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Topic: Cuman language


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  Requests for new languages/Wikipedia Gagauz 2 - Meta
Although the language is eligible for a project, the community still needs to meet some requirements described in the language proposal policy.
Strong Support: Gagauz is a living language with about 230,000 speakers in the world, 147,500 in Moldova, 31,500 in Ukraine, 15 000 in Turkey, 11 000 in Russia and unknown but sizeble amount in Bulgaria, Greece and Romania.
In Moldova and Gagauzia, gagauz language is studied in schools and universities.
meta.wikimedia.org /wiki/Requests_for_new_languages/Wikipedia_Gagauz_2   (600 words)

  
  Cumans -   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Cumans were a nomadic, West Turkic tribe who inhabited a shifting area north of the Black Sea, along the Volga River known as Cumania.
The Cumans suffered a severe defeat by Great Prince Vladimir Monomakh of Kievan Rus in the 12th century (at the Battle of the Stugna River) and were crushed by the Mongols in 1238, after which most of them fled Wallachia and Moldova and took refuge in Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire.
While the Cumans in Europe have been assimilated into other population groups, their name can still be encountered in placenames as far as the city of Kumanovo in the Northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, Comăneşti in Romania and Comana in Dobruja.
en.wikipedia.ifc.com.pl /wiki/Cumans   (1222 words)

  
 Cuman language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cuman was a Turkic language spoken by the Cumans and was similar to today's Crimean Tatar language.
The Cumans were a nomad people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde.
The Cuman language became extinct in early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cuman_language   (131 words)

  
 US Bazaar.com : Encyclopedia Pages : Cuman
Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: Половцы Polovcy, Ukrainian: Половцi Polovci, Bulgarian: Кумани Kumani, Romanian: Cumani, Hungarian: Kunok), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks.
The Cumans were a nomadic Turkic tribe who inhabited a shifting area north of the Black Sea known as Cumania along the Volga River.
The Cumans defeated the Great Prince Vladimir Monomakh of Kievan Rus in the 12th century (at the Battle of the Stugna River) but were crushed by the Mongols in 1238, after which most of them fled Wallachia and Moldova and took refuge in Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire.
encyclopedia.us-bazaar.com /?title=Cuman   (707 words)

  
 Learning and Morphological Change
The forms that languages take are many and varied, and one of the goals of linguistics is to try to understand the sources of such diversity.
Cuman, on the other hand, was (as now) a very high-frequency item, and has survived as a strong verb.
If we assume that language transmission involves noise in the form of variability in the input, then it is not difficult to see why the language should change in the way it does.
crl.ucsd.edu /~elman/Papers/hare_elman/hare_elman.html   (11177 words)

  
 Qwika - similar:Tatars
Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Cumans similar to today's Crimean Tatar language.
The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers.
The Turkic languages are traditionally considered to be part of the Altaic language family.
www.qwika.com /rels/Tatars   (1246 words)

  
 [No title]
Indeed, their language about which there are still many unanswered questions, is known, such as it is, almost exclusively from the titles and names of prominent Khazars recorded in the historical records of neighboring sedentary states.
The Qipcaq language, far from receding into the background, established itself as a lingua franca in the Western Eurasian zone of the Cinggisid state within a century of the Conquest.
The Cuman of the CC also represents some kind of lingua franca, one that was understood throughout Central Asia.
www.angelfire.com /on/paksoy/2CUMANIC.html   (3951 words)

  
 Cuman - DQWiki
The Cuman are a tribe of nomads living in Kheer Tal, the steppes of the Western Marches.
Faced with superior numbers, technology and tactics, the Cuman and Kipchak fell back to the west, fading away to lands of more and more marginal value, until it became too difficult for the settlers to eke out a living on conquered lands.
Tactically the Cumans are a fairly typical steppe nomad army, relying on hit and run tactics by horse archers to wear down and disorder the enemy.
www.dragonquest.org.nz /dqwiki/index.php/Cuman   (671 words)

  
 The Mongols in the West
The Cumans must have gotten wind of the impending invasion, for one of their chiefs, whose name is known only in its Chinese transcription Hu-lu-su-man,16 felt it wise to undertake the long journey to the court of Ogedei to offer him his spontaneous submission.
It is certain that Cuman was the vernacular most used; its ubiquity is vouchsafed by many travelers, and the Italian trader Pegolotti in his commercial handbook, usually referred to as La pratica della mercatura, written in the middle of the 14th century, urged his fellow merchants to engage servants who knew the Cuman language well.
The major document of the Cuman language as used on the territory of the Golden Horde is the so-called Codex Cumanicus 71 a compilation of various texts originally written in the first decade of the 14th century by Italians and Germans.
www.deremilitari.org /resources/articles/sinor1.htm   (13535 words)

