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Topic: Cyclotron


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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  
  Cyclotron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cyclotron was invented by Ernest Lawrence of the University of California, in 1929.
The cyclotron is an improvement of the linear accelerator.
As the beam speed increases, cyclotron radiation is emitted from the side of the beam, because the magnet is turning and slowing, ("braking") the beam.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cyclotron   (1320 words)

  
 Cyclotron radiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Furthermore, the period of the orbit is independent of the energy of the particles, allowing the cyclotron to operate at a set frequency, and not worry about the energy of the particles at a given time.
Cyclotron radiation from plasma in interstellar space or around fl holes and other astronomical phenomena are an important source of information about distant magnetic fields.
Cyclotron radiation has a spectrum with its main spike at the same fundamental frequency as the particle's orbit, and harmonics at higher integral factors.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cyclotron_radiation   (427 words)

  
 Control Room
The Cyclotron is the smallest in the family of circular particle accelerators.
The beams of particles from all of the various accelerators in use for nuclear science are used to probe the structure of the nucleus of the atom and to study the laws governing the forces that bind matter together.
The 88-Inch Cyclotron lies in the low energy range of accelerators; experiments being done on it use particles in the energy range of 1 to 30 MeV/A. Some experiments study nuclear forces by use of scattering, where incoming particles bounce off target nuclei and the resultant number traveling in each direction are counted.
www.lbl.gov /nsd/user88/cycgreenbook.html   (2712 words)

  
 ANSTO Information Sheet How the National Medical Cyclotron works   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A cyclotron is an electrically powered machine that accelerates charged particles to high speeds and beams them at a suitable target, producing a nuclear reaction that creates a radioisotope.
Once inside the cyclotron, the ions are forced to travel in a circular path around a central point and repeatedly accelerated by electrical fields.
The cyclotron vacuum is created by an array of special pumps, ranging from medium vacuum (rotary pumps) to high vacuum (oil diffusion pumps and cryopumps).
www.ansto.gov.au /info/reports/cyc.html   (2036 words)

  
 Search Results for cyclotron -¬†Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
The magnetic resonance accelerator, or cyclotron, was the first cyclic accelerator and the first resonance accelerator that produced particles energetic enough to be useful for nuclear research.
The key to the operation of a cyclotron is the fact that the orbits of ions in a uniform magnetic field are isochronous; that is, the time taken by a particle of a given mass to make one complete...
Cyclotrons in which the frequency of the accelerating voltage is changed as the particles are accelerated are called synchrocyclotrons, frequency-modulated (FM) cyclotrons, or phasotrons.
www.britannica.com /search?query=cyclotron&submit=Find&source=MWTEXT   (388 words)

  
 Cyclotron Accelerators
Since the cyclotron frequency of the RF accelerating voltage depends upon the particle mass, the effects of relativistic mass cause the particle to get progressively more out of step with the accelerating voltage as its speed increases.
Since the cyclotron frequency depends upon the relativistic energy of the particles being accelerated, the cyclotron with its fixed-frequency accelerating voltage gets progressivley out of synchronization with the motion of the particles as they reach relativistic speed.
It differs from the cyclotron in that the acceleration of the electrons is achieved by increasing the magnetic flux through the orbit of the electrons.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/cyclo.html   (535 words)

  
 Lateral Science - Cyclotron Operation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The daily operation of the cyclotron and similar atom-smashing machines is a necessity for nuclear physics, since they provide the material for that painstaking accumulation of experimental results required before new discoveries are possible.
When the cyclotron filament and its accessory voltage have been turned on, the deuterons are formed in the centre of the tank, waiting their long spiral journey inside the dees.
When the cyclotron is finally functioning properly the operator can relax his vigilance and run the machine with occasional adjustments in the critical tuning.
www.lateralscience.co.uk /cyclotron/operation.html   (1134 words)

  
 Cyclotron   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The cyclotron was delivered by the same company that moved the Spruce Goose and was delayed on site because of a dead battery.
The transmuted radioactive material is transferred to the radiochemistry lab through a small S-shaped tunnel in the wall between the cyclotron vault and the radiochemistry lab.
All the cyclotron vault walls are shielded to protect all of the other areas of the building.
www.bic.uci.edu /cyclotron.htm   (387 words)

