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Topic: Cyclic guanosine monophosphate


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  Interruption of homologous desensitization in cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling restores colon cancer ...
Interruption of homologous desensitization in cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling restores colon cancer cytostasis by bacterial enterotoxins.
Tachyphylaxis is mediated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase, which limits the conductance of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, reducing the influx of Ca2+ propagating the antiproliferative signal from the membrane to the nucleus.
In contrast, bradyphylaxis is mediated by cGMP-dependent allosteric activation of phosphodiesterase 5, which shapes the amplitude and duration of heat-stable enterotoxin-dependent cyclic nucleotide accumulation required for cytostasis.
coloncancer.researchtoday.net /archive/2/12/16.htm   (261 words)

  
  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Summary
Cyclic AMP was the first chemical to be isolated and identified as a second messenger--a substance produced by a cell when a hormone or other chemical (the first messenger) binds to specific receptor sites on the cell surface.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus activating the catalytic units and enabling them to phosphorylate substrate proteins.
www.bookrags.com /Cyclic_adenosine_monophosphate   (850 words)

  
 GUANOSINE
Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) : a nucleotide composed of pyrophosphate of guanosine which serves as a carrier for mannose residues in glycoprotein synthesis and as a substrate for a phosphorylation reaction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Guanosine monophosphate (GMP, aso known as guanylic acid) : a nucleotide composed of pyrophosphate of guanosine which is formed during the hydrolysis of nucleic acidis and is a regulator of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP); 3',5'-cyclic ester of guanosine monophosphate that serves as an intracellular secondary involved its direct effects on Na+ and Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane of rod cells.
www.chemicalland21.com /lifescience/phar/GUANOSINE.htm   (834 words)

  
 Introduction to cyclic GMP
Synthesis and degradation of the cyclic GMP molecule.
Guanosine 3',5'-(cyclic)phosphate (ussually abreviated as cyclic GMP or cGMP).
Cyclic AMP was the first molecule recognized as second messenger and its mechanisms of synthesis are known since decades.
cgmp.blauplanet.com /intcgmp.html   (267 words)

  
 Role of MRP4 and MRP5 in Biology and Chemotherapy
Cyclic GMP is an important mediator of the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and also has demonstrated effects on chloride ion transport in the kidney.
Cyclic AMP efflux is regulated by occupancy of the adenosine receptor in pig aortic smooth muscle cells.
Characterization of cyclic AMP efflux from swine adipocytes in vitro.
www.aapspharmsci.org /view.asp?art=ps040314   (4410 words)

  
 guanosine
Inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase did not interfere with the ability of CO to suppress OB, implicating a cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate...
Garg UC, Hassid A. Nitric oxide-generating vasodilators and 8- bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate inhibit mitogenesis and proliferation of cultured rat...
Valeant is developing Viramidine, a nucleoside (guanosine) analog, in oral form for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in conjunction with a pegylated...
www.mongabay.com /igapo/biotech/guanosine.html   (409 words)

  
 protein kinase activators
AICAr Monophosphate is the 5′-phosphorylated analog of the membrane permeable AICA-Riboside (AICAr).
synonyms: cyclic GMP, Guanosine- 3', 5'- cyclic monophosphate
Cyclic GMP is metabolized rapidly in the presence of corresponding phosphodiesterases.
www.proteinkinase.de /html/protein_kinase_activators.html   (2874 words)

  
 A review of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling
Cyclic 3’,5 adenosine monophosphate and cyclic 3’,5 guanosine monophosphate are so unique in their structure that they are effective as highly specific second messengers, yet can be readily converted to and from freely available and energy containing cellular building blocks.
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases (PDE’s) terminate cAMP and cGMP signals by catalyzing the formation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) which are recycled as substrates in ATP and GTP synthesis.
In response to the binding of an odorant the concentration of cyclic AMP increases within the olfactory receptor neuron and binds to the intracellular face of an ion channel which serves as the molecular sensor of the ambient concentration of cyclic AMP, and therefore odorant.
www.cellscience.com /CNSig.htm   (9252 words)

