in evolutionary processes (comparisons of different models of evolution are especially welcome); philosophical or theoretical issues concerning epistemology and evolution; boundaries of the evolutionary approach; empirical research; fundamental approaches aiming at structuring the field of memetics as a science.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Areas/CE.html   (2097 words)

 BBSPrints Archive: Niche Construction, Biological Evolution and Cultural Change.
Building on conventional evolutionary theory, the model emphasises the capacity of organisms to modify sources of natural selection in their environment (niche construction); the evolutionary dynamic can also be broadened to incorporate ontogenetic and cultural processes, with phenotypes playing a much more active role in evolution.
The model sheds light on hominid evolution, the evolution of culture, altruism and cooperation.
Culture amplifies the capacity of human beings to modify sources of natural selection in their environments to the point where that capacity raises some new questions about the processes of human adaptation.
bbsonline.cup.cam.ac.uk /documents/a/00/00/05/28   (250 words)

 Nineteenth-century unilinear theory. (from cultural evolution) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory.
The theory presented an evolution in which a free emergence of the individual intelligence could be recognized.
The theory's evolution in the 19th century was preceded by more than two centuries of observations of small life forms under the microscope.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-1655?tocId=1655   (952 words)

 cultural evolution --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cultural anthropology continued to be a discipline in the throes of change in 1996.
The Andhras' contribution to India's cultural heritage is substantial.
Lesson plan on the evolution of trade and the contributions of travelers like Marco Polo and Xuanzang to the intellectual and cultural exchange and the diffusion of ideas along this ancient trade route that linked the two civilizations of Rome and China.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9028163   (908 words)

Cultural evolution, including the evolution of knowledge, can be modelled through the same basic principles of variation and selection that underly biological evolution.
It is this variability or fuzziness that perhaps distinguishes cultural patterns most strikingly from DNA structures: every individual's version of an idea or belief will be in some respect different from the others'.
Cullen B. Parasite Ecology and the Evolution of Religion", in: Heylighen F., Bollen J. & Riegler A. (eds.) (1999): The Evolution of Complexity (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht).
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /MEMES.html   (1118 words)

 Human Cultural Evolution
Although biological and social evolution have been a strong influence on human responses to evolution, biology and being social is basic to all humans.
However, biology and society are not the only influence on people: there is also the influence of culture, the rules of a certain group of people and how they are to respond to biological and social stimuli.
However, his evolution did not parallel hers since his role in the evolving human culture was different.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~taflinge/culture1.html   (4433 words)

 Cultural Evolution:
Ignorant of history, culture, science, and even the basic rules of his own language, he is little more than a savage.
But whereas former generations were inclined to leave politics up to a relatively educated elite, who were traditionally inclined to preserve and promote ideas of cultural value, in our generation the savages have taken over.
Cultural ignorance has invaded the highest offices of the land, and profit, flag-waving, and conformity are viewed as the only values worth pursuing.
home.att.net /~s.a.joyce/docs/cultural.htm   (3508 words)

 Cultural Evolution - CORPORATE CULTURE - Enterprise Magazine January 15, 1999   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
It also reinforced a corporate culture that is heavily influenced by the geography of the company's North Dakota home and the pioneering spirit of the region's early settlers.
In the beginning, Acxiom executives referred to cultural reform as "the race for excellence." But they ultimately dropped the name when it became clear that there is no finish line; reshaping the culture is an ongoing process.
Although determining the right culture can be a difficult task, many companies have built successful cultures around the simple concept of encouraging employees to develop a deep knowledge of and enthusiasm for the business.
www.cio.com /archive/enterprise/011599_rah.html   (2693 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Continuities in Cultural Evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The time she spent on revision is evidence of the importance Mead attached to the subject: the need to develop a truly evolutionary vision of human culture and society.
This was desirable in her eyes both in order to reinforce the historical dimension in our ideas about human culture, and to preserve the relevance of historical and cultural diversity to social, economic, and political action.
After collaborating with Ruth Benedict in developing the application of anthropology to contemporary cultures, she focused increasingly on processes of culture change, in such works as New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation-Manus, 1928-1953 (1956), Culture and Commitment (1970), and Rap on Race (with James Baldwin, 1971).
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0765806045?v=glance   (601 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation (Dahlem Workshop Reports)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure by Brian Skyrms
This book, which grew out of that meeting, addresses such topics as emotions in human cooperation, reciprocity, biological markets, cooperation and conflict in multicellularity, genomic and intercellular cooperation, the origins of human cooperation, and the cultural evolution of cooperation; the emphasis is on open questions and future research areas.
The studies of human society and cooperation are absolutely brilliant, and put together new and powerful theories of the evolution of human cooperation.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0262083264?v=glance   (1009 words)

 Recent Cultural Evolution Publications
Cultural Evolutionary Theory: A Synthetic Theory for Fragmented Disciplines.
In: Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science.
Climate, Culture, and the Evolution of Cognition, with Robert Boyd.
www.des.ucdavis.edu /faculty/Richerson/recent%20cultutral%20new.htm   (731 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Genes, Memes and Human History: Darwinian Archaeology and Cultural Evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Culture and the Evolutionary Process by Robert Boyd
The Origin And Evolution Of Cultures (Evolution and Cognition) by Robert Boyd
For example, the unique time-depth of archaeology can be used to show that human populations have expanded and then crashed far more frequently in the past than has hitherto been realized.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0500051186?v=glance   (862 words)

 Online NewsHour: IBM Sells PC Business to Chinese Company -- December 9, 2004
TED SCHADLER: Even in American corporate mergers, you have different corporate cultures that are very hard to put together.
And of course when you cross the divide of a more developed country and a less developed country and the cultural differences, this is not going to be easy.
I think those are more simpatico culturally that I would expect, Americans and Chinese seem to get along in the workplace, and so I don't expect major difficulties, but it's never easy.
www.pbs.org /newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/ibm_12-9.html   (1516 words)

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