  
 Cyclotron   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The WA PET Centre cyclotron is capable of accelerating hydrogen negative ions (made up of one proton and 2 electrons) and deuterium negative ions (made up of a proton, a neutron and two electrons).
Cyclotrons use highly energetic particles which form a beam that is focused or bombarded onto a target material.
The WA PET Centre cyclotron uses the same principles to bombard target materials of Oxygen, Nitrogen and Neon to produce radioisotopes used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, for the benefit of patients in Western Australia.
www.scgh.health.wa.gov.au /pet/cyclotron.html   (1316 words)

  
 Apparatus for creating an artificial electron cyclotron heating region of plasma : Indymedia West Vlaanderen
The cyclotron frequency of ions in a given magnetic field is less than that of electrons, in inverse proportion to their masses.
In one embodiment of the invention, electron cyclotron resonance heating is carried out in the selected region at sufficient power levels to allow the plasma to generate a mirror force which forces the charged electrons of the altered plasma upward along the force line to an altitude which is higher than the original altitude.
As electron cyclotron resonance is established in plasma 12a, energy is transferred from the electromagnetic radiation 20 into plasma 12a to heat and accelerate the electrons therein and, subsequently, ions and neutral particles.
wvl.indymedia.org /news/2005/10/4592.php   (5717 words)

  
 Cyclotron   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The cyclotron was one of the earliest types of particle accelerators, and is still used as the first stage of some large multi-stage particle accelerators.
The field is reversed at the cyclotron frequency to accelerate the electrons back across the gap.
Thus the constant cyclotron frequency can continue to accelerate the charge (so long as it is not relativistic).
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/magnetic/cyclot.html#c1   (211 words)

  
 12-inch Cyclotron Control and DAQ System
The "map" defining all of the connections is perhaps most critical document of the cyclotron, and it is mounted inside the rear of the control rack directly next to the fan out (of course a duplicate is in the log book).
The magnet table was needed to raise the cyclotron's working height to a comfortable level, however, a resulting feature was the space underneath the table to mount equipment.
Because it was easier to run data cables than bulky AC and sensor cables, it was decided early on that the entire vacuum system (from pumps to gauge controllers) would reside under the table, and as a consequence, all of the thermal telemetry would also reside there.
www.physics.rutgers.edu /cyclotron/12inchdaq.shtml   (1249 words)

  
 Glossary Item - Cyclotron
A cyclotron is a machine used to accelerate charged particles to high energies.
The first cyclotron was built by Ernest Orlando Lawrence and his graduate student, M. Stanley Livingston, at the University of California, Berkley, in the early 1930's.
A radioactive source is placed in the center of the cyclotron and the electromagnets are turned on.
education.jlab.org /glossary/cyclotron.html   (404 words)

  
 INFN - LNS Cyclotron
The first beam axially injected in the cyclotron was successfully accelerated and since that date the cyclotron has been working in the stand alone mode.
The cyclotron was operated as a booster of the Tandem until October 1999.
To operate the cyclotron with axial injection it was necessary to disassemble the stripper system and install the spiral inflector, extend the accelerating electrodes of RF cavities towards the center and install the post according to the design of the central region [5].
www.lns.infn.it /accelerator/cyclotron2.html   (2288 words)

  
 History of the Harvard Cyclotron
The cyclotron was shut down for the rebuild in the first week of October 1955, and the beam was successfully extracted at the higher energy at the end of April 1956.
Typically the cyclotron was operated by the scientists performing the experiment and at first only he or she would be present on a night shift.
When he left the cyclotron lab for greener pastures at General Ionics he realized that there was a need for more cross section measurements for proton-induced reactions similar to ones that we had made before, partuclarly to study the long-lived radionuclides that are now extinct but would have been present in the early solar system.
phys4.harvard.edu /~wilson/cyclotron/history.html   (12921 words)

