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Topic: Cuneiform script

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  Cuneiform script - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cuneiform pictograms were drawn on clay tablets in vertical columns with a pen made from a sharpened reed stylus.
Invented by the Babylonians to record the Sumerian language, cuneiform was subsequently adopted by the Akkadians, Elamites, Hittites and Assyrians to write their own languages and was widely used in Mesopotamia for about 3000 years, though the syllabic nature of the script as it was refined by the Sumerians was unintuitive to the Semitic speakers.
When the cuneiform script was adapted to writing the Hittite language, a layer of Akkadian logographic spellings was added to the script, with the result that we no longer know the pronunciations of many Hittite words conventionally written by logograms.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cuneiform_script   (1287 words)

 Cuneiform - MSN Encarta
Cuneiform writing, which originated in southern Mesopotamia, was invented probably by the Sumerians, who used it to inscribe the Sumerian language; it was subsequently adapted for writing the Akkadian language, of which Babylonian and Assyrian are dialects.
The use of the Persian cuneiform was confined to the period from 550 to 330 bc.
The Elamite cuneiform is frequently called the language of the second form because it appears in the second position of the trilingual inscriptions of the Achaemenian kings.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761563112/Cuneiform.html   (1596 words)

 Cuneiform (script)
Cuneiform tablets could be fired in kilns to provide a permanent record, or they could be recycled if permanence was not called for.
The use of Aramaic became widespread under the Assyrian Empire and the Aramaean alphabet gradually replaced cuneiform.
Knowledge of cuneiform was lost until 1835 when Henry Rawlinson, a British army officer, found some of the Behistun inscriptionss on a cliff at Behistun in Persia.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/c/cu/cuneiform__script_.html   (496 words)

 What is cuneiform?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Cuneiform came to be used for increasingly diverse practical purposes, as well as being the vehicle of the world's first literature.
Cuneiform was also written on wax and painted onto tablets with ink but few remains of this type of writing have survived.
Although the variation exhibited by cuneiform across the geographical and chronological spectra may be regarded as a curse by some, it is certainly a blessing for the historian.
www.cdp.bham.ac.uk /cuneiform.htm   (750 words)

 CUNEIFORM - LoveToKnow Article on CUNEIFORM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The word cuneiform was first applied in 1700 by Thomas Hyde, professor of Hebrew in the university of Oxford, in the expression dactu]i pyramidales seu cuneifo:mes, and it has found general acceptance, though efforts have been made to introduce the expression arrowheaded writing.
In 1884 Halvy denied the existence of the Sumerian language, and claimed that it was merely a cabalistic script invented by the priests of the Semites.
The discovery in 1887 of the Tell-el-Amarna tablets in upper Egypt showed that the same script was in use in the 15th century B.C., from Elam to the Mediterranean and from Armenia to the Persian Gulf for purposes of correspondence.
33.1911encyclopedia.org /C/CU/CUNEIFORM.htm   (5716 words)

 Cuneiform Tablets and the Birth of the Writing
Yet, in the beginning the cuneiform writing was not at all composed by wedges and on the clay tablets scribes engraved the shape of the objects to be annotated and the possible numerical signs.
For the Egyptians, the hieroglyphic scripts was sacred and its symbols kept the properties of the objects that they refer to, so they were alive, magical, they exerted an influence and a power of their own.
Unlike the cuneiform writing which was to be engraved on clay tablets, the Sinaitic alphabet and afterwards the Phoenician one could be wrote with ink on papyrus, earthenware pieces and wood.
www.funsci.com /fun3_en/writing/tab.htm   (7046 words)

 Canaan & Ancient Israel @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
The word cuneiform means "wedge-form" and is used to describe the wedge-shaped script formed by pressing a rectangular-ended stylus -- a writing stick made out of reed, wood, metal or bone -- into wet clay.
The cuneiform script was first developed by the Sumerians, but in the 3rd millennium BCE the Akkadians began using the script to write their language.
The Akkadian language and the cuneiform script were used by the Babylonians and the Assyrians.
www.museum.upenn.edu /Canaan/Writing.html   (601 words)