  
 Turkic languages - Wikivisual
The Turkic languages are traditionally considered to be part of the Altaic language family.
The genetic classification of the Turkic languages commonly followed today is the one by Samoilovich (mainly based on the development of *d).
Geographically and linguistically, the languages of Southwestern, Northwestern, and Southeastern subgroup belong to the central Turkic languages, while the Northeastern, Khalaj language is the so-called peripheral language.
en.wikivisual.com /index.php/Turkic_language   (573 words)

  
 Cumans
Their name can still be seen in placenames such as the city of Kumanovo in Macedonia, Comăneşti in Moldavia and Comana in Dobruja.
Cumans having settled in Hungary had their own self-government there, and their name (kun) is still preserved in the county names Bács-Kiskun and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, and town names as (eg.) Kiskunhalas, Kiskunszentmiklós as well.
The Cumans from the current Russia joined the Khanate of the Golden Horde.
www.ufaqs.com /wiki/en/cu/Cumans.htm   (295 words)

  
 Codenx Cumanicus | Central Asian Monuments | Edited by H. B. Paksoy | CARRIE Books
This language, however, was not perfectly reflected in the CC.
We must bear in mind that the vocabulary of Cuman urban dwellers was undoubtedly richer in these terms than their steppe neighbors.
Cuman qarav, qarov "recompense, reward, retribution" (CC, 43/46 premium, jaza) and qarav berrmen "I forgive, absolve" (retribuo, miamorzm), cf.
vlib.iue.it /carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-2/cam2.html   (6665 words)

  
 Language
Language families can be divided into smaller phylogenetic units, conventionally referred to as branches of the family, because the history of a language family is often represented as a tree diagram.
Languages that cannot be reliably classified into any family are known as language isolates.
A language isolated in its own branch within a family, such as Greek within Indo-European, is often also called an isolate, but such cases are usually clarified.
www.angindia.com /biographyland/biography_language.html   (462 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Modern Crimean Tatar written language is based on this middle dialect as the Tats comprise about 55% of total Crimean Tatar population and their dialect is equally understandable for the speakers of the others.
Crimean Tatar was the native language of the poet Bekir Sıdkı Çobanzade.
Among the living Turkic languages, the closest to Crimean Tatar are Turkish, Urum of the Oghuz group, Kumyk, and Karachay-Balkar of the Kypchak group.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Crimean_Tatar_language   (595 words)

  
 Turkish language
Concurrently, the newly-founded Turkish Language Association initiated a drive to reform the language by removing Persian and Arabic loanwords in favor of native variants and coinages from Turkic roots.
One of the tasks of the newly-established association was to initiate a language reform to replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents.
The Turkish Language Association was influenced by the ideology of linguistic purism: indeed one of its primary tasks was the replacement of loanwords and foreign grammatical constructions with equivalents of Turkish origin.
en.askmore.net /Turkish_language.htm   (4756 words)

  
 Information on Language
This is the primary sense of language, the use of which is to communicate the thoughts of one person to another through the organs of hearing.
Language is generic, denoting, in its most extended use, any mode of conveying ideas; speech is the language of articulate sounds; tongue is the Anglo-Saxon term for language, esp. for spoken language; as, the English tongue.
Languaging.] To communicate by language; to express in language.
www.wkonline.com /d/Language.html   (590 words)

  
 R. Wolff - The 'Second Bulgarian Empire' - 5
A people whose language was clearly Turkish, the Cumans are none the less distinguished from other Turkish tribes by the accounts of their appearance given by the sources.
The serjeant was given gold and silver by the other Cumans to take into the other world, and to keep safe for them; and also a letter to be delivered in the other world to the first king of the Cumans, in which the present king testified to the Serjeant's good character.
For the Cuman language the most famous monument is the so-called Codex Cumanicus, which belonged to Petrarch, and is now in the library of St Mark at Venice (ed.
members.tripod.com /~Groznijat/bulgar/wolff_5.html   (1688 words)

  
 History
The language of the Cumans is known to have been Kipchak-Turkish, which is not to be confused with the Ottoman Turkish spoken in Turkey.
The Cumans who, as horsemen, were armed against the Mongol invasion, decided to leave Hungary and fled South, ravaging the countryside as they went in revenge for the murder of their leaders.
The Cumans returned to Hungary and were allowed to settle in the center of the country on crown lands and lands that had been abandoned because of the Mongol invasion.
www.komondor.org /html/history.html   (1111 words)

  
 Cuman - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Cuman   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Member of a powerful alliance of Turkic-speaking peoples of the Middle Ages, which dominated the steppes in the 11th and 12th centuries and built an empire reaching from the River Volga to the Danube.
For a generation the Cumans held up the Mongol advance on the Volga, but in 1238 a Cuman and Russian army was defeated near Astrakhan, and 200,000 Cumans took refuge in Hungary, where they settled and where their language died out only about 1775.
Most of the so-called Tatars of southern Russia were of Cuman origin.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Cuman   (152 words)

