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Topic: Cyanide

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  Cyanide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and serve the plant as defense against herbivores.
Cyanide ions bind to the iron atom of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondria of cells.
Cyanide will bond to methemoglobin because methemoglobin is more readily available than the cytochrome oxidase of the cells, effectively pulling the cyanide off the cells and onto the methemoglobin.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cyanide   (3002 words)

 Potassium cyanide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Potassium cyanide or KCN is the potassium salt of hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid.
Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and hence blocking electron transport.
Initially, acute cyanide poisoning causes a red or ruddy complexion in the victim because the tissues are not able to use the oxygen in the blood.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Potassium_cyanide   (389 words)

 Cyanide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cyanide as a poison is usually found in 1 of 3 forms.
Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of quite a number of enzymes, but its main action is inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase.
Cyanide binds with the ferric ion of the cytochrome a3 part of cytochrome c oxidase.
www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk /studentwebs/session2/group12/cyanide.htm   (296 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Cyanide
Sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide are both white solids with a bitter, almond-like odor in damp air.
Cyanide and hydrogen cyanide are used in electroplating, metallurgy, organic chemicals production, photographic developing, manufacture of plastics, fumigation of ships, and some mining processes.
Families can reduce their exposure to cyanide by not breathing in tobacco smoke, which is the most common source of cyanide exposure for the general population.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts8.html   (1286 words)

 Cyanides (PIM G003)
Natural origin: cyanide is found in foodstuffs such as cassava, cabbage, spinach, mustard and in the kernels of apples, stones of peaches and plums, as well as in cherry stones and in almonds.
Cyanide given to rats and hamsters by slow subcutaneous titration at the period of maximum organogenesis, is markedly embryofetotoxic and produces malformations, particularly neural tube effects (Singh, l982; Doherty et a1., l982).
Acute cyanide poisoning was presumed and later confirmed by eliciting a history of the ingestion of 8 mL of 5% potassium cyanide.
www.inchem.org /documents/pims/chemical/pimg003.htm   (8393 words)

The small quantity of cyanide always present in human tissues is metabolized at the approximate rate of 17 Fg/kg"min, primarily by the hepatic enzyme rhodanese, which catalyzes the irreversible reaction of cyanide and a sulfane to produce thiocyanate, a relatively nontoxic compound excreted in the urine.
Detoxification (metabolism) of cyanide is accomplished by the administration of a sulfur-containing compound that combines with cyanide to produce thiocyanate, a relatively non-toxic substance which is rapidly excreted via the kidneys.
The hepatic enzyme rhodanese catalyzes the one-way reaction of cyanide and a sulfane to thiocyanate.
www.fas.org /nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/army/mmcch/Cyanide.htm   (2378 words)

 EPA - Air Toxics Website - Cyanide Compounds
Cyanide is used in a number of industries and is found at low levels in air from car exhaust.
Cyanides are naturally occurring substances found in a number of foods and plants and produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and algae.
Cyanide is present in a number of compounds such as hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, and potassium cyanide.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/cyanide.html   (1376 words)

 Shofar FTP Archives: camps/auschwitz/cyanide/cyanide.001
Cyanide binds cytochromes more tightly than oxygen, and as a result is lethal at very low concentrations, at about 300 ppm.
Cyanides are very rapid in their effects, killing instantly if present in sufficient amounts.
Clinical cases of cyanide poisoning after dermal exposure are rare and most often have involved burns with molten cyanide salts or immersion in cyanide solutions." Cyanide poisoning through the skin is therefore not a significant mode of poisoning unless you have very high concentrations over a very long period of time.
www.nizkor.org /ftp.cgi/camps/auschwitz/cyanide/cyanide.001   (6584 words)

 EPA Ground Water & Drinking Water > breadcrumb? > Consumer Factsheet on: CYANIDE
Cyanide is a carbon-nitrogen chemical unit which combines with many organic and inorganic compounds.
Releases to soil appear to be primarily from disposal of cyanide wastes in landfills and the use of cyanide-containing road salts.
Cyanides are generally not persistent when released to water or soil, and are not likely to accumulate in aquatic life.
www.epa.gov /safewater/dwh/c-ioc/cyanide.html   (885 words)

 Cyanide ban demanded at Crandon mine
Cyanide is a highly toxic, environmentally dangerous chemical used to process ores at mines.
A 2000 cyanide spill in one of Europe's foremost fishing rivers led to concern around the world; cyanide bans in mining have been passed in Montana, the Czech Republic, and Wisconsin's Vilas and Oneida counties.
But problems with cyanide in mining are not only during the ore processing, which separates the metal from the ore, but mainly with the transportation of cyanide before the processing, and the storage of cyanide wastes after the processing.
www.alphacdc.com /treaty/cyanide.html   (2686 words)

 CDC | Facts About Cyanide
Cyanide salts are used in metallurgy for electroplating, metal cleaning, and removing gold from its ore. Cyanide gas is used to exterminate pests and vermin in ships and buildings.
The extent of poisoning caused by cyanide depends on the amount of cyanide a person is exposed to, the route of exposure, and the length of time that a person is exposed.
Cyanide is more harmful to the heart and brain than to other organs because the heart and brain use a lot of oxygen.
www.bt.cdc.gov /agent/cyanide/basics/facts.asp   (1269 words)

Cyanide is used in the electroplating industries, the tanning industry and in specialised laboratories.
Cyanide and chemically related compounds are formed, excreted and degraded in nature by hundreds of species of bacteria, algae, fungi, plants and insects (Knowles, 1976 and US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991).
Cyanide decay and transformation processes are very effective in reducing cyanide concentrations both within the decant pond water and within the tailings itself.
www.marthamine.co.nz /cyanide.html   (1985 words)