 Cuneiform Writing @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
Draw your cuneiform monograms on the smooth sides with ink, paint, or pipecleaners which can be bent and glued into place.
Cuneiform was written on clay tablets, and then baked hard in a kiln.
Akkadian and cuneiform continued to thrive for more than another thousand years under the Assyrians and the later Babylonian revival of Nebuchadnezzar.
www.upenn.edu /museum/Games/cuneiform.html   (1437 words)

The cuneiform script was later adopted by other people speaking languages as different as Akkadian, a Semitic language, and Hittite, an Indo-European language.
Cuneiform, thus, gradually developed into a combined system, where the same set of signs could be used to represent logograms and phonograms or syllabograms.
Thousand years on from the earliest attestations of cuneiform writing, when some of the texts of the ETCSL were written down, the so-called interpersonal metafunction of language was present in the writing system in the form of a more fixed word order, grammatical (bound) morphemes indicating subject, object, modality, aspect, etc., and function words, e.g.
www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk /edition2/cuneiformwriting.php   (1115 words)

 Cuneiform (script) - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Cuneiform is one of the earliest known forms of written expression.
Cuneiform has been accepted to be included in a future version of the Unicode standard in the range U+12000—U+123FF.
The status of the Unicode Cuneiform range can be seen in the Unicode pipeline.
encyclopedia.learnthis.info /c/cu/cuneiform__script_.html   (788 words)

 Sumerian Writing - Cuneiform - Crystalinks
The impressions left by the stylus were wedge shaped, thus giving rise to the name cuneiform, wedge-writing.The Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Elamite, Hittite, Assyrian, and Luwian languages, and inspired the Old Persian and Ugaritic national alphabets.
It was widely used in Mesopotamia for about 3000 years, though the syllabic nature of the script as it was refined by the Sumerians was unintuitive to the Semitic speakers.
This fact, before Sumerian civilization was rediscovered, prompted many philologists to suspect a precursor civilization to the Babylonian.Most later adaptations of Sumerian cuneiform preserved at least some aspects of the Sumerian script.
www.crystalinks.com /sumerwriting.html   (555 words)

 (12) Early civilizations and the development of writing systems in the world.
After the 3rd millennium BC it took a conventional form of linear cuneiform drawings and was written from left to right.
Lots of cuneiform clay tablets have been found in Semite and Persian language that show that it was the common system of writing of ancient Middle East civilization, but slowly, as other languages came into being and after the downfall of Babylonia after 323 BC, the Sumerian language and the cuneiform script died out.
The Aramaic of the late Assyrians was written in both scripts, the Aramaic script as well as the cuneiform script.
encyclopediaofauthentichinduism.org /articles/12_early_civilizations.htm   (1853 words)

 CLARK COLLECTION OF ANCIENT ART   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The cuneiform tablets are mainly records of the sale, transfer, or receipt of grain and animals used for cultic and secular purposes.
Cuneiform, from the Latin cuneus, meaning "wedge," is the term applied to a mode of writing which used a wedge-shaped stylus to make impressions on a clay surface, and also on stone, metal, and wax.
Cuneiform writing was probably invented by the Sumerians, but was subsequently adapted for writing in the Akkadian language, of which Babylonian and Assyrian are dialects.
www.ripon.edu /clark_collection/cuneiform.html   (730 words)

 [No title]
DEMOTIC an Egyptian script for general use; it emerged in the 6th century B.C. and was replaced by Coptic in the 5th century A.D. One of the scripts featured on the Rosetta Stone.
As script for common purpose replaced by Demotic around 500 B.C. developed in Egypt in the 3rd millennium B.C., a script which later was used predominantly for inscriptions.
The script was developed in 920 and used until 1191, although Khitan was overthrown by the Jurchen in 1125.
www.zum.de /whkmla/images/scripts/scriptsak.html   (886 words)

Babylonian Clay Cuneiform Cone for the King of Lagash, ca 2141-2122 BCE, a legal or administrative document inscribed with 11 lines of well formed cuneiform script around the front and sides.
Cuneiform writing emerged from the practice of marking clay tokens to record economic transactions.
Cuneiform was succeeded by Aramaic script, which in turn, was replaced by Arabic in the 7th Century.
sandsoftimeantiquities.com /order/itemDetail.asp?vprodid=2194&vOrder=   (190 words)