  
 Armenians
Cuman language of the local Armenians and subsequently brought it to Ukraine.
By the 13th–14th century the Armenians represented such a large percentage of the Crimean population that the peninsula came to be known as
Cuman), linguistics, medicine, and the artistic transcription of books flourished.
www.encyclopediaofukraine.com /pages/A/R/Armenians.htm   (744 words)

  
 FREE sms spoofing GATE. Crimean Tatar language
It is spoken in Crimea, Central Asia (mainly in Uzbekistan), and the Crimean Tatar diasporas in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria.
Crimean Tatar was the native language of the poet Bekir Çoban-zade.
Among the living Turkic languages, the closest to Crimean Tatar are Turkish, Urum of the Oghuz group, Kumyk, and Karachay-Balkar of the Kypchak group.
smsq.pl /wiki.php?title=Crimean_Tatar_language   (1100 words)

  
 [No title]
They spoke a Turkic language and were known to be a strikingly handsome people with blond hair and blue eyes.
Cuman mercenaries and auxiliaries were common through out the region and were known for their exceptional use of mounted archery, with cycles of attacks followed by feinted retreats before returning in ambushing again.
By now the original Turkic language of the steppe Bulgars has been forgotten and a dialect of Slavic has prevailed that is very similar to that of other Slavic populations in the Balkan Peninsula.
www.angelfire.com /games3/MORPG/fridays/arsgeohist.html   (1108 words)

  
 India, Indian States, India States, Indian hotels, Indian News and Indian Tourism, India Travel
An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is a language which has stopped changing in grammar and vocabulary.
Language extinction also occurs when a language undergoes rapid evolution or assimilation until it eventually gives birth to an offspring, i.e., a dissimilar language or family of languages.
Such is the case with Latin; an extinct (and dead) language which serves as the parent of the modern Romance languages.
www.damananddiuin.com /wiki-Extinct_language   (1302 words)

  
 Igor Garshin's books and articles. Bible exploration, ancient history, interlinguistics, decoding, Japan fencing, ...
Slavian ethnonims and toponims in the German languages: Vandals, Vindils, Veneds, Angls (slavic "angulars"), Bavarians (Slav.
The languages "SOV": the common and the peculiarities.
The phonetic form of numerals of artificial language.
www.garshin.bravehost.com /my_works_eng.html   (2014 words)

  
 Old Turkic - WikIran
Old Turkic was the Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks.
Old Turkic is closely related to the ancient Uyghur language.
It is the ancestor of the Western Turkic languages, which include both the Oghuz and Kypchak groups.
www.wikiran.org /w/index.php?title=Old_Turkic   (64 words)

  
 [No title]
According to historical records, the language of the Petchenegs belonged to the Turk languages and was similar to that of the Cumans.
The Cumans were Christianized and adopted the Roman Catholic faith at the beginning of the 13th century and in 1227, a diocese was organized for them in the valley of the Milcov.
Because the language spoken by the Cumans was closely related to Turkish, it is difficult to distinguish this influence from later borrowings of Turkish words.
www.hungarian-history.hu /lib/dunay/dunay12.htm   (8466 words)

  
 Cuman
Member of a powerful alliance of Turkic-speaking peoples of the Middle Ages, which dominated the steppes in the 11th and 12th centuries and built an empire reaching from the River Volga to the Danube.
For a generation the Cumans held up the Mongol advance on the Volga, but in 1238 a Cuman and Russian army was defeated near Astrakhan, and 200,000 Cumans took refuge in Hungary, where they settled and where their language died out only about 1775.
Most of the so-called Tatars of southern Russia were of Cuman origin.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0017230.html   (201 words)

  
 Aromanians
Their language, Macedo-Romanian, belongs to the Romanian branch of the Romance languages, as do Daco-Romanian (spoken in Romania), Megleno-Romanian (still spoken in a number of villages in the Gevgelija area on the border between "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and Greece) and Istro-Romanian (now virtually extinct).
The Union for the Aromanian Culture and Language and the Association of French Aromanians estimate that some 1 500 000 Aromanians are currently citizens of various states throughout the Balkans: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
Their customs are completely Greek, they speak and write the national language without difficulty, they have never lost the feeling of ethnic belonging to Greece, have never identified with any extraneous element, and have never aspired to identification as a separate national entity.
assembly.coe.int /Documents/WorkingDocs/doc97/edoc7728.htm   (5699 words)

  
 Cuman
The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga.
They are identified with the Western branch of the Kipchaks.
For battles of the Rus’ against the Polovtsi, see the Battle of the Stugna River, the Battle of the Kalka River, and the Tale of Igor's Campaign.
www.governpub.com /Languages-C/Cuman.php   (272 words)

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