  
 Student BMJ February 1999
This is the enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, the vasodilator molecule produced by the activation of guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate results in a fall in intracellular calcium (see figure).
Sildenafil thus enhances and prolongs the vasodilatory effects of cyclic guanosine monophosphate within the corpora cavernosa, producing an erection of sufficient rigidity for intercourse in men with erectile dysfunction.
www.studentbmj.com /back_issues/0299/data/0299ed3.htm   (796 words)

  
 Increased urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in rats bearing Morris hepatoma 3924A -- Murad et al. 190 ...
Increased urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in rats bearing Morris hepatoma 3924A -- Murad et al.
Urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) increased in rats bearing Morris hepatoma 3924A, and a correlation coefficient of.842 was observed comparing nucleotide excretion and tumor size.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate excretion was not altered by implantation, irradiation, or excision of tumor.
www.sciencemag.org /cgi/content/abstract/190/4209/58   (285 words)

  
 Relieving symptoms of erectile dysfunction with proanthocyanidins - Patent 6565851
The nitric oxide in turn activates theguanylyl cyclase, which leads to an increased development of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which causes relaxation of smooth muscles.
The method according to claim 1, wherein the stimulating is carried out while preventing a decrease of cyclic guanosine monophosphate.
The composition as in claim 10 in further combination with substances that are effective to prevent a decrease of cyclic guanosine monophosphate.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6565851.html   (3298 words)

  
 REGULATORY CASCADES
The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade in the thyroid corresponds, as far as it has been studied, to the canonic model of the β-adrenergic receptor cascade (116) (Fig.
Of the other known possible effectors of cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinases are present in the thyroid but cyclic nucleotide–activated channels have not been looked for.
For several effects of cyclic AMP (eg NIS and thyroglobulin induction, DNA synthesis) protein kinase A is required but not sufficient and activation of EPAC and protein kinase A is not sufficient either (176).
www.thyroidmanager.org /Chapter1/ch01s07.html   (1666 words)

  
 The Answer is NO: Exploring the Complex Functions
When Murad first began his studies, the scientific community had begun to suspect that cyclic GMP might be a “second messenger,” a molecule that takes orders from “first messengers” (hormones and other substances in the bloodstream) to regulate certain biochemical events inside of cells.
Some of his earlier work helped establish that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) was a second messenger for some of the effects of epinephrine, acetylcholine, and glucagon.
Subsequent studies on NO’s relationship to cyclic GMP showed that NO might be the trigger for the increase in cyclic GMP that resulted in smooth muscle relaxation from drugs such as nitroglycerin and nitroprusside.
research.uth.tmc.edu /research_innovations/1999resinnov/murad.html   (1915 words)

  
 Chronic L-arginine treatment increases cardiac cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate in rats with aortic stenosis: effects ...
Chronic L-arginine treatment increases cardiac cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate in rats with aortic stenosis: effects on left ventricular mass and beta-adrenergic contractile reserve -- Bartunek et al.
of cyclic GMP in rats with aortic stenosis.
Increased guanylate cyclase activity is associated with an increase in cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate in left ventricular hypertrophy.
content.onlinejacc.org /cgi/content/full/32/2/528   (4077 words)

  
 Molecular Mechanisms and Pharmacokinetics of Phosphodiesterase-5 Antagonists
This article focuses on the basic biochemistry of cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling and the pharmacokinetic parameters that describe characteristics of drug action of these PDE-5 inhibitors in facilitating smooth muscle relaxation, leading to improved penile erectile response or causing side effects.
Shortly after the discovery of cAMP, Sutherland reasoned that, for cyclic nucleotides to be physiologically relevant, there must be mechanisms to elevate and lower the intracellular levels of these compounds.
In the presence of an agonist alone, the increase in cellular cyclic nucleotide and the corresponding physiologic effect was modest; however, when a PDE inhibitor was combined with an agonist, there was a robust increase in the cyclic nucleotide content of the cell and the physiologic response.
www.current-reports.com /article.cfm?PubID=UR04-6-2-01&Type=Article&KeyWords=   (5109 words)