 The Digital Classification of Ancient Near Eastern Cuneiform Data
The clay tablets that were the 'pages' of cuneiform script, once baked, are extraordinarily durable; they even survived the ransacking and burning of libraries, as one empire laid waste to another.
It must be remembered that the cuneiform sign had a long and varied history: three thousand years of continuous use, in widely different civilisations, languages, and geographical areas.
Cuneiform tablets can put up with much hard usage, but not even they can survive entirely untouched by the systematic and thorough destruction of the city that surrounds them.
www.english.bham.ac.uk /staff/tom/research/cuneiform/tuscany   (4239 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The script on a monument at Bo azk y by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hamath in Northern Syria.
The earliest known music notation was encoded in cuneiform script in the region of Mesopotamia, with surviving examples dating as far back as the middle of the second millennium B.C.E. Later civilizations, most notably that of Ancient Greece, developed their own forms of notation, which were often written on sheets or scrolls of papyrus.
A cuneiform abjad originated to the north in Ugarit, a Canaanite city of northern Syria, in the 14th century BC.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/C/Cuneiform-script.htm   (922 words)

 RK Fonts: Ugaritic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Of all the scripts of the Near East the cuneiform script was the most important and so it is no wonder, the Ugaritic script is also a cuneiform script.
The cuneiform script - originally used as syllabic script - lost this syllabic character in the Ugaritic script, which is a mere letteral script, containing of 30 letters.
The Ugaritic cuneiform are interesting, because they show that a cuneiform script suits all the requirements to serve as a letteral script.
reinhold.kainhofer.com /rk_fonts/rkaf_ugaritic.html   (234 words)

However, the syllabic sounds that the Sumerian cuneiform represented were used to approximate the sounds of Akkadian words.
An Indo-European language, Hittite, adapted cuneiform (and joint cuneiform/hieroglyphic inscriptions led to the decipherment of Hittite hieroglyphics).
Around 500 BCE in the mighty Persian empire of Darius, a new script using cuneiform writing was invented for the recording of Old Persian.
www.unlv.edu /faculty/jmstitt/Eng480/Writing/Cuneiform.html   (442 words)

 Iranian Scripts: Old Persian Cuneiform
Old Persian, the language used in the cuneiform inscriptions of Achaemenian dynasty and the vernacular of the Achaemenian elite.
Old Persian was spoken in southwestern Persia, an area known as Persis, and belongs to the Iranian branch or the Indo-Aryan family of languages.
The Old Persian Cuneiform glyphs are both phonemic and syllabic.
www.iranchamber.com /scripts/old_persian_cuneiform.php   (142 words)

 RK Fonts
The cuneiform script - originally used as syllabic script - lost this syllabic character in the Ugaritic script, which is a mere alphabetic script, containing of 30 letters.
The Ugaritic cuneiform is interesting, because they show that a cuneiform script suits all the requirements to serve as an alphabetic script.
The oldpersian Cuneiform - not to confuse with the Babylonian cuneiform - is a soon form of an alphabetic script (or rather a mixture between alphabetic and syllabic script).
reinhold.kainhofer.com /rk_fonts   (845 words)

 History of Ugarit
This cuneiform writing was a logogram style of writing where one cuneiform sign represented one word, similar to modern day Chinese.
It was later discovered that the Ugarit cuneiform was a phonogram, or alphabetic, where each cuneiform sign represented one letter of an alphabet.
The origins of the Ugarit cuneiform script is not known but can be assumed that it was derived out of the same Pictographic script used to write Hebrew, just as the Sumerian cuneiform evolved out of a pictographic script.
www.ancient-hebrew.org /22_history.html   (394 words)

The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of
The history of the script is strikingly parallel to that of the Egyptian
Cuneiform is inscribed mainly on clay but also on stone, metals, wax, and other materials.
www.sunysuffolk.edu /~tunjd44/cuneiform.htm   (642 words)

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