  
 Cyclotron Celebrates 50 Smashing Years
Known as a "cyclotron" and located at Harvard University, the machine produces beams of atomic particles energetic enough to break open an atom or destroy a tumor.
One of the designers of the cyclotron, Robert R. Wilson, thought of using the machine for medical purposes even before it was built.
That year, the government classified the cyclotron as "excess property" and announced that anyone who was interested could have the machine and ancillary equipment for the cost of removal.
www.news.harvard.edu /gazette/1999/05.27/cyclotron.html   (1342 words)

  
 Building a Cyclotron on a Shoestring - Physics Today November 2004
The cyclotron is much more complex than "a typical experimental setup in the class—the photoelectric effect, lasers, and so on," says Michael Gershenson, who has taught the class.
It was never explained why the device was in the school, but within about a half hour, Koeth had convinced a teacher to let him take the source home, gotten his parents scared that their house had become contaminated, and been exposed to 275 millirem—or nearly a year's worth—of radioactivity.
It weighed two−and−a−half tons and had been the steering magnet for a 60−inch cyclotron that was scheduled for demolition.
www.physicstoday.org /vol-57/iss-11/p30.html   (1187 words)

  
 Ernest Lawrence's Cyclotron
Despite its Rube Goldberg appearance, the cyclotron proved Lawrence's point: whirling particles around to boost their energies, then casting them toward a target like stones from a slingshot is the most efficient and effective way to smash open atomic nuclei.
The accelerating chamber of the first cyclotron measured five inches in diameter and boosted hydrogen ions to an energy of 80,000 electron volts.
The 60-inch cyclotron, which began operations in 1939, was described by visitors as a "truly colossal machine." Its magnet weighed 220 tons, prompting someone to joke that its neutrons would reach Chicago.
www.lbl.gov /Science-Articles/Archive/early-years.html   (1383 words)

  
 Cyclotron description page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Here they only experience the magnetic field, as they are screened from any electric field inside the cyclotron by what is known as Faraday Cage Effect.
Physically, the cyclotron weighs 55 tons, and is located inside an inner vault with walls and doors of about 2 m concrete, to shield the surroundings from the nuclear radiation which is present when the machine runs.
The cyclotron was manufactured by Scanditronix AB in Uppsala, Sweden.
lynx.uio.no /cycdescr.html   (576 words)

  
 [No title]
A cyclotron is a particle accelerator that is so compact that a small one could actually fit in your pocket.
Unlike the cyclotron in the simulation, a real cyclotron is set up with a small gap so that the time to cross the gap is much smaller than the time spent in a dee.
Hooking the dees up to an AC voltage source that reverses direction at regular intervals (corresponding to the time the charge takes to do a half-circle in a dee) is all that is required to produce an electric field that reverses direction at the appropriate time.
webphysics.davidson.edu /physlet_resources/bu_semester2/c13_cyclotron.html   (636 words)

  
 Cyclotron Utilities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
This cooling water system is a closed-loop system that, through a heat exchanger, is cooled by the on campus chilled water system for the air-conditioning.
The system removes the heat from the cyclotron by circulating cold water around the electromagnet.
This is one of two cooling systems for the cyclotron.
www.bic.uci.edu /cyclotron_utilities.htm   (151 words)

  
 Fred's World of Science: Cyclotron II
The heater element in the center of the chamber is the ion source for the cyclotron.
This is the cyclotron during the outgassing phase.
I held the Geiger tube approximately one foot from the cyclotron chamber during the experiments, and found that the number of counts per minute was minuscule, and probably attributable to cosmic radiation.
www.niell.org /cyc2.html   (4784 words)

  
 Cyclotron_transcript
For out of the phoenix of the Harvard Cyclotron, so to speak, here in Cambridge, is arising on the grounds of the Suffolk County jailhouse the next generation of protons in the service of patients.
And, of course, when the original Cyclotron was built - or the second one, I guess, after the War - it was the third largest in the United States.
There was a cyclotron, there was a beam which was being used for physics experiments, and that was about it.
www.physics.harvard.edu /~wilson/cyclotron/Cyclotron_transcript.html   (22193 words)

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