  
 NITRIC OXIDE AND SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY; NO NEWS FROM THE CEREBELLUM
Although a calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is present in Purkinje cells, where its expression is regulated by the climbing fiber input (Balaban et al., 1989), the activity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, measured either in the presence or absence of calmodulin is the lowest of any brain region (Greenberg et al., 1978; Hofmann et al., 1977).
Schmidt, M.J. and Nadi, N.S. (1977) Cyclic nucleotide accumulation in vitro in the cerebellum of `nervous' neurologically mutant mice.
Siggins, G.R., Henriksen, S.J. and Landis, S.C. (1976) Electrophysiology of Purkinje neurons in the weaver mouse: iontophoresis of neurotransmitters and cyclic nucleotides, and stimulation of the nucleus locus coeruleus.
www.bbsonline.org /Preprints/OldArchive/bbs.neur4.vincent.html   (7964 words)

  
 Viagra
NO then activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which results in increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), producing smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and allowing inflow of blood.
Cyclic GMP is produced during sexual stimulation, leading to penis erection.
The longer the cyclic GMP is allowed to persist, the greater the chance for increased blood flow to the penis, thereby generating an erection.
www.panopharma.com /viagra.htm   (952 words)

  
 Dorlands Medical Dictionary
enzyme activity that catalyzes the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate to guanosine diphosphate and orthophosphate.
GTPase converts GTP-binding proteins (q.v.) from the active to the inactive form.
(si´klo-hi´dro-lās) [EC 3.5.4.16] an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from guanosine triphosphate.
www.mercksource.com /pp/us/cns/cns_hl_dorlands.jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdocszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_g_12zPzhtm   (3919 words)

  
 Cyclic AMP is involved in cardioregulation by multiple neuropeptides encoded on the FMRFamide gene -- Willoughby et al. ...
Cyclic AMP is involved in cardioregulation by multiple neuropeptides encoded on the FMRFamide gene -- Willoughby et al.
Cyclic AMP is involved in cardioregulation by multiple neuropeptides encoded on the FMRFamide gene
monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic
jeb.biologists.org /cgi/content/abstract/202/19/2595   (418 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for guanosine
Guanosine phosphates are designated guanosine mono-, di-, and triphosphates (GMP, GDP, and GTP respectively).
Cyclic-GMP is believed to be antagonistic in cells to c-AMP, while GTP is involved as a high-energy compound in peptide bond...
guanosine The nucleoside formed when guanine is linked to ribose sugar.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=guanosine   (533 words)

  
 Selective Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibition Does Not Reduce Propofol Sedation Requirements but Affects Speed of Recovery ...
Plasma cyclic GMP concentrations are shown in Table 2.
In vivo effects of pentobarbital and halothane anesthesia on levels of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate in rat brain regions and pituitary.
Cyclic GMP as substrate and regulator of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs).
www.anesthesia-analgesia.org /cgi/content/full/101/4/1050   (2197 words)

  
 Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Compartmentation in Rat Cardiac Myocytes -- Castro et al. 113 (18): 2221 -- Circulation
Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Compartmentation in Rat Cardiac Myocytes -- Castro et al.
Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Compartmentation in Rat Cardiac Myocytes
Compartmentation of cyclic nucleotide signaling in the heart: the role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases.
circ.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/113/18/2221   (391 words)

  
 Cyclic Nucleotide Metabolism-cGMP
Cyclic nucleotides have been extensively studied as second messengers of intracellular events initiated by activation of many types of hormone and neurotransmitter receptors.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) serves as a second messenger in a manner similar to that observed with cAMP.
Juilfs, D.M., et al., Cyclic GMP as substrate and regulator of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs).
www.sigmaaldrich.com /Area_of_Interest/Life_Science/Cell_Signaling/Pathway_Slides_and_Charts/Cyclic_Nucleotide_Metabolism_cGMP.html   (414 words)

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