 Banning Cyanide Use in Mining - Frequently Asked Questions
Cyanide solutions readily bond with gold, silver and other metals, which is why the mining industry uses it.
Cyanide is produced naturally in minute, harmless quantities in several plants, such as in apple seeds, apricot pits, soil bacteria and species of invertebrate organisms.
In the extraction of copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum, cyanide is used during the milling and concentration processes.
www.serconline.org /mining/faq.html   (1056 words)

 Homeland Security: Cyanide Information
Cyanide gas sometimes is described as having a “bitter almond” smell, but it does not always give off an odor, and not everyone can detect this odor.
Cyanide is also known by the military designations AN (for hydrogen cyanide) and CK (for cyanogen chloride).
Poisoning caused by cyanide depends on the amount of cyanide a person is exposed to, the route of exposure, and the length of time that a person is exposed.
www.nationalterroralert.com /readyguide/cyanide.htm   (768 words)

 Cyanide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Once free cyanide is released from the plant tissue and is absorbed it reacts with ferric iron (+3) in cytochrome oxidase which halts cellular respiration.
The thiosulfate then reacts with the cyanide via the enzyme rhodanase forming thiocyanate which is readily excreted in the urine.
Cyanide is volatile, so opening bales of hay 24 hours before feeding allows the cyanide to dissipate.
cal.vet.upenn.edu /poison/plants/Lectnote/lectsrgc.htm   (336 words)

 ATSDR - MMG: Hydrogen Cyanide
Hydrogen cyanide is manufactured by oxidation of ammonia- methane mixtures under controlled conditions and by the catalytic decomposition of formamide.
Hydrogen cyanide is highly toxic by all routes of exposure and may cause abrupt onset of profound CNS, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects, leading to death within minutes.
The diagnosis of acute cyanide toxicity is primarily a clinical one (based on rapid onset of CNS toxicity and cardiorespiratory collapse).
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /MHMI/mmg8.html   (4896 words)

 D. Cyanide
Free cyanide is a highly toxic chemical that is found in the environment at low concentrations coming from natural sources.
Cyanide is also a regulatory target because of its toxicity, incompatibility with most publicly-owned treatment plants, and danger to sewer workers and marine life.
EPA has imposed limits on the quantity of cyanide in both the treated wastewater that is discharged to sewers and rivers and on any residuals from metal finishing operations (sludges, filters, filter cakes, spent solutions, etc.).
www.nmfrc.org /fdocs/rdcsi/secIID.htm   (597 words)

 Cyanide poisoning
In inorganic cyanides, such as sodium cyanide, NaCN, this group is present as the negatively charged cyanide ion; these compounds, which are regarded as salts of hydrocyanic acid, are highly toxic.
Organic cyanides are usually called nitriles; in these, the CN group is linked by a covalent bond to a carbon-containing group, such as methyl (CH3) in methyl cyanide (acetonitrile).
Acute poisoning from hydrogen cyanide or the cyanides is manifested by dizziness, nausea, staggering, and loss of consciousness.
www.gaiaguys.net /Cyanide_poisoning.htm   (847 words)

 Antidotes for Poisoning by Cyanide
However, a serious drawback to the use of plasma cyanide determinations in the assessment of poisoning is the pronounced instability of cyanide in plasma (Lundquist et al., 1985).
Quantitative analysis of cyanide in blood or serum before the administration of antidotes is a useful means of evaluating the severity of poisoning.
In acute cases of poisoning by inhalation of hydrogen cyanide, either alone or in combination with carbon monoxide, termination of exposure and evacuation of the patient from contaminated areas is indicated most urgently and should be performed by the rescuers using appropriate protective equipment.
www.inchem.org /documents/antidote/antidote/ant02.htm   (13406 words)

 Cyanide:Information on Handling, Storage and First-Aid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cyanide gas is highly flammable and reacts violently in some situations (e.g., a large amount of cyanide gas mixed with air may suddenly explode).
Cyanide is a substance specified in the Seventh Schedule to the Act.
A firm diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is required, as drugs that may be used to treat cyanide poisoning could make the person worse if they are given to someone who has not been poisoned with cyanide.
www.safetyline.wa.gov.au /pagebin/hazshazd0005.htm   (2346 words)

 eMedicine - Toxicity, Cyanide : Article by Inna Leybell, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cyanide ingestion is an uncommon but efficacious means of suicide, often involving cyanide salts found in hospital and research laboratories.
Cyanide blood concentrations are not generally available in time to aid in the treatment of acute poisoning.
Blood cyanide concentrations may artificially increase after sodium nitrite administration because of in vitro release of cyanide from cyanomethemoglobin during the analytical procedure by strong acid used in analysis.
www.emedicine.com /emerg/topic118.htm   (4059 words)

 Cyanide Poisoning
Cyanide is a rare but potentially deadly poison.
Unlike the hastily chomped cyanide-containing suicide pill in the latest James Bond movie, in the real world, most sources of cyanide are more mundane.
But in 1989, the Food and Drug Administration quarantined all fruit imported from Chile after traces of cyanide were found in 2 Chilean grapes.
www.emedicinehealth.com /cyanide_poisoning/article_em.htm   (156 words)

 CDC Cyanide | Emergency Preparedness & Response
Hydrogen Cyanide Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders
Potassium Cyanide Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders
Sodium Cyanide Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders
www.bt.cdc.gov /agent/cyanide   (269